Large white breed of pigs is currently the most common in Russia. This is due to the simplicity of keeping and breeding individuals, as well as the possibility of obtaining large quantities of high-quality meat and fat. Unlike many others, pigs of a large white breed are unpretentious, easily adapt to any conditions of detention and climate, grow quickly and gain weight. These animals can be grown both in the household and on farms and large enterprises. At the same time, there are some nuances that should be considered when buying and breeding pig breeds. About what problems can arise, this article will tell.
Representatives of a large white breed, unlike Pietrain , occupy almost eighty percent of the total population of Russia. But despite the fact that they adapt perfectly to the climate of almost any region, pigs were bred in England at the end of the nineteenth century, and brought into the country at the end of the twentieth. Since then, they have undergone some changes, due to which they have become more productive.
Buying pigs of large white breed is quite easy both on farms and specialized farms. Young growth, as a rule, is distinguished by its large size, rapid growth and good appetite. So, by the age of two months, piglets are gaining a mass of at least twenty kilograms, and by the age of six months, a hundred. Read about farrowing Vietnamese pigs here .
When buying a large number of piglets, you can stumble upon a hoax, in which among the whole herd one or two pigs-fishes will meet. To prevent this, it is necessary to carefully monitor the selection of young for sale.
Piglets are quite active and shy. If, when you try to touch, the animal runs away with a screech, then it’s great. Otherwise, it is better to refuse the purchase.
Adult pigs weigh up to four hundred kilograms and are characterized by a calm disposition . Externally, they can be distinguished by the following characteristics:
- large sizes;
- lack of folds and the presence of soft bristles;
- lightweight head of the right size with a wide forehead;
- thick neck;
- large, elastic, erect ears;
- elongated torso (up to two meters);
- curved back and deep chest.
In addition, breed sows are highly productive. For one farrow, they are able to bring up to eighteen piglets with a milk capacity of up to ninety percent. Meanwhile, animals have disadvantages. So, they do not tolerate frosts below thirty degrees and are exposed to direct sunlight, are prone to obesity, have a hanging sacrum.
With proper feeding, an adult pig can reach 400 kg.
Despite the unpretentiousness in the content, the Large White breed pigs do not tolerate poor living conditions, which can lead to frequent diseases. And in order to get high-quality meat and fat, it is important to organize the animals a proper diet. Read about care and maintenance of mini-pigs here .
When organizing proper feeding, it is important to observe the ratio of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, as well as vitamins and minerals in feed. It is due to this that the resistance of animals to changes in temperatures and diseases, obesity and loss of muscle mass increases.
Piglets can be fed one week after birth. During this period, it is allowed to give young animals warm cow's milk with dissolved feed mixture or boiled cereals. For two to six month old piglets, the daily ration should be two to three kilograms of feed.
The basis of the diet of an adult animal can be a ready-made pork feed mixture brewed with hot water. It is also allowed to enter the following products in the menu:
- boiled potatoes without liquid;
- crushed root crops (raw and boiled);
- dairy and dairy products;
- grain mixtures (oats, wheat, barley, corn);
- seasonal fruits and vegetables, herbs;
- hay and dry grass (in the cold season).
Large adults can consume up to five kilograms of feed and two liters of water per day. It is best to stick three times a day to pigs. In addition, it is important to enrich the feed with vitamin-mineral premixes in case of a lack of appropriate components. Each head should also account for up to ten grams of edible salt.
Overfeeding sows is not recommended, as in this case problems may occur during farrowing.
To keep pigs and adult pigs, you can cook a pigsty for 50 goals or a regular barn for a small number of animals. However, it is important that it be sufficiently insulated (especially the floor and walls) and have a drain for draining animal waste products. In addition, the room should be periodically ventilated.
Cleanliness in the pigsty is an important prevention of dangerous diseases.
Pigsties should be cleaned regularly. It is best to clean with litter replaced daily . Otherwise, an environment favorable for the development of infections may form.
It is also useful to prepare an aviary for the main pigsty. In the warm season, it will serve as a place for taking walks in the fresh air and sunbathing. The overhang built to the aviary can save pigs from overheating.
Breeding pigs of the Large white breed is quite simple, if you know several important rules. At the same time, this can be done both for slaughter and for the sale of young animals.
Females and males reach puberty by six months of age. However, it is recommended to pair them no earlier than in eight to twelve months, when their body weight becomes more than one hundred and twenty kilograms. You can determine the readiness of a pig for mating by the following signs:
- systematic concern;
- redness and swelling of the genitals;
- the appearance of estrus.
The average duration of gestation of piglets is one hundred ten to one hundred twenty days. Before farrowing, sow anxiety and swelling of the nipples are usually observed.
Piglets are born 110-120 days after fertilization. In the first months of life, they are completely dependent on the sow.
During farrowing, you must constantly be present next to the animal. Immediately after the birth of piglets, they need to wipe their hooves and pigs. The umbilical cord should be cut and burned with iodine. Within forty minutes after farrowing, it is important to attach the young to the nipples. Colostrum in this case will not only turn out to be a nutritious product, but also increase the survival of piglets. How many years live pigs will tell this link .
Pork is of high quality both in young animals and in older individuals. However, slaughter of pigs is recommended not earlier than from four months of age. The optimal age is considered to be ten to twelve months, when they gain weight over one hundred kilograms. the yield of meat and fat in this case may be more than seventy-five percent. It is also important to pay attention to the fact that before slaughtering the boar, it is necessary to castrate it.
The site for the slaughter of the Vietnamese breed , as for others, should be clean and dry. Twelve hours before the procedure, you must stop giving the animal food. In winter, you should not choose a too frosty day, as there may be problems with butchering the carcass. It should also not be done during hot hours in the summer. About cutting carcasses of a pig will tell this material .
Do not slaughter pigs with poor appetite and signs of pain for meat. Slaughter is also not recommended after treatment with helminth preparations and antibiotics.
Large white breed pigs do not require special care. It is important to follow a few strict rules.
Even with wastewater for pig waste, it is necessary to regularly clean and replace litter with animals. In addition, daily cleaning of equipment and utensils for feeding animals is recommended. Disinfection of premises using slaked lime or caustic soda should be carried out at least once a week.
To avoid the possible appearance of helminthiasis, it is recommended to wash the sow before farrowing, and in one room do not contain adults and young animals.
Even with regular and proper feeding, diseases such as scabies, pneumonia, and helminthiasis can occur. To avoid this, it is necessary to insulate the pigsty and keep it clean. It is periodically recommended to spray individuals against scabies and treatment for worms.
With pneumonia, you need to contact a specialist. Before it appears, you can lower your body temperature with Paracetamol. The maximum dose of the drug is one gram per day. Learn about the carcass cutting scheme for pigs in this article .
Video about the origin and characteristics of pigs of the Large white breed.
- Large white, like early Yorkshire pigs, is the most popular in Russia due to the unpretentiousness and high productivity of its representatives.
- Since pigs of the species are prone to obesity, it is important to organize the right feeding regimen for them.
- The main preventive measure against pig diseases is to maintain cleanliness and warmth.
- In order to get the maximum yield of high-quality meat and fat, it is necessary to follow the basic rules of slaughter.