Growing eggplant in greenhouses allows you to get high yields in the most severe climates. We learn how to plant and grow eggplant in greenhouses and greenhouses, and what varieties are suitable for this purpose.
The best varieties of eggplant for growing in a greenhouse
In the greenhouse, you can grow almost any eggplant, but it is more rational to plant varieties with a short ripening period.
Eggplant varieties and hybrids suitable for greenhouses must meet the following requirements:
- gradual yield, long fruiting;
- early or mid-early ripening;
- good taste;
- high productivity;
- immunity to diseases and pests;
- bushes height - from 70 cm.
Tall bushes have higher yields and allow more efficient use of the greenhouse space.
Popular greenhouse varieties of eggplant:
- Bibo F1. Early hybrid. Reaches a height of 1 m. Fruits of white color with excellent taste. Weight - up to 500 g. It is resistant to fusarium rot and mosaic. With 1 sq. m collect up to 4.8 kg of fruit.
- Alenka. Early ripe variety with green fruits. Weight - 350 g. Productivity - 7.5 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. The variety is harvested and resistant to disease.
- Pink flamingo. A variety of medium early ripening. The fruits are elongated, lilac, weighing 250-450 g. The height of the bushes is up to 2 m. Yield - up to 6 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
- Joker. Ultra early tall variety. The fruits are medium-sized, weighing 100-130 g. The ovaries are collected in a brush, one bush gives up to hundreds of fruits. Productivity - up to 8 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
- Viola di Firenze. High-yielding variety of Italian breeding, medium maturity. Fruits are oval in shape, weighing up to 750 g. Poorly tolerates temperature changes. With 1 sq. m collect up to 10 kg of fruit.
- Goliath F1. A tall hybrid of medium early maturity, reaching a height of 2.5 m. The weight of the fruit is more than 1 kg. The fruits have a classic look - pear-shaped, dark purple. With 1 sq. m collect up to 9 kg of fruit.
- Maxik F1. An early hybrid with a height of more than 1 m. Pear-shaped, classic-looking fruits. The bushes are compact, the fruits are small - weigh 150-200 g each. The yield is high - 10-14 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
- Boyarin F1. Early hybrid. Fruits of the classic form, weighing up to 450 g. Productivity - 6.5 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. Resistant to temperature extremes. Requires pinching.
All of these varieties are ideal for growing in a greenhouse, but can grow in open ground. The main thing is to provide them with a tie, since most greenhouse varieties are distinguished by tall bushes.
Preparing a greenhouse before planting an eggplant
Before starting spring planting, the greenhouse and soil must be decontaminated. Without this treatment, plants grown in greenhouse conditions will hurt and wither.
Greenhouse cleaning and disinfection
Start preparing the greenhouse with cleaning. Waste materials are thrown away, and all equipment is taken out and washed thoroughly. Be sure to destroy the vegetation that has appeared - pathogens and insects usually winter in it.
How to wash a greenhouse:
- Wash glass or film with ordinary soapy water.
- Rinse metal parts with hot vinegar.
- Clean polycarbonate with potassium permanganate solution.
- Dry the washed greenhouse by opening the doors.
Disinfection methods for greenhouses:
- Sulfur saber. This method is not suitable for greenhouse structures with metal elements, it is used only in greenhouses with a wooden frame. How is the processing:
- The gas emitted by the checker permeates the entire greenhouse space, penetrating into each gap.
- During processing with a checker, all tools must be in the greenhouse.
- The greenhouse is hermetically closed for three days. Then it is thoroughly aired.
- Chlorine lime. The solution is sprayed with all structural elements. Chlorine can disinfect even very infected soil. Slots and wooden structures are sprayed with special care.
The greenhouse can be treated with biological products. They are not as effective as sulfur drafts or chlorine, but they are more safe. Biological products destroy pathogens and increase soil fertility.
Before planting seedlings, the soil in the greenhouse is prepared - the remains of last year's vegetation are cleaned, they are dug up, the plant roots that come across are cleaned and disinfected.
Soil disinfection is necessary for the destruction of pathogens, it is carried out using one of the following methods:
- Chemical. Most often, bleach is used to disinfect the soil. It is scattered dry on the surface of the earth and sealed with a rake.
You can also destroy bacteria and other microorganisms with formalin. This medication prevents the black leg. After prevention, the soil is covered with a film for 24 hours.
- Thermal. The surface of the soil is treated with hot steam - special equipment is used for this. A simpler option is to fill the beds with boiling water.
The subtleties of growing
In order for the eggplants to successfully develop and give a full-fledged crop in closed ground, they need to create optimal growing conditions and follow the rules of agricultural technology for this crop.
There are various options for indoor use, under which you can grow eggplant. The choice of design depends on the timing of cultivation.
Indoor soil options:
- Greenhouse. Suitable for the warm season. He settles right on the ground. Covering material - a film or other transparent material, which well protects plantings from rain, wind and cold.
- Greenhouse. It is suitable for growing eggplant at any time of the year - with heating. Greenhouse constructions are put on the foundation and have a solid frame construction. The covering material is glass or polycarbonate. Inside the greenhouse, communications are usually carried out:
- irrigation system;
- warm floors, etc.
Varieties of eggplant grown in greenhouses have tall bushes (1-2 m), so greenhouses and hotbeds are made quite high.
Suitable forms of greenhouses:
General requirements for greenhouses and hotbeds:
- The ability to maintain optimal microclimate and lighting. The optimum temperature is from +20 to +35 ° C.
- The convenience of caring for plants. The gardener must freely enter the greenhouse structure, move along it, have access to plants, without any problems watering , weeding and other manipulations.
- Reliability and resistance to weathering. They must withstand strong winds, the scorching sun, rain and hail.
The greenhouse is less stable than the greenhouse. This is a lightweight construction, therefore it is extremely important to ensure its stability, otherwise it may be damaged by strong gusts of wind. The best covering material for a greenhouse is agrofibre.
Land that has already been used in the greenhouse needs to be restored:
- remove soil from the beds and lay in special sections - they can be located on the street;
- mix depleted soil with organic fertilizers - humus, compost, etc .;
- shovel the soil periodically.
The biological method of soil restoration takes 2-3 years.
Features of soil preparation for seedlings:
- Eggplant grows well in light nutrient soils. With increased acidity, and on heavy soils, root rot occurs in plants.
- Eggplant, like all nightshade, is very responsive to organics. The soil for seedlings can be fertilized with any organic fertilizer - manure, humus, compost.
- Fertilizers are applied to such a depth that it is closer to the roots.
- Ash, together with organic matter, is not recommended to be added - such a mixture removes nitrogen from the soil.
Depending on the climate, the timing of planting seedlings in a greenhouse varies from April to June. In warmer regions, eggplant is planted in April, in cooler areas - 1-2 weeks later.
Determining the time of planting in the greenhouse, gardeners often focus on the date of the last frost - after them about two weeks should pass before the soil warms up sufficiently - up to +15 ° C.
In heated greenhouses seedlings can be planted much earlier than in greenhouses.
Eggplant is a spreading culture that requires a certain space for growth and development. The stem height of this crop is less than the diameter of the bush.
Recommended disembarkation scheme:
- the distance between the holes is 45 cm;
- disembarkation is made in rows or staggered;
- spacing between rows - 60 cm;
- landing depth - 15 cm.
Compatibility with other cultures
In greenhouses, the area is limited, so they often have to plant different crops too close to each other. Such a neighborhood is unfavorable - productivity decreases, incidence increases.
Favorable eggplant neighbors:
- Bell pepper.
- Tomatoes and potatoes. They have the same pests with eggplant, and suffer from the same diseases.
- Cucumbers This culture obscures eggplant. Lack of light leads to a lack of ovaries. High demands on moisture for cucumbers can provoke rotting of roots in eggplant.
For the sake of saving space, directly in the spaces between the eggplant bushes, you can grow:
Planting eggplant seedlings in a greenhouse
Eggplant seedlings are watered 1-2 hours before transplanting, so that seedlings are more easily removed from planting containers. It is necessary to take out plants with a lump of earth, being careful not to damage the roots. Start transplanting in the evening.
The procedure for planting seedlings from individual glasses:
- In greenhouse beds, make holes 20 cm deep.
- Throw in each hole a handful of humus and ash.
- Pour 2 liters of water into each well, in which previously dissolve 2 crystals of potassium permanganate - the solution should be light pink.
- When water is absorbed into the soil, place a seedling in the hole. Do not try to deep down the plants so as not to damage the roots. Deepen the necks of seedlings by 1 cm.
- Sprinkle the roots with dry soil and compact it with your fingers.
- Water the planted seedlings again.
If seedlings were grown in peat pots, then it is planted in the ground with the "container". The pot is placed in the hole, the soil is compacted and watered - the plants do not receive any stress during transplantation.
Planting eggplant seeds in a greenhouse
Before you start growing eggplants in a greenhouse, you need to sow seeds for seedlings. If you have a greenhouse, then there is no need to grow seedlings at home in glasses, you can sow it immediately in the ground.
Using screen stencils, seeds are sown immediately in the places in which they will grow.
- Place a stencil grill with 6x6 or 8x8 cm cells on the ground.
- Place seeds in the center of the cells. Dig them into the ground by 0.5 cm.
- The grown plants do not have to dive or transplant.
Features of eggplant care in the greenhouse
In order for the eggplants planted in the greenhouse to develop well and bear fruit, it is necessary to create favorable conditions and ensure proper care.
Watering: volumes, methods, terms
Eggplant is a moisture-loving culture that is sensitive to water shortages. Moisture deficiency causes flowers to wilt.
- For irrigation use warm water, heated to +25 ° C.
- Water for irrigation is upheld for 1-2 days.
- Eggplant is only watered under the root. Water should not fall on the leaves.
- The first time the eggplant is watered 5 days after transplanting into the greenhouse, then once a week.
- During the formation of fruits, the bushes are moistened once every 3 days, and even more often in hot weather.
- Watering eggplant is recommended in the morning, and in the afternoon - to loosen.
- If there is intense heat in the greenhouse, the paths between the beds are sprayed with cold water.
- The volume of water should be such that it saturates the soil to a depth of 20 cm.
The most convenient and effective way of watering in a greenhouse is drip irrigation. Otherwise, planting is watered from a watering can with a long nose.
Regular ventilation helps prevent excessive moisture in the greenhouse. Window leaves open only on one side so that there are no drafts.
In order for eggplants to grow and bear fruit normally, their daylight hours should be 12-14 hours. With a smaller daylight, the plant will stop in development, with a larger one it will build up green mass and bear fruit poorly.
Eggplants love the light and tolerate direct sunlight, without getting burns on the leaves.
To ensure the necessary duration of daylight hours, use the lamp:
- phytolamps or LED-lamps - universal and economical;
- luminescent - suitable for small greenhouses;
- mercury - suitable for greenhouses of any size.
Eggplants are thermophilic and tolerate overheating, but to obtain high yields, it is important to maintain optimal temperature conditions.
- optimal daily - from +25 to +28 ° С;
- minimal - +14 ° С;
- maximum - +34 ° С.
If daytime temperatures drop by 3-4 degrees, eggplants slow down growth and flower buds “fall asleep”.
To control the temperature in the greenhouse, install two thermometers. One at ground level, the second at the top of the bushes.
Feeding and its proportions
Eggplants produce many fruits and are very demanding on top dressing. The necessity of applying this or that fertilizer is judged by the appearance of the plant.
Features of feeding eggplant in a greenhouse:
- During the season, beds are fertilized 3-5 times.
- Fertilize planting can be universal fertilizers for vegetables, which are sold in agricultural stores.
- The first time top dressing is made 3 weeks after transplanting.
- If the plants bloom weakly, they are given foliar top dressing - they are sprayed with a solution of boric acid.
- Until the ovaries appear, the plants are given complex fertilizers.
- Eggplant needs potassium during fruit setting.
- When the first fruits appear, they make nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers. And organic matter during this period is given in a limited way so as not to provoke active growth of green mass.
- During fruiting, it is useful to fertilize eggplant with ash and potassium sulfate.
How and when to fertilize eggplant in a greenhouse:
|Period||How to feed?|
|2-3 weeks after planting||Under the root with a solution of azofoska - dilute 3 tbsp. In 10 l of water. l Norm - 0.5 l of solution for each plant.|
|During flowering||Spraying with a solution of boric acid - 1 g of the drug is diluted in 5 l of hot water.|
|In the period of ovaries||Mullein solution is added under the root (1:10) - later several more top dressings are carried out with an interval of 2-3 weeks.|
|During fruiting||The rate of nitrogen and potassium is doubled. For 10 liters of water - 6 tbsp. l azofoski.|
For feeding eggplants, you can use folk recipes. So, for example, it is useful for plants to spray with infusion of mowed grass or with a yeast solution.
How is pollination?
Eggplants have bisexual flowers, so the pollination process should take place spontaneously. But given the lack of wind in the greenhouse, which worsens the pollination of flowers, it is useful to regularly shake the bushes or pollinate the flowers with a brush.
Mulching helps to maintain soil moisture at the required level, reduces the amount of watering and prevents many diseases.
You can mulch the planting with the following materials:
- rotted manure;
Varieties of eggplant grown in greenhouses are distinguished by tall bushes. They need formation and pinching.
Rules for the formation of bushes:
- The procedure begins when the bushes reach a height of 30 cm.
- Of all the stepsons, 2 strong are left, and the rest are removed.
- Break off foliage obscuring the fruit.
- Subtleties of formation depend on the variety. One eggplant needs a pinch of shoots to stimulate the growth of side shoots. Other varieties, on the contrary, require the removal of lateral shoots.
Garter is needed to support the branches. Under the weight of the fruit, the fragile eggplant branches may break. Garter is especially important for tall varieties growing up to 2 m in height.
The bushes are tied with trellis, constructed of wire and two stakes. The garter is carried out with twine, and they are made in several places at once in order to prevent breaking of branches and shading of bushes.
Greenhouse disease and pest control
Eggplants are affected by diseases characteristic of nightshade crops. In greenhouses, they are especially often ill with late blight, rot, anthracnose, tobacco mosaic. This is facilitated by poor ventilation, high humidity and sudden changes in temperature.
Preventive and therapeutic measures help to cope with diseases:
- disinfection of the greenhouse and all equipment;
- during the growing season - sprinkling of beds with mustard powder;
- spraying plants with garlic and tobacco tincture;
- processing by Fitosporin and Zircon.
Among the most dangerous and common pests are eggplant - aphids, spider mites, Colorado potato beetles, whiteflies and slugs. If any of these insects appears on plants, biological products, for example, “Arrow”, are immediately used.
Folk methods of protection also help fight insects - dusting and spraying with ashes, processing solutions of garlic and tops of tomatoes, etc.
Harvesting and storage
If the care was carried out correctly, in a month you can collect eggplant .
Features of the collection of eggplant in the greenhouse:
- take off the fruits a little immature;
- cut the fruit with secateurs;
- cut the fruit with the peduncle;
- do not grow large eggplants - they become tasteless.
Eggplants are stored for no more than a month, during which time they must either be eaten or processed.
- each fruit is wrapped in paper and put into boxes;
- the best storage location is a basement or cellar;
- You can also put the fruits in plastic bags with holes for ventilation;
- optimal temperature of the storage room - from +5 to +10 ° С;
- the fruits can be frozen.
Possible difficulties in growing eggplant in a greenhouse
Eggplant is a demanding culture, and despite the optimal conditions created for them in greenhouses, problems often occur when growing.
Problems in growing eggplant in greenhouse conditions:
- Stains appear on the leaves. If they are not caused by a disease, then the likely cause is direct sunlight or the proximity of lamps.
- Shoots do not grow well after planting. The first 10 days, the seedlings take root and do not grow - this is normal. If the seedlings do not grow further, it is necessary to feed her with "Kornevin."
- The foliage turned yellow. Perhaps the irrigation regimen or the dosage of fertilizer is violated, or the plant is affected by the disease.
- Ovaries fall. This phenomenon is observed with a deficiency or excess of moisture.
- The bush is developing well, and there are few ovaries. The reason is an overdose of nitrogen fertilizers or the absence of pruning.
- The bush blooms, but does not bear fruit. Artificial pollination is required.
Tips and tricks from experienced gardeners
Experienced growers and gardeners have recommendations for beginners who take up growing eggplants in greenhouses.
- Thin out bushes in time - this improves their ventilation.
- If a diseased plant appears, immediately remove and destroy it.
- When air temperature drops, reduce the amount of watering.
- When spraying plantings with toxic drugs, wear glasses, a respirator and gloves.
Tips for growing eggplant in a greenhouse can also be found in the following video:
Mikhail, 65 years old, pensioner, Kurgan.
In our climate, few eggplant varieties grow successfully. Finally, I managed to grow a good harvest. Planted a variety "Mongolian dwarf" in the greenhouse. From each bush I collected 6-8 fruits.
Irina, 59 years old, amateur gardener, Moscow Region.
As it turned out, you need to grow special varieties in the greenhouse, not the first ones. I plant seedlings without picking, so the survival rate of seedlings is 99%. Most of all I like the Black Prince variety.
Thanks to greenhouses and hotbeds, heat-loving eggplant can be successfully grown in regions with harsh climates. In order to achieve high yields during greenhouse cultivation, it is important not only to observe agricultural technology, but also to choose the right varieties.