Pigs are raised for both meat and lard. Accordingly, there are animals of sebaceous, meat and meat-sebaceous breed. They differ in the speed of weight gain and the nature of the set: greasy pigs stop building muscle tissue as early as 6 months and continue to intensively form the fatty layer.
There are many different sebaceous rocks. Common characteristics are the amount of fat obtained from one carcass - up to 42%, high fecundity, early maturity - 8–11 months, and the exterior. Pigs of this category are omnivorous, unpretentious, usually not afraid of the cold, and are distinguished by their peaceful disposition.
All breeds of pigs are divided into greasy, meat and universal - meat-greasy. The former are grown for the sake of fatty meat and fat, the latter for the maximum yield of meat, well, and the third have average characteristics. About the breed of pigs Ukrainian will tell this article .
Today, most consumers prefer pork with a minimum fat content. Because of this, meat (bacon) pig breeds have become much more popular. However, specialized farms still raise sebaceous animals.
The main difference of this breed is its high fat content. They get such meat due to the peculiarity inherent in all greasy pigs: they have a very short period of muscle building. Fat deposition begins much earlier than in representatives of meat breeds and it accumulates much more actively. This is especially noticeable when the animal reaches a large weight - more than 100 kg.
Breeds of pigs are greasy type.
The external characteristics of the sebaceous pig are as follows:
- large head with large cheeks and ears. The neck is thick but short;
- The chest and back are very massive. Pigs of these breeds reach the largest sizes;
- the body of the animal is large, usually the volume of the chest is equal to or even exceeds the length of the body;
- large thick hams stand out;
- legs are short but strong.
Sebaceous breeds are characterized by early maturity, that is, very fast growth and weight gain - 100 kg of animals gain in 6-7 months, omnivorous and high fecundity - up to 12 piglets. Slaughter yield reaches 42% of fat and approximately 50% of meat.
Breeds of the sebaceous type differ in that. that with a short period of muscle tissue growth, fat is deposited even faster.
The cost of fat today is lower than the price of pork meat, so the cultivation of such breeds is considered unprofitable. In fact, in regions where fat consumption remains popular, they prefer to raise greasy or meat-greasy animals. Find out about the pig breed Hungarian mangalits here .
Basic sebaceous rocks can be “transferred” to the category of universal, if you change the diet and cripple the load on the muscles of animals.
Strictly speaking, these animals belong to meat-sebaceous breeds, that is, with the accumulation of fat, the growth of muscle tissue does not stop, so that lard and tasty, not too fatty meat appear. However, a distinctive feature of the Breitovsk breed is the large size of the animal, which allows us to consider it the best among greasy and universal breeds.
The main advantage of Breyt's is the high productivity of the animal, as well as excellent adaptive abilities to cold and to sudden changes in temperature. Pigs rarely get sick and tolerate winter well.
The exterior exterior of Breitova is impressive: these are very large animals with a proportional head, a muscular body with pronounced hams, with straight short legs. Neck - well defined, head has a curved profile, large ears hang over the eyes. The skin is covered with thick white bristles, spotting is very rare.
An adult male is a boar, weighs up to 330 kg, a sow - 240 kg. Pigs in 7 months gain more than a hundred kg: with proper nutrition, the daily gain is 680 g. For 1 farrow, a pig gives 11-12 piglets, very rarely 13-14. However, on average, every 2 sows bring piglets twice a year.
Meat in animals of medium fat content is very tender, lard is white and dense. About pigs breed Pietrain tell this link .
Animals have a calm peaceful disposition: they do not gnaw at partitions, do not overturn stalls, do not rush at people, and carefully breed offspring. In the warm season, you can keep pigs on the street at special bases. In the cold season, animals are transferred indoors.
Breit pigs have very tender meat and dense fat.
Belorussian white is one of the most popular breeds in Russia. It serves as the basis for many breeding experiments with the aim of obtaining sebaceous and meat breeds. Belorussian white belongs to the meat-fat category of animals.
A large white pig has an unusual body structure: long - in males up to 2 m, in sows up to 1.7 m, wide, back is arched and transition to the lower back is not noticeable. The non-standard shape of the head is characteristic - it is small and elegant with the correct proportions, a small stigma, the neck is long and thick. The ears of the animal are large, but not hanging, but are directed forward and upward. The skin is covered with white soft bristles, wrinkles do not form even with heavy weight.
Boars of this breed reach 400 kg, and sows - 270 kg. With adequate nutrition, a 2-month-old piglet can weigh 25 kg, and a 6-month-old pig can weigh 100 kg. The sow gives up to 12 piglets in one litter, feeds completely independently.
Pigs are omnivores, quickly get used to bulk feed. However, with an improper diet - an overabundance of cereals, the risk of obesity and turning the animal into a purely greasy pig is greatly increased. Animals are peaceful in nature, even phlegmatic, so this phenomenon is not uncommon.
Animals of this breed are afraid of frost. Pigs should be kept indoors with insulated walls and ceilings.
The breed got its name from the county of Berkshire, where it appeared. Berkshire genes are actively used by breeders: the breed became the ancestor of Mirgorod, North Caucasian, Liven and other famous breeds.
The main advantage of the Berkshire pigs is the ability to quickly gain weight in the shortest possible time in combination with high meat quality indicators.
Conditionally Berkshire refers to universal. In fact, the animal belongs to the category of greasy or meat pigs is determined by the method of fattening - for meat, and for fat.
Pigs of the Berkshire breed have an elongated voluminous body with a broad back, strong short legs. The head is large, but proportional, the ears are erect - forward and upward. The skin is covered with thick black bristles, there are white spots on the tips of the tail, head and legs. The appearance of spots in other areas indicate a cross between.
An adult male weighs 300-350 kg, female - 220-240 kg. Fertility is average - 6, maximum 9 piglets. Young animals gain weight very quickly - up to 750 g per day, and by the age of 6 months they reach 100 kg.
Animals tolerate temperature extremes: in the summer they can be grazed and kept in hedges. In winter, pigs are transferred to ordinary enclosed spaces. Berkshires are most often grown for breeding. So, when a boar of a Berkshire breed and a Yorkshire sows are crossed, for example, a large number of piglets with improved taste qualities of meat and lard are born.
With intensive feeding, the weight of the carcass increases, on average, by 700-750 g per day.
The breed was bred in England by crossing Chinese and Neapolitan pigs with English long-eared. The exterior is quite common for sebaceous animals: a large trunk with a wide barrel-shaped sternum and back, head is large and proportional in size, ears are large and overhanging. Legs are short but strong with well-defined hams. The body is covered with thick black hair without markings. A characteristic feature is the sagging of the sacrum due to which numerous deep folds are formed.
An adult boar can reach a weight of up to 380 kg, and a sow up to 255 kg. Pigs are very prolific: the minimum number of piglets is 11, often up to 15 piglets appear. They grow very quickly: in 10 months they can gain weight up to 200 kg.
The universality of black breeds consists not only in the fact that large black pigs are raised for meat and fat production, they are also used for breeding.
Depending on the type of food, you can grow both large black meat - up to 52% of meat, and greasy.
Pigs of large black breed are omnivorous, perfectly adapt to various climatic conditions, tolerate both heat and cold. In summer, animals can be grazed, and in winter they are kept indoors. How many pigs live at home will tell this stuff .
Of all the sebaceous rocks, the Meishan is the oldest. It got its name from the name of the Chinese province. Later, the maishan spread throughout Asia, was exported to America and Europe.
Appearance in pigs is very memorable: the body is very massive, thick, with a wide sternum and short legs. The skull is short, small in comparison with the length of the body, the ears are very long almost completely close the eyes. The main distinguishing feature is wrinkled, folded leather, covered with black bristles. Folds on the muzzle are even around the eyes and the nickle. European and American pigs may have white marks.
Differences of Meishan pigs from other species consist in a completely black body color, very long ears, large sizes and a short head.
The fecundity of maishans is simply fantastic. The sow brings piglets twice a year and in one brood up to 15–16 piglets are born. Already after 3 months, gilts are sufficiently developed to continue conception and reproduction.
Maishan is a pure greasy breed. If 100 kg at 6 months is considered an excellent indicator, then a pig of this breed at 170 months of age reaches 170 kg. The volume of fat in this case is 42–45%. The thickness of subcutaneous fat is 3.5 cm. Another feature is the large internal organs. The fact is that in China it is lard and offal that is valued in pigs - the liver, kidneys and lungs, so that breeders try to breed as thick animals as possible.
Growing animals requires daily care, and sebaceous pigs are no exception. Representatives of different breeds can gain from 500 to 780 g per day. However, such record levels are possible only under a number of conditions. Read about farrowing pigs here .
Subject to all the rules for growing sebaceous breeds, piglets weigh 100 kg by 7 months.
The main difference between sebaceous piglets is a short period of muscle tissue gain - 6 months. After this, only adipose tissue is formed if the correct feeding conditions are observed.
Piglets of most meat and greasy breeds gain up to 6-7 months gain more than 100 kg. This weight can be considered a turning point: if after this the animal continues to grow due to muscles, then this is a representative of the meat breed, if due to the accumulation of fat it is greasy.
In addition to feeding, other care rules must be observed:
- 1.5 months sows are fed by a sow. If there are a lot of young animals, it is necessary to feed piglets artificially - with a milk mixture with wheat;
- animals must be kept in a closed, but well-ventilated area. Drafts should be excluded: young animals do not tolerate colds;
- compliance with biorhythms is very important, especially in winter. If the daylight is not long enough, the piglets grow weak, lose their appetite and stop growing. The pigsty must have artificial lighting;
- sows and cubs must have a separate riser. After the end of milk feeding, young animals are transferred to stalls;
- if it is supposed to breed piglets, the pigsty must include a platform for walking animals;
- for comfortable placement of pigs need litter. Traditionally, straw and sawdust are used for this. The material has good thermal insulation properties and is sufficiently hygroscopic. The downside is the smell, the need for daily tedious cleaning. For piglets, it is recommended to use a fermentation litter - a material saturated with sour-milk bacteria. For adult animals, a plastic slit floor may be suitable under which dung baths are placed.
With proper care and maintenance of pigs, you can get high-quality lard.
Proper fattening of greasy piglets is crucial and it is not even about how quickly the young will gain weight and how much mass they can reach. The fact is that with an improper diet and free movement of animals, fat simply will not form in the right amount, and a greasy pig will turn into a meat and not too fattened one.
Fattening pigs of sebaceous breed suggests the presence of a large amount of carbohydrates in the diet. Corn concentrates and wheat are added to the piglet feed. For older youngsters use barley, potatoes or millet.
Pigs are omnivores. However, this does not mean that the livestock is fed only by waste. A balanced diet should include:
- 50-60% green feed;
- 10% juicy;
- 5% herbal flour;
- 25–35% of animal products.
Only with the proper organization of the diet and daily routine can pigs be fed to the desired condition, and in the shortest possible time.
The video shows the piglets of the oldest greasy breed Maishan.
- Greasy breeds differ from meat breeds ( Duroc , Karmaly ) in the content of fat and meat: up to 42% of fat.
- Pigs of this category are highly fertile - from 9 to 15 piglets in each brood.
With a different diet, a greasy pig, and especially a meat-greasy breed, can turn into a meat pig.
- Animals are omnivorous and unpretentious. However, to achieve the desired condition, their diet should include a lot of carbohydrates: cereals, root crops, potatoes.
- Each greasy breed has its own advantages and disadvantages: the boars of the Belarusian white breed reach 400 kg, but are afraid of the cold. Maishan is extremely prolific and grow rapidly, but are susceptible to disease.