Pig farming today is a popular activity for farmers and private breeders. The primary task in this matter is the selection of genetic material, which will be most effective in a short time. One of these last breeds of pigs, bred through a complex breeding process, is considered to be a white-belted.
The history of the breed and its description
Work on the creation of this breed of pigs began back in 1976. The entire breeding process took 3 stages:
- 1976-1993 year . During this period, there was a search for the initial forms, determination of the desired physique, the study of various varieties of rocks and their compatibility, the formation of a genealogical structure, preparation of herds and other initial processes.
- 1993-2000 year . During this time, an increase in the number of herds, the formation of new lines and families, preparation for the testing of specialized types of pigs of meat breeds, and other standard procedures were carried out.
- 2000-2006 years . In this time period subsidiary herds were created, the number of stocks was increased, the breed was tested, the herds were certified, further breeding programs were developed and all preparations for the official presentation of the new breed were completed.
In November 2006, the "red-belted" pig breed was officially approved. In all its characteristics, it exceeded domestic counterparts. When breeding it, various variants of crossing such breeds as Poltava meat, large white , hampshire, landrace and duroc were used .
The resulting breed has high productivity, for which it is especially appreciated by all pig breeders.
The red white-belted breed is often called the "Red Belt", the name given to the pig among the people - it sounds simpler and easier to remember.
Features of the breed are:
- resistance to severe weather conditions;
- strong physique and strong body immunity to various diseases;
- good appetite for increased growth.
The red white-belted breed of pigs has a red coat and a distinctive white strip passing near the shoulder blades. The breed has a calm, friendly character.
Pigs of this breed have a proportional body, a long body and a small head. In the diet they are unpretentious, do not require special conditions of detention. The most significant for them regarding the optimal surrounding space will be the presence of dry litter and the protection of the room from drafts. Pigs get used to their new place of residence easily. Due to innate strong immunity, this breed can do without vaccination.
Although the breed is quite young, in many respects it will easily compete with many foreign breeds.
Productive indicators of red white-breasted pigs are as follows:
- three-year-old boar-producer: average weight - 320 kg, body length - 180 cm.
- three-year-old sow: average weight - 220 kg, body length - 165 cm, third farrow - 10-11 piglets, two-month-old nest - 182 kg.
- young growth: average daily gain - 680 g, a centner gain of live weight - 188 days, the cost of 1 kg of weight gain - 3.5 units of feed, meat yield during slaughter - 60%.
The meat of the breed is tender, there is a thin fat layer. The meat yield from the carcass can reach 65%, the fat thickness is 20-25 mm.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Like every breed, red white-breasted pigs have their positive and negative qualities. Among the positive, it is worth highlighting:
- Fast weight gain. It can be deservedly called the main advantage of the breed. When compared with other breeds, this requires significantly less feed per mass yield.
- Good adaptability to the conditions of detention. This breed can be bred in both northern and southern areas due to its resistance to climatic conditions and the ability to quickly acclimatize.
- Unpretentiousness in food. Rapid weight gain of these pigs can occur with a wide variety of types of feeding, which makes them convenient for maintenance in many frequent households.
- High fecundity. The sows of the breed show excellent results in this regard.
- The simplicity of the content. Representatives of this breed do not need frequent walking and swimming.
Of the negative characteristics, it is worth noting only a couple:
- The need for a dry floor. Without dry litter, pigs can become irritable, which makes it difficult for them to jointly maintain and assimilate nutrition.
- Fear of drafts. This breed is known for its frequent colds.
With a large number of advantages, the presence of only two shortcomings for red white-belted pigs is not so significant. Therefore, many farmers choose this breed for cultivation.
Due to the specific color of the breed, it is rather difficult to make mistakes when choosing piglets.
But when choosing healthy piglets, you need to pay attention to the following signs:
- Activity . According to many farmers, this is the most important factor when choosing young pigs. The low activity of the animal most often indicates its health problems.
- Skin condition and cleanliness of the animal . In the presence of bald patches, ulcers and other skin problems, it is logical to assume that the animal is affected by some kind of fungal infection or by external parasites. If the pig is dirty, this may indicate poor conditions, which most likely led to the infection of the animal with various parasites and diseases.
- Feces and condition of the anus . From the stool of any animal, much can be determined about its state of health. Not only laboratory tests of feces can tell about this, but also a simple visual examination. With a high presence of mucus and a liquid consistency of feces, we can talk about the presence of intestinal infection in a pig. In addition, vermiform parasites are excreted along with feces. In inflammatory processes or the formation of ulcers in the sphincter, one can also judge the animal’s health problems.
- The state of the tail . Most pig farmers are convinced that the pig’s curled tail is a clear sign of good health.
Based on the above signs, you can quickly determine the feasibility of purchasing the proposed piglets. If the animal is suitable according to these criteria, then you can safely get it.
Care and maintenance
The process of raising such pigs is not particularly difficult. For them, living conditions in a standard pigsty are completely acceptable. They calmly relate to a lack of space for walking or a rare swim. For pigs in adulthood, low temperatures, which are incompatible with other breeds, will not be a special problem.
In the content of the red white-belted breed, there are no special differences from the content of other breeds of pigs. The decisive factor here is the cleanliness and illumination of the room. The presence of dry litter and the elimination of drafts are also required. With a low level of cleanliness of the room, the risk of lowering the protective properties of the immune system increases, pigs experience stress, which leads to weight loss.
For an optimal existence, you need a dry clean room with a temperature of 18-20 ° C and protection against drafts. From what material to build a pen for pigs is not so important. When forming the flooring, it is necessary to make a slight bias. It is best to use a flooring from tight-fitting boards. There should be no empty space under the floor.
When arranging a brick or concrete floor, a wooden shield should be put in place where the animal's den will be located. From the inside, the corral walls should also be sheathed with wooden boards of a meter height.
The machine for the pig must be separated by a board mounted on the edge. For feed pigs, the total area of such a premises should be at least 4 square meters. m, for sows - not less than 5 square meters. m. It is advisable to equip a walking yard nearby. Piglets are best kept in pairs because pigs are herd animals. This will keep them an excellent appetite and weight gain.
For feeding red white-breasted pigs, various feed options can be used. Today, there are two main options for feeding: traditional and modern. In the first case, pigs are fed with mashrooms from household waste and root crops, in the second - with dry compound feeds and various purchased mixtures. The modern version, judging by the observations of many farmers, gives better results.
To get the best quality meat, barley, sugar beets, green feed, pumpkin, rye, carrots should be included in the pig’s diet. A good result is achieved when using concentrates. It is recommended to give almost all food raw.
Corn and oats are best excluded from the diet, as they lead to the deposition of fat.
Here are the basic rules for feeding this breed of pig:
- cereals need to be pre-crushed;
- root crops should be boiled and given in small portions;
- give food in small quantities and always fresh;
- with a dry version of feeding, the constant presence of water in the drinkers is required;
- the presence of proteins in the diet is crucial.
In the first days of life, newborn piglets need to be fed pig milk, and from the fifth day of their life they can begin to gradually feed. It will be good to add mixed fodder mixed with premixes to their food. This will make the pigs' stomachs more accustomed to coarser food, and also nourish their young organisms perfectly.
Of the many external factors affecting the growth of pigs and their well-being, feeding conditions and feed composition can be called fundamental. For example, a lack of food and a poor diet directly affect weight gain and extend the length of the feeding period.
The influence of feed on the quality of meat at the exit can be divided into 3 categories:
- Positive. It is good to feed pigs with rye, wheat, millet, carrots, fodder beans, barley, beets, peas, combined silage, clover grass, alfalfa, skim milk and whey. In the presence of such nutrients in the diet to a sufficient extent, the harmful effects of other feeds are minimized.
- Negative. Wheat bran, potatoes and potato pulp, corn, beet molasses, buckwheat. The negative influence of such components of the feed is not so noticeable if their presence in the diet is not more than half, but the other half of the diet should consist entirely of feed of the first category.
- Extremely negative. Food waste, oilcake, soy, bard, oats, fish and fish industry waste. Such a negative effect of these feeds is due to the fact that they contain a high content of vegetable fats and a specific smell, affecting the consistency and smell of meat at the exit. Feeds of this category are permissible to use only as a third of the total diet of pigs, and 2 months before slaughter, they must be completely excluded from the diet.
With proper feeding, red white-belt pigs give excellent results, and their meat is very appreciated due to its high quality characteristics.
In addition, we recommend reading the article: how to properly feed a pig for meat .
As producers, this breed of pig also stands out from the others. It is noted that when sows are crossed with boars of the red white-belt breed, the number of piglets in the litter and its quality significantly increase. Such sows can bring up to 12-15 piglets at a time.
Piglets of this breed of pigs reach sexual maturity by 8 months, pregnancy lasts an average of 115 days. The day before farrowing, it is necessary to prepare the litter, limit food intake and provide sufficient fresh water. You also need to take care of the heating of the room if farrow occurred in the cold season. The presence of a knowledgeable person at the farrowing is desirable, because in case of problems, you may need to help the sow or call a veterinarian.
Sow farrowing is evidenced by the enlarged genitals and mammary glands of the sow.
The process of preparing for farrowing and the birth itself is an extremely important part in pig breeding, so you need to approach it with maximum responsibility.
Features of this time period should be considered in detail:
- 3-4 days before farrowing, the daily feed rate is halved. This is required in order not to overload the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the process of milk formation in the udder. During this period, the sow should have constant access to drinking water.
- A sure sign of the onset of labor is the appearance of colostrum in the nipples. By this time, you need to prepare a dry litter, a clean burlap and a special box for piglets to be deposited. It is also necessary to have a five percent solution of iodine tincture, scissors, sterile silk threads.
- In order not to miss the beginning of farrowing, you need to carefully monitor the sow. A couple of hours before giving birth, the pig begins to worry and breaks the litter, creating a nest for future piglets. In the absence of litter, the pig is able to crack the wooden floor and build a nest between the destroyed boards.
- A born piglet is covered with mucus, and some are born in a birth shirt. In these cases, you need to quickly tear the shirt, wipe the piglet dry with a clean towel, clean its nostrils and mouth from mucus.
- Then proceed to the processing of the umbilical cord. The born piglet has a very long umbilical cord; therefore, it is ligated at a distance of 3-4 cm from the abdominal wall and cut 0.5 cm below the ligation site, after which it is lubricated with iodine tincture. If necessary, the umbilical cord can be cut off. To do this, with the fingers of the left hand at a distance of 5 cm from the abdomen of the piglet, the umbilical cord is squeezed tightly, with the right hand take the rest, make two three turns around the axis and tear it off. With twisting and separation, the vessels narrow and there is no bleeding. The place of separation is treated with tincture of iodine. The treated piglet is planted in a box with copious litter.
- After farrowing, the placenta is removed and the litter is changed. The sow must not be allowed to eat the last, as this may be one of the reasons for eating piglets. The pig’s crotch and nipples are washed with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 10 l of water) and the piglets are planted under it. To the front, most milky nipples, the weak ones are planted, to the back - the largest piglets.
Newborn piglets are inactive, so the uterus often presses them. To prevent this from happening, along the walls of the machine a barrier is made of wooden bars or metal pipes at a height of 20 cm from the floor and 15 cm from the wall.
Victor Semenovich, a novice farmer.
I have been breeding this breed for about a year. I have no complaints about pigs. Solid cattle: gaining weight quickly, in the feed is not picky, cleanliness. One drawback was noticed - they constantly catch a cold, although the weather is good and there are no drafts.
Elena, the household.
I have been on my farm for the eighth year now. The meat is tender, tasty. Care is like regular pigs. It is even possible to grease fat, but only if the pig is specially fattened for this purpose.
Zoya Yakovlevna, Samara Region
. The red-belt breed makes me happy with its large output of meat. Products are sold out very quickly. Business is booming. Pigs quickly grow and breed. The plans so far deal only with this breed.
More and more private households and large livestock farms begin to breed this particular breed, because it stands out from other breeds of pigs by its high characteristics. Farmers have no particular difficulties in keeping and breeding it, which once again speaks of the excellent work done by pig breeders and breeders.