Duroc is one of the popular meat breeds of pigs. She has some distinctive features in appearance. To obtain quality products, it is necessary to observe certain conditions in the organization of feeding, keeping and caring for these animals.
Origin of breed
The birthplace of the Duroc breed is America. It was officially registered in 1883. Breeding was started at the beginning of the XIX century, when a fairly large number of different animals were transported by European immigrants.
Duroc owes its origin to the red Guinean and Berkshire pigs. Today this breed is distributed around the world and is quite in demand due to its qualities.
Initially, the breed was called the Duroc of Jersey, as the Jersey breed is very close in characteristics to this variety. In the future, the name of the breed was reduced. This was done for the most part for convenience.
Currently, the Duroc breed is in honor of second place. Its popularity is also high. These animals are especially common in Europe, America and China.
This meat breed is bacon. She has good indicators of live weight gain, but such results can only be achieved with proper nutrition and conditions. Meat products are attractive in high quality.
The Duroc breed is distinguished by its unusual color, which is called the red suit. It can be dark red and lighter - to a golden hue. Some individuals have tan marks, but there is no white impurity.
Representatives of this breed have a characteristic appearance. They have large sizes and a strong constitution. The length of females and boars is approximately the same. In the former, it can reach 180 cm, in the latter - 185 cm. The live weight of females averages 250-300 kg. In boars, this figure is greater - 300-350 kg.
Duroc pigs are characterized by an arched back, strong and high legs. The hams are sharply defined and well developed. The head is small with a slight bend, the ears are long and hang down forward.
Sows on both sides have 7 nipples located at a great distance from each other. They are well highlighted and functional.
Duroc pigs are attractive for their endurance and excellent adaptability to grazing. In some cases, they are used as genetic material to produce commodity hybrids.
Duroc is not very fertile. One farrow has an average of 10 piglets. The maternal instinct in the queens is excellently developed, and the character is calm. Piglets receive good care and excellent feeding.
Duroc is a precocious breed. The weight of newborn piglets averages 1.1-1.6 kg. The average daily gain can reach 0.8-0.9 kg. In two months, the weight of the nest can increase to almost 200 kg.
If the pigs are provided with control fattening, then within six months they can reach a live weight of up to 100 kg. For each kilogram of weight gain, approximately 3.75 feed units are required.
Slaughter yield is up to 80% of pure meat. It attracts with low fat content, nutritional value and a small percentage of fat relative to the meat layer. The meat has excellent taste and juiciness.
In addition to low fecundity, the disadvantages of the breed are expressed in their exactingness for protein foods and high susceptibility to atrophic rhinitis.
Duroc pig conditions
The breed is widespread, but acquiring purebred individuals is sometimes problematic, as animals are often used for crossbreeding. As a result, you can get pigs that have a characteristic appearance for Duroc, but may differ in quality characteristics.
It is better to buy young animals in a specialized breeding farm in order to get certain guarantees. The maintenance of pigs Duroc does not cause special difficulties. The following conditions must be observed:
- Provide animals with walking. It can last until the first severe frost. The walking area should be located next to the pigsty. When providing a free exit to the corral, there is no need to equip additional stands or canopies.
- You can let the pigs out into the fresh air in early spring.
- While walking is allowed, animals can be kept in a pen in the open air. Such conditions lead to an increase in appetite, so pigs quickly gain weight. Meat quality is improved.
- A mobile lifestyle is a guarantee of excellent quality meat products. In this regard, the enclosure for walking should be quite spacious.
- Pigs should be placed in the barn. In this case, the conditions of detention should be standard.
- The pigsty should be clean and dustless.
- The Duroc breed is quite adapted to various climatic conditions, but does not tolerate severe frosts. This is due to the warm climate in their country of origin. The pigsty should be insulated, and in especially severe frosts, additional sources of heating should be used. At the same time, pigs are sensitive to drafts, therefore, they should not be in the room, but an influx of fresh air should be provided. Pigs also cannot tolerate overheating.
- When organizing machines, you need to focus on the number of animals, their size and gender.
- Boars and large pregnant uterus need individual rooms. Their area should be 4-5 square meters. m. Be sure to arrange a wooden platform and cover it with straw or hay. If you want to avoid unpleasant odors, it is better to concrete or asphalt the floor. It is imperative to lay a layer of straw or hay on this surface.
When feeding piglets should take into account their increased demands on protein foods. For fattening, animals that have reached two months of age are selected.
The goal is to achieve 100 kilograms of live weight. This result is achieved as soon as possible if the feeding regimen is respected, and the feed is well balanced.
Duroc breed food may consist of a combined silo, potatoes, legumes, oilcake. Cereals can be used for nutrition. For fattening piglets, the inclusion of:
- beets (feed and sugar varieties);
- bone and fish meal;
- meat and fish waste;
- milk and dairy products;
Piglets need to be given hard grains for tooth development. Solid fuels they are taught from the fifth day of life. Feeding is needed even when piglets have enough breast milk. Complementary foods are important for the prevention of rickets.
Feeding begins at 2 months of age. Animals need a combined feed represented by:
- combined silo;
- bone fish meal.
The presence of large amounts of corn, oats and barley in the feed can cause obesity and loss of meat quality in pigs.
In the summer, feeding is carried out twice a day. In winter, an additional third feeding is administered.
Breeding, rearing young
The Duroc breed is characterized by small farrowing, so growing for the purpose of selling piglets is inappropriate. In this case, keeping animals simply will not pay off.
Duroc pigs are not distinguished by special signs of sexual hunting. It can be detected by nervous behavior, refusal of food and reddened genitals. Its duration is about two days, but it is better to leave the mating on the second day. For effectiveness, it must be carried out twice.
Mating is better not earlier than 10 months of age. If pregnancy occurs earlier, then the sow's health can be very harmful. Often this situation leads to the depletion of the animal.
In sows, piglet survival is approximately 93%. Expectant mother needs to ensure high-quality feeding - this is the key to obtaining healthy offspring.
During farrowing, it is important to monitor the room temperature. It should be at least 25 degrees.
If you breed Duroc on an industrial scale, then mating should be done according to plan. Usually, two boars cover one female. Between mating do an interval of 12 hours.
Durok’s offspring is small, so it is important to make every effort to maintain pregnancy and the health of piglets.
The Duroc breed is good for crossbreeding. Large white breed and Landras are well suited for this. The breeds resulting from this selection show good performance.
Adult individuals are quite unpretentious, but piglets need to provide special conditions:
- the temperature in the barn is not lower than 25 degrees;
- uninterrupted feeding;
- complementary foods from the first days of life;
- a sufficient amount of vitamins, iron, copper;
- dry litter;
- heat and lack of drafts;
- cleanliness of the room.
If piglets grow poorly and slowly, then they should be washed with soapy water, dried and placed in a warm room. Kids need to drink milk, adding an antibiotic there in case of diarrhea. Three times a day, piglets are given fresh water. For 1 kg of weight, you need 0.2 l of liquid.
Growing young implies standard conditions. The main thing is to provide the animals with fresh air. From the weather you can arrange canopies. Sows themselves provide young animals with proper care.
Duroc pigs are susceptible to colds, if they are not provided with proper conditions of detention. The disease is accompanied by pronounced rhinitis . In this case, the animals redden their eyes due to developing conjunctivitis. If the disease does not go away within a week and a half, then the animal needs treatment.
In the case of a cold, they often do without a veterinarian. Hard peels are removed from the nickel and smeared with petroleum jelly. Piglets are treated with inhalation, resorting to turpentine or ichthyol. A solution of potassium permanganate or an antibiotic can be instilled into the nose.
If the climate is cold and humid, then pigs often experience atrophic rhinitis. The big disadvantage of this disease is that it is almost impossible to cure.
Another common disease is swine fever of viral origin. It is difficult to treat, therefore, in most cases (90%) the animal expects death. You can identify the disease by loss of strength, lethargy, fever. The incubation period can last up to 7 days.
Subject to breed Duroc and Roger . The danger of this disease is that even a person can become infected with it. The causative agent is a highly resistant bacillus, which is long viable in the soil and even after the death of the animal.
The most susceptible to erysipelas are individuals aged from six months to a year. The disease is manifested by an increase in temperature, vomiting, intestinal atony. If the disease is acute, then the animal dies. With a subacute course, recovery occurs on day 12.
Another possible disease is viral gastroenteritis . This is an inflammatory process characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea. The incubation period is 5 days. The causative agent is coronavirus. Treatment is with antibiotics. Be sure to keep the room clean and quarantine.
Read more about pig diseases in this article .
The Duroc breed has existed for about a century and a half. It is attractive for its excellent product quality and rapid build-up of live weight. To get the most out of this breed, pigs need to be properly fed and kept in good conditions.