Our time provides a lot of conditions and opportunities in the construction of horse stables. You can purchase a finished structure, order it on a turnkey basis, hire a team for construction or independently carry out all the work. The most budgetary way is to do it yourself.
Preparation for the construction of the stable
In each of these cases, it is worth relying on the goal of horse breeding and its volumes. A small structure is quite enough to keep several animals involved in economic activity, but you can keep horses in the barn with the rest of the cattle and small cattle. For sport horses, breeding or for mass rearing for slaughter, you need spacious comfortable stables.
Before construction, make an estimate based on the project plan of the stables and prices for materials and work. This will save from alterations in the process of construction and unnecessary expenses, show clearly the entire amount of necessary funds and work. Consultations with specialists and the study of a mass of additional literature will not be superfluous.
It is worth paying attention to the choice of land for the construction of housing for horses. It is desirable that it was a plain or a small hill. In the lowlands, animals will be protected from the wind, but damp will settle in the stable. High humidity will have a negative effect on the hooves of horses.
If the site is located on a hill, then the water quickly leaves it, but accessibility to the winds will become a weak point. Permanent drafts are harmful to animals. This is inevitable, so it is worthwhile to provide for natural barriers from trees that form the so-called forest belts.
The choice of material for construction
Responsibly choose material for your horse’s home. For the construction of durable warm and dry stables, brick and wood are most often used, as an alternative they use adobe, bulk mixtures and heaters in a frame structure.
Do not use stone and concrete blocks. Such a structure will not be able to provide and maintain the necessary microclimate for animals. Adobe constructions are warm but short-lived.
The most popular material for construction, which has a lot of positive arguments:
- buildings are built for centuries, independent of the influence of environmental factors;
- minimal heat loss, humidity does not accumulate;
- the wall thickness in the climate of Central Russia should be at least 2 bricks.
A significant drawback of such a building material is the cost of construction and the low speed of construction work.
Wooden buildings have a more respectable appearance. It’s easy to work with such material, and the speed of work is constantly high. Premises made of wood retain heat well, conduct air. It will be comfortable for animals to stay in such stables. When constructing a wooden dwelling, one should use logs or timber not thinner than 20 cm, lining them with lining.
Application in the construction of wood has its drawbacks:
- Short operating stables. A tree has the property of deteriorating upon physical impact.
- The building has a high level of fire hazard.
- Fungus, wood-boring beetles, etc. can ruin the structure and make it life-threatening in a short time. The problem is partially solved by the use of impregnation and wood treatments. This is an additional operational expense.
Buildings of this kind are distinguished by the lowest cost. The frame is built of wood or metal. Double walls are being erected, and the voids are filled with a mixture of sawdust and expanded clay, mineral wool and other insulation.
If there are cracks on the walls between the joining material, then the internal bulk filling will wake up through them. This forms air cavities inside where rodents and pests can settle. In addition, due to voids, the thermal insulation of the stables will decrease. Loss of heat, the formation of condensate and the appearance of dampness in this situation are inevitable.
The size of the stable and the rooms inside it depend on the number of horses and the purpose of their breeding. So, in the case of sports stallions, large pens are needed, and when breeding a breed you can not do without a maternity box for females and fences for foals. But still, the main set of premises has a permanent composition.
A separate room for a horse with a loose housing is called a stall. Some conditions apply to its arrangement:
- The size of the stall is not less than 9 square meters. m. Ceiling height 2.5 m.
- Lighting in every stall. The lamp should be out of the reach of the animal.
- Partitions between stalls. It is possible to leave a small gap in them so that the horse does not put a hoof into it.
- The thickness of the partition from wood should not be less than 3 cm. Otherwise, the animal will break it with careless movement.
Each individual should have its own stall, where the animal is located head to the wall. The horse in it is tied with a medium length occasion. To limit the movement of animals, in a stall on the back of the body, including the legs, put on a plastic or belt puto.
Stalls are used for educational purposes, accustoming animals to discipline, during the taming and training of horses. While in the stall, attention and observation develop.
The width of the passage in the stable depends on the size of the room and the number of horses contained in it. Most often they leave 3 m of free space, so that it is convenient to transfer animals to sanitary boxes, stalls or simply to bring them out into the open air. In addition, the passage of the carts during feeding and harvesting, or mini tractors should be considered.
In addition to the main rooms where horses are kept, the stable must be equipped with the following rooms:
- Aft compartment. The room is used to compile and complete the daily ration of animals, so it should be dry, light and clean. The location of the room is as close as possible to the stalls.
- Storage for hay . Planned adjacent to the aft room. General stocks of hay are stored here, therefore fire protection measures should be applied.
- Storage room for working tools. All animal care equipment must be in the same room.
- Harness room. All ammunition for animals is stored here, there are refrigerators with medications, washing machines, etc.
- Sanitary box. It includes a room for examining animals with veterinarians, a shower room for horses and a solarium.
- Storage for bedding material. Room size at least 4 square meters. m. Dry, clean room with low humidity.
- Horse paddock. Size depends on the number of animals in the stable. The floor in the pen is made of special rubber or covered with sawdust.
- The location of the fire shield.
Design and Measurement
In the presence of the project, the construction goes smoothly and without problems. Therefore, the preparation, calculation, measurement and selection of materials takes a lot of time. But it’s better to fix something in the project than to redo the construction later during the process.
Before the foundation is built, the necessary measure will be the preparation of the site. It is cleaned of any kind of vegetation, and the trees are uprooted as much as possible, and the topsoil is removed.
If the plans include a stable of bricks, then the foundation will have to be poured with a concrete tape type. A waterproofing material is laid on top of the concrete to protect the walls from moisture. For other types of structures, a gravel cushion is poured and a foundation of columns is mounted. To do this, angular supports are installed and from them, using a chop cord or level, even rows of a columnar base are lined up. The number of pillars depends on the area of the proposed structure.
A protective layer is laid on the foundation. Pressed wood paneling will prevent rodents and other unwanted guests from entering the stable.
When building a room from a brick, a wooden frame does not need to be built. In other cases, you can not do without it. On the materials used in such works, saving does not make sense. The tree should be of better quality, because the life of the entire stable depends on this.
A 3-3.5 m high frame is assembled from a beam, with the fastening of diagonal beams for greater stability and strength. Before assembly, it is imperative to study the design scheme so that there are no unnecessary questions and moments that drag out time. When assembling, consider the location of window and doorways.
The first thing when building walls is to determine their thickness. This parameter is directly dependent on the climate of the region of location. The lower the winter air temperature, the greater the thickness of the walls of the stable. A wall of 25 cm maintains a microclimate in the most severe frosts. The minimum wall thickness is 10 cm.
When assembling walls made of wood, it is recommended to use several types of fasteners, and keep the distance between them the same. This will increase the strength of the structure. Between the foundation and the wall, consider installing waterproofing.
Break the area of the stables into stalls using wooden partitions. They can be mounted under the ceiling, making window openings on both sides, and inserting grilles into them. Another option is the construction of wooden dividers with a height of 1.3 m to 15 m.
Keep in mind that for each animal a minimum size of 3 × 4 m is required. A space of 4 × 5 m is considered optimal.
In order to protect animals from bad weather, rainfall and keep the heat indoors, installation of a reliable roof is required. The most popular are single-pitched and gable roofs with a water drainage system. The first option is the cheapest, because it takes a minimal amount of materials. A vapor barrier layer is laid on the wooden beams, and then a slate, metal-profile or other roof is assembled.
During the construction of a gable, more building materials will be required, but the plus will be the ability to use the attic space for household needs. There you can store hay, straw, supplies, or any other material.
Sew the ceiling with a board no thinner than 5 cm, and insulate with expanded clay or mineral wool. This will additionally keep the heat in the room.
In the construction of stables used 2 composition for the floor:
- Adobe. It is comfortable for horse hooves, as it is quite soft in composition. Its cost is inexpensive, you can fix and fix the flaws yourself, while it does not take a lot of time and effort. Easily formed grooves for manure. But, such a floor has the ability to absorb moisture well. Sanitary floor cleaning is required to destroy germs from equine excrement. In this case, this is not possible.
- Concrete. It is well washed, does not absorb liquid animal waste. In the stalls, the floor is poured at a slight angle so that the liquid flows into the sanitary openings behind the compartment and is taken out of the stable. The main disadvantage of a concrete floor is hardness and low thermal conductivity. Therefore, it is recommended to lay a layer of the board on such a floor. This will protect the horses' hooves and prevent them from freezing on a cold surface.
- Wooden. Often used in the construction of frame stables. For its installation, a pit breaks out, which is later covered with coarse gravel. There is no need to leave a pillow from the air under the floor. She will make the building unstable. On the perimeter for drainage provide a ditch, the depth of which is not less than half a meter. Such a floor requires periodic replacement due to wear and tear of the material.
Windows and doors
The optimal width for the door is considered to be 1.5 m. If the size of the stable allows, it is better to use hinged swing types of doors. They are more reliable in terms of resistance to animal attacks. Otherwise, you have to be content with sliding. They save space, but are less reliable in operation. Among all the options for locks and latches, the favorite is ordinary constipation.
The area allocated for window openings is calculated as 1/8 of the total area of the frame walls or 1/15 of the floor area. The size of the windows according to the standard is 50 cm by 70 cm. They are installed to a height of not less than 1.5 m from the floor, but not more than 2 m. To protect against excessive sunlight and for safety reasons, it is advisable to provide for the shutters on the windows. Be sure to cover the opening window openings with a mosquito net so that insects do not interfere with the horses.
An important component at the planning stage is the presentation of various kinds of communications. Do not rush, consult with experts, because the conditions for the comfort of finding animals depend on such work.
For horses, daylight hours should last at least 8 hours, so in winter and in inclement weather, additional lighting, powered by electricity, will be required. In addition, the artificial ventilation system and other automated systems, refrigerators operate from the network.
All bulbs should be in closed shades, so that if one of them bursts, the horses are not injured by fragments. In addition, it is advisable to enclose all lighting and other electrical devices with metal grilles in order to avoid the physical impact of animals on them.
The wiring must be hidden under the cable channels, and the switches should be placed out of the reach of horses.
Ventilation - a system designed to optimize gas exchange in the stable and maintain the level of humidity and a sufficient amount of oxygen.
Natural air flow comes from ventilation shaft openings left under the ceiling and open windows. But with a large stables area, it is recommended to install mechanical artificial ventilation. 12 horses must have 1 ventilation pipe.
Do not leave slots under the ceiling for ventilation. This will lead to constant drafts and animal diseases.
In mechanical ventilation, air flow is driven by fans. Their work should be with the lowest possible noise level so as not to concentrate on themselves the attention of animals and calmly be in the stable.
Water supply and heating
Holding water to the stable is desirable, but still this condition is not necessary. You can bring water from the street, which will take much more time and effort. If the water supply is brought to the horse's dwelling, it is possible to organize automatic drinking bowls, and the cleaning process will be facilitated. You can use a hose and wash all sewage.
In the coldest winter days, the temperature in the stable should not fall below 6-8 ºС. Horses usually maintain indoor temperature with their breath and warmth from the body. In the case of location in harsh climatic zones can not do without a heating system. For a large stable, the best solution is to install a boiler, and for a small dwelling, an electric or other heater is enough.
Arrangement inside the stable
To equip the interior of the stable is so that it was comfortable for horses to be there, and it was convenient for people to carry out cleaning and other work.
Feeding trough and drinking bowls
Feeders can be purchased ready-made or made with your own hands. The main thing is that it is convenient for the animals to eat from them, and the owner does not cause inconvenience to their filling. The feeders are often hung on the wall to a height of not more than 1 m from the floor, and a hatch is made above them so that you can put the feed without going into the stall.
Never sprinkle horse food on the floor. There is a high probability of contracting an animal with tetanus or worms.
Automatic drinkers will facilitate the work of caring for horses, otherwise it is recommended to install special containers, given that an animal needs up to 50 liters of water per day.
Drinking bowls and feeders should be periodically cleaned and washed with disinfectant solutions.
Stall and bedding
The stall should be comfortable and safe. Size varies with the breed of the horse. The height from the floor is at least 2.5 m. It is advisable to make the walls of wood or metal gratings, so that the animals see each other.
Sawdust, straw or peat can be used as bedding. They should be changed every few days, carefully cleaning from the corners. A litter of 50 cm thick is changed once a month or two.
Look at the video for equipping a stable with an example of one stud farm:
Construction of a summer stable and warming
A summer room for horses does not require registration, because it is not a capital building. It is easier to build, with no special requirements.
The most common option for building a summer stable is the frame method of collection. Using the beam, boards, fixtures and level, the skeleton and frame of the room are assembled.
The walls are assembled from lumber using insulation. Mounted wooden floor. Windows and doors are inserted into the openings.
When laying roof beams, consider slope to arrange gutters. The beams are hemmed with a board, a heat-insulating layer is laid on top, and a special film is beaten with a stapler. Water-repellent plywood is nailed on top. Next, a slate roof is mounted.
Finishing and insulation
For the decoration of the summer stables, any boards and lumber are used. It can be both OSB-panels, chipboard, fiberboard, and multi-layer plywood or a board of the highest quality. Everything rests on the price component and operational plans.
It is possible to insulate a room using mineral wool, polystyrene foam, polystyrene foam, ecowool, etc. The building materials market is rich in its offers.
Levada is designed for daily walks of horses in the fresh air, exercises and training with them. When arranging it, only safe materials are used. Preference is given to wood.
You can’t use barbed wire or apply electric current to protect the Levada.
The fence around the corral is erected at least 1.5 m high, with pillar bases every 1.5-2 m. Constipation at the wickets should be reliable, but easy to use. The territory of Levada is ideally lined with rubber tiles or a special coating.
The construction of the stable is a necessary event for the breeder. The choice of building materials and the construction project are negotiated at the initial stage. Planning in this process is the key to success. In a well-built room, the animals will be comfortable and safe.