It is believed that the pig is an omnivore. When home-fed, a varied feed - vegetables, grains, food waste - gets into the pork trough. A pig does not disdain anything, but will pork be of high quality after such feeding? If you feed the pigs haphazardly and haphazardly, they will be weakened, and the meat and lard not sufficiently tasty and nutritious. We will figure out how and how to feed the pigs so that their maintenance brings maximum profit.
Varieties of feed and their daily intake
When choosing a breed of pigs for fattening, you need to know in advance - what it is supposed to feed them, since the diet will depend on the breed. In table 1 - what feed is recommended for different breeds of pigs.
|Breed||Recommended Feed Type|
Sick animals cannot be fattened for meat, especially if they are infected with tuberculosis, Finnosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases.
To feed pigs, farmers use different feeds and products. The complex of issued feeds should give the animal energy and a complete set of nutrients.
Laying on fiber - bran, mumps spends a lot of energy on digestion. Therefore, it is necessary to give such food in limited quantities. Most feed should be concentrated feed. Violation of this principle leads to a negative result - the pig does not gain mass.
The feed that is given to pigs is divided into 3 main groups, each of them affects the taste and quality of meat in different ways. The influence of feed groups on the quality of meat and fat is shown in table 2.
|Group No. 1 - improve the quality of meat and fat||Cereals - peas, millet, barley|
|Vegetables, root crops, gourds|
|Herbs - Fresh and Hay (Nettle, Alfalfa, Clover)|
|Meat and milk waste|
|No. 2 - degrade the quality of meat and fat||Bran - wheat and rye|
|No. 3 - give at the initial stage of feeding||Oats|
Group No. 3 is excluded from the diet 2 months before slaughter.
Concentrated are crushed feeds from cereals, bran, legumes, and grain processing waste. This food provides animals with energy, and legumes - with proteins.
The most popular culture for fattening is barley. It is digested by 80% and improves the taste of pork. The composition of the concentrated feed:
- oats - it is given only at the initial stage of fattening;
- corn - it is mixed with feed containing protein;
- steamed peas;
- cake and meal (soybean, sunflower, flaxseed);
- bran - you can’t give a lot because of the high fiber content.
Concentrated feeds are crushed.
Remember when feeding livestock:
- Fine dart is given only in combination with food waste or succulent food - this prevents the disruption of the stomach and intestines.
- Grain fodder is not boiled - heat treatment leads to the destruction of active substances.
- Legumes must be boiled - in raw form, they are poorly digested.
Feeding rates for pigs with concentrated feed are presented in table 3.
|No.||Culture||Amount of feed, kg (for a pig weighing from 50 kg)||Daily requirement, feed units||The number of feed units in 1 kg of feed||Weight gain|
|1||Wheat||2.1-2.4||from 2 and above||from 1,2||0.5|
|2||Barley||2.3-2.5||from 2 and above||1.21||0.5|
|3||Corn||up to 2||from 2 and above||1.34||0.5|
|4||Peas||from 2||from 2 and above||1.17||0.5|
|5||Rye||2||from 2 and above||1.18||0.5|
|6||Oats||2.1||from 2 and above||1||0.5|
|7||Millet||2,3||from 2 and above||0.96||0.5|
The most valuable juicy crop is potatoes. It is absorbed by 94%. Potatoes are given in a mixture with protein-containing feed - peas. Potatoes are given in boiled form. Among succulent feeds fed to pigs:
- Boiled beets.
- Carrots - need sucking pigs.
- Pumpkin - give to all age groups.
To feed livestock, you can use:
- half-eaten food;
- waste remaining after cutting fish and animals;
- raw and boiled vegetables;
- peeling fruits and root vegetables.
Before slaughter - in a few weeks, you need to remove fish waste from the diet, otherwise the meat will become tasteless.
Waste is put in clean dishes and given to pigs.
The diet of pigs can be varied with acorns. One individual is given up to 2 kg per day. Piglets will not refuse from mushrooms - they are put dried or boiled in a mash.
The most important grass in pig nutrition is nettles. It can be mowed anywhere, it grows everywhere. Nettles are harvested for winter food, drying young shoots. Serving - 300 g per day.
After 6 hours, the crushed green mass loses half the benefits. If nettle is left brewed - to cool, it can provoke intoxication.
Another valuable green crop is rapeseed. It has a lot of proteins and fats. Thanks to rapeseed meal, animal growth is accelerated by 4%. Rapeseed contains much more phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and copper than soy. If you want to increase the profitability of fattening, then it is better to replace sunflower and soybeans with rapeseed.
It is useful to feed pigs with “green” - this is grass and foliage in crushed form. Components of "green":
- beet tops.
In winter, instead of green food, give a combined silo. It is prepared for the future from the following ingredients:
- Fresh grass
- vegetable waste;
- hay or grass meal;
Pigs fed for meat can be given animal feed:
- Milk. With undiluted milk, only suckers are fed. Adult animals are fed with buttermilk, skim milk, whey.
- Fish or meat. Give for the sake of protein. You can give animals and fish waste. The fed fish must be boiled.
Yeast contains many vitamins and proteins that are almost completely absorbed by the body. Weight gain due to yeast feed increases many times over. They produce special yeast - fodder. Table 4 shows the composition of the yeast.
Tips for beginners:
- It is recommended that 30% or more of compound feed be fermented. For example, if you give a pig 2 kg of feed per day, then 600 g of feed should be mixed with a yeast supplement.
- You can replace fodder yeast with baker's or brewer's yeast.
What supplements are needed?
Flavoring food with additives - taste and aroma, it is possible to improve digestion and secretion of gastric juice - by irritating the receptors. To activate the taste buds use aromatic oils:
- citrus fruits - lemon, tangerine;
- caraway seeds;
The pig family will not refuse to taste the sweet. To give pigs a taste of pleasure, they put in their food:
- 2.5% sugar;
- 5% ground dry beets.
Mumps prefer a sour taste over an alkaline one. To create it, organic or inorganic acids are added to the food - lactic or acetic, within 0.4% of the portion weight. To add bitterness to the feed, add 0.15% mustard or 0.4% calcium chloride.
For better digestibility and desire to eat, animals are given food with sweet, sour or bitter additives. Important additives include citric acid. In the body, it performs the following functions:
- reduction of infection risks;
- normalization of pH;
- high-quality digestion of food;
- normalization of microflora.
The addition of citric acid can increase the gain by 9-17%. Recommended content is 1% by weight of feed.
Mineral supplements are given to pigs - they are added to the feed:
- ash or coal;
- lime tuff;
- a piece of chalk;
It is necessary to add small doses of antibiotics to the feed - they reduce the incidence and increase the gain by 15%. Applied preparations - Biovit-20, Terravit-40 and others. They must be given after consultation with a veterinarian.
Why are flaxseed supplements needed?
Pure flax cannot be given to pigs. But in small doses, with diarrhea, flax is given, since it has a fixing effect. Large doses worsen the quality of meat and fat - they acquire a yellowish tint and emit a fishy smell.
But the flax cake is very useful for pigs. It contains:
- protein - 28%;
- moisture - 11%;
- fat - 9%;
- extractive substances.
When the cake is swollen in water, mucus is released that protects the walls of the stomach from irritation.
How to prepare food?
Any food, before giving pigs, require a kind of preparation. Thanks to feed processing:
- their nutritional value increases;
- their digestibility improves;
- they are disinfected.
There are several methods for preparing feed:
- Mechanical. The ingredients are crushed, crushed and mixed. Increases nutrition and eatability of feed.
- Chemical. The ingredients are treated with alkali or acid - this method is used for difficult to digest substances.
- Biological It consists in a partial change in chemical composition. Achieved by silage, fermentation, germination, etc.
Potato is the main fodder root crop. Raw potatoes of pigs are poorly digested, it is recommended to cook and knead it. Potatoes are given to pigs mixed with cereal or green food.
The water in which the potatoes were boiled is drained - it is harmful to pigs, as it contains poisonous solanine.
Other vegetables - beets, carrots, pumpkins, before serving tinder on a coarse grater. Give them raw. Rubbed before meals. Preparation should not be done - vegetables deteriorate, become inedible.
Vegetables and root vegetables become more nutritious after processing, animals digest them better. Beets and pumpkins are allowed to boil, and cooking water can also be given.
Hay and trash
So that coarse fodder - hay and hay dust, is better digested in the stomachs of pigs, they are steamed with boiling water for 2-3 hours. Before steaming, the hay is crushed.
The most difficult thing is to prepare the grain. Neither dry nor raw grain should be given to pigs - there will be no benefit from it. At least the grain needs to be ground. The finer the grinding, the greater the benefit.
What you need to know about grinding cereals:
- Oats and corn are ground as necessary - you do not need to harvest them for future use, since the fat contained in the grains, oxidizing, makes the ground grain rancid.
- Legumes and lentils must be boiled - without this, their digestibility is minimal.
Before giving ground grain to sucking piglets, it is pre-fried to a dark brown color.
To increase nutritional value, grain is germinated in crates under the sun. Grains are watered for 10 days. You can give grain when the sprouts grow to 10 cm in length. This feed is usually given to piglets and sows.
Green grass is not given to pigs without pre-treatment. It is carefully crushed so that there are no dry, rough stems in the green mass. It is not recommended to harvest grass for the future - it will become sluggish, it can rot, there will no longer be any benefit from such food.
To prepare combisilos, beets, cabbage, carrots, lupins, as well as the green mass of legumes and corn are ground. Important points in the preparation of combisilos:
- All vegetables and herbs have a period in which it is best to silage - when you can get the most out of it:
- corn is silted when it reaches milk-wax maturity;
- lupine and peas - before flowering;
- Jerusalem artichoke, pumpkin, carrots - after full ripening.
- The crushed mixture is rammed - to displace air. Combisilos is placed in a trench, bags made of polyethylene, any vessel. Combisilos is a biological preservative.
- For silage, you can not take nettles, tops of root crops and melons.
- Frozen silage or moldy is not suitable for feeding.
Table 5 presents several popular recipes for combisilos:
|Recipe number 1|
|Recipe number 2|
|Recipe number 3|
|Green bean mass||ten|
|Recipe number 4|
|Recipe number 5|
Pigs need a good diet for good gains. Feeding rates for pigs fattened for meat are given above in table 5.
Feeding animals of different ages and purpose are presented in table 6.
|Animal category||Number of feedings per day|
|Single and lactating sows||2|
|Fattening pigs||3 (normal food - 2, roughage - 1)|
There are 3 feeding schemes to choose from:
- Without a norm. For young animals. Babies who have finished dairy food are fed as much as they want. Food is always present in the feeder . Dishes for food are cleaned a couple of times a week.
- According to the norm. Food is provided according to needs. Standards depend on scientific advice and personal experience. Feed is delivered 3-4 times a day. Suitable for lactating sows and growing piglets.
- With restrictions. Allows you to get lean meat.
For a good gain, special meals are organized. Feeding guidelines for pigs fattened for meat, see table 7.
|Weight, kg||Weight gain, g||Feed units||Protein, g||Carotene, g||Salt, g|
Fattening pigs involves single or multiphase feeding:
- Single phase feeding. This method does not take into account the nuances of livestock. Piglets are gradually transferred to the diet of fattening pigs. The animal body receives more protein than necessary, and there is also an excess of phosphorus and nitrogen. The downside is the high cost of feed.
- Multiphase nutrition takes into account the needs of the body. More difficult option, but profitable. When they grow up, they eat more, but they no longer need as much protein as at the beginning. The multiphase method involves reducing the proportion of nutrients and the release of phosphorus and nitrogen by 20%. With a two-phase technique, a change of feed occurs when the animal reaches 70 kg, with a three-phase technique, 30-60 kg, 60-90 kg, 90 kg and more.
Types of feeding
There are 2 types of feeding - dry and liquid. Both versions have pros and cons. The choice of methodology is the decision of the owner. Consider both options.
80% of farmers use dry type of feeding. Its advantages:
- the feed is balanced;
- compliance with sanitary and hygienic indicators;
- good digestibility of nutrients due to heat treatment.
The disadvantages of dry feeding:
- the probability of gastrointestinal disease is growing;
- animals moving between feeders scatter feed - losses reach 9%;
- the room is polluted by dust particles of compound feed - the risk of pulmonary diseases increases, both in animals and in farm workers.
For dry feeding use:
- complete feed;
- grain mixtures with bran, oilcake, premixes.
Frequency of feeding - 2-3 times a day. Animals must have unlimited access to water.
This approach is used in some European countries. Liquid feeding is popular among farmers in Denmark, Germany, France, Finland. Advantages of the method:
- The use of waste reduces the cost of cereal feed and reduces the cost of pork. In turn are used, in particular, secondary products of the food industry and microbiological industry.
- Feed meets the biological needs of animals.
- Gradual change in diet.
- Dosage accuracy and the ability to correct the diet.
- You can not put drinkers.
- Less manure.
- Feed costs are reduced by 10%, and growth is increased by 6%.
- The need for regular monitoring of the sanitary condition of feeders.
- Short shelf life of liquid feed.
- The increase in humidity in the room - this is bad for the health of animals in the winter season.
- We have to monitor the moisture of the mash. If the fluid norm is exceeded, the feed is accelerated in the digestive tract for 8-10 hours. This reduces the quality of digestion and assimilation of nutrients.
The body of pigs is designed so that, depending on the patterns and diet, you can influence the gain and the type of product obtained. There are three options for fattening - for meat, lard and bacon.
Meat pigs weigh 60-130 kg. Their characteristics:
- developed hams;
- round body;
- thickness of spinal lard - 1.5-4 cm (zone 6-7 ribs).
For fattening, young animals weighing 15-16 kg are taken for meat. To get quality meat, piglets are fattened in stages:
- Preliminary - 3-3.5 months.
- Final - until the completion of fattening.
The amount of protein obtained by pigs fed for meat is presented in table 10.
|Age months||The amount of protein, g per 1 feed unit|
|towards the end of the fattening||90-110|
If the pigs lack protein, obesity progresses and growth slows down. The daily consumption of pigs fed for meat is shown in table 11.
|Name of the substance,%||Weight 40-70 kg||Weight 71-120 kg|
|Methionine + cystine||0.45-0.47||0.34-0.42|
The source of amino acids and proteins is fish and meat and bone meal, in such dosages:
- meat flour - 100-300 g;
- meat and bone - 100-250 g;
- fish - 100-200 g.
Giving pigs 200-700 g of fodder yeast per day, you can increase weight gain by 15% and reduce feed consumption by 11%.
Pigs are fed 2-3 times a day. Digestibility ratio of feed - from 80%. Potato is present in the feed; its coefficient is 94%. In winter, fattened animals must be given:
- silage corn;
- sugar beets;
In summer, the number of potatoes is reduced, replacing it with greens of peas, corn, alfalfa.
On the bacon
Fattening for bacon is divided into 2 stages.
Up to 5 months. When the first period ends, the animal reaches 57 kg. The feed mixture must contain grain, grain processing waste, grass, bean pulp, and in the winter - bean hay. The percentage of concentrates mixed with:
- potatoes - 42-65%;
- root crops - 70%.
A kilogram of the mixture should contain 120 g of protein. Daily give 2.5 kg of skim milk.
From 5-7 months. Stop issuing meat flour, fish, oatmeal, soy and grain shell. To improve the quality of bacon, animals are given peas, vetch, barley, millet. The mixture should contain 100 g of protein. 30% of cereals are yeast.
The composition of the concentrate for fattening pigs for bacon in different periods is presented in table 12.
|Feed name||% content|
|Thin Wheat Bran||ten|
Pigs fed on bacon are limited in mobility. They are only occasionally released into corrals.
Fat is fed to pigs aged 2-2.5 years. Any breed is suitable. Males should be neutered. Carbohydrate food should be 50% of the total feed mass. Also, many succulent feeds are introduced into the diet. By the end of feeding, the proportion of concentrates should be increased.
The diet includes:
- beet tops;
- waste - food and vegetable;
- nettle, etc.
Fattening for fat is divided into three stages. Nutrition rates for different periods are presented in table 13.
|Food waste||6 kg||Food waste||2 kg|
|Concentrates||4,5 kg||Concentrates||5.3 kg|
|Beet||6 kg||Beets and potatoes||4 kg|
|Salt||65 g||Salt||50 g|
|a piece of chalk||20 g||a piece of chalk||20 g|
|Herbal flour||1,5 kg||Greens||10 kg|
|Food waste||6 kg||Food waste||1.2 kg|
|Concentrates||4.9 kg||Concentrates||6 kg|
|Beets, potatoes||6 kg||Beet||4,5 kg|
|Salt||70 g||Salt||60 g|
|a piece of chalk||20 g||a piece of chalk||40 g|
|Herbal flour||1,5 kg||Greens||6 kg|
|Food waste||3 kg||Food waste||1,5 kg|
|Concentrates||5.2 kg||Concentrates||5.5 kg|
|Beets, potatoes||9 kg||Beet||5.5 kg|
|Salt||75 g||Salt||55 g|
|a piece of chalk||40 g||a piece of chalk||30 g|
|Herbal flour||1,5 kg||Greens, potatoes||9 kg|
Pig weight achieved at the end of each step:
- the first is 150-200 kg;
- the second - 210-260 kg;
- the third - from 260 kg.
Can pigs be fed bread?
Nothing bad will happen to pigs fed bread. However, experts do not advise feeding animals with one bread - you must always mix it with succulent feed and bran.
You need to give only fresh bread - it is strictly forbidden to feed pigs with moldy products, since it contains poisons. You can feed bread, but quick fattening will not work.
The norm for an average daily gain is considered to be 650 g. At the age of 6 months, the pig reaches 100-120 kg. Costs per 1 kg of weight should not be more than 4 feed units.
Piglets go into the category of "adult pigs" upon reaching a weight of 40-50 kg. Nutrition is selected depending on the intended use of the animal. Consider the nutrition features for different categories of pigs.
When feeding boars, it is important to control their condition - depleted or obese individuals lose sexual activity and productivity. During the breeding season, animals need to increase the feed rate, as the metabolism is accelerated.
If boars are limited in copulation, nutritional standards are reduced by 10-20%. The volume of dry food is measured on the basis of 100 kg of live weight. Growing receive - 1.6 kg, adults - 1.4 kg. The basis of the menu is cereals, oilcake, meal, meat and fish waste, peas.
An approximate daily ration for an adult boar is shown in table 14.
|Feed kg||In a random period||In non-random period|
|in summer||in winter||in summer||in winter|
|A mixture of concentrates||2.9||2,3||1,5||1,1|
|Pea fodder beans||0.9||0.8||0.4||0.4|
|The number of feed units in the diet||4.9||4.9||3.8||3.8|
|Digestible protein, g||690||690||420||420|
A farrowing sow, immediately after the appearance of piglets, is given plenty of warm water. The first feeding - after 10-12 hours. She is fed a liquid talker, which is prepared from:
- oatmeal and wheat bran;
- chalk and salt - 20-30 g;
The second feeding - after 5-6 hours. The daily rate is growing gradually. At full feed rate, the sow is transferred only to 6-8 days. During the first 10-20 days, the pig is fed with liquid food - to enhance lactation. At the end of the first suction period, the uterus is given a porridge-like food. Feeding the lactating queens twice a day.
In the suction period, it is recommended to give per day:
- hay legume flour - 2-3 kg;
- potatoes - 3.5 kg;
- root crops - 4-5 kg;
- silage - 2-3 kg;
- concentrates - 3-5 kg;
- reverse - 2-4 liters.
An approximate ration for nursing sows is given in table 15. Data for a pig weighing 180-200 kg, feeding a dozen piglets.
|Indicators kg||Winter season||Summer period|
|Concentrated Potato||Concentrated root||Concentrate|
|Green bean mass||-||-||-||6|
Feeding single and pregnant sows
Fertilization, fertility and the health of newborns depend on the quality of feeding single queens. It is important to ensure a quality diet, starting with preparing for mating. The egg matures 20-22 days. That is, the preparation of the uterus must begin a month before mating.
In the diet of single queens should be present:
- protein-rich feed - fish waste, small fish (sprat), various seafood, flaxseed cake;
- concentrated feed;
- clover hay;
In the second half of gestation, they begin to produce feed of the highest quality. By the end of the period, the amount of roughage and succulent feed is gradually reduced. Piglets are fed half a month before birth, the pig is fed skim milk - 0.5-1 l. 3-5 days before the survey, they stop giving milk. The amount of feed is reduced to 50% of the diet. Diets for single and pregnant sows in the first and second half of gestation are shown in tables 16 and 17, respectively.
|Uterus up to 2 years (150 kg)||Uterus older than 2 years (200 kg)||Uterus up to 2 years (150 kg)||Uterus older than 2 years (200 kg)|
|Sugar beets, potatoes||2||2||6||5|
|Feed units in the diet||3.8||3.4||3.8||3.4|
|Protein digestible, g||430||375||400||365|
|Uterus up to 2 years (150 kg)||Uterus older than 2 years (200 kg)||Uterus up to 2 years (150 kg)||Uterus older than 2 years (200 kg)|
|Sugar beets, potatoes||2||2||5||3,5|
|Feed units in the diet||4.4||3.9||4.4||3.9|
|Protein digestible, g||490||425||490||440|
Read more about feeding pregnant sows here .
The key to the health of piglets is breast milk, from which the feeding of newborns begins. Thanks to milk, piglets receive a strong immunity. For the first two weeks - this is the only food for piglets. Further, the diet is supplemented and adjusted depending on age.
The timing of the introduction of complementary foods will be discussed below.
5th day of life . To strengthen the teeth, piglets are given complementary foods - fried grains:
First, the grain is poured right on the floor - it, of course, must be clean and dry, then poured in a trough. For better assimilation of food, acidophilic yogurt is also introduced into the diet - to increase the fermentation of the stomach.
7-8th day of life . Premixes containing bone meal and chalk are added to the feed.
10th day of life . Add juicy feed. Kids are given grated carrots, later - grated pumpkin and beets, combisilos.
20th day . Give boiled chopped potatoes.
45th day . Piglets are weaned. They are transferred to dry or liquid feeding.
50th day . Transfer to three meals a day. Piglets are moved to another room - separate from sows. The menu includes animal proteins - bone and fish meal, reverse, yogurt. An approximate diet of piglets:
- concentrated feed - 80%;
- vegetables and root crops - 10%;
- fish or bone meal - 5%;
- bean flour - 5%.
During weaning, piglets from milk, sows reduce the rate of succulent feed, they are replaced with dry - to reduce milk production.
Table 8 presents the feeding scheme for suckling piglets.
|Age days||Feed, g|
|Milk / milk replacer||Reverse||Concentrates||Juicy||Herbal flour||Salt||Chalk, bone meal|
|Total days, kg||ten||16||15,5||4||2,3||0.3||0.4|
Piglets on growing
The menu for piglets changes when they gain 20-25 kg of weight. After that, they are considered gilt. To grow actively, they need a lot of vitamins and minerals, so concentrated feed is mixed with green mass, vegetables and root crops.
Grass is added to the diet in two forms - fresh or steamed in boiling water. After a few hours, crushed potatoes and dry food are introduced into the steamed grass. The resulting mixture should have a slurry consistency. Table 9 presents the diet for weaners.
|Name of feed, g||2-3 months||3-4 months|
The candidate of veterinary sciences tells in a video how and what to feed the piglets in order to quickly feed them to the size of large pigs, spending a minimum feed:
Pigs should not be fed:
- Products with traces of mold, parasites, fungi.
- Herbs that can cause poisoning. Monthly piglets can not be fed:
- horse dill;
- black nightshade;
- caustic buttercup;
- dog parsley.
- Cake made of cotton and castor oil. They can not be given without treatment - alkali or steaming.
- Sprouted potatoes. Before feeding, all sprouts must be removed.
- The water in which the potatoes were boiled.
- Pickles. An excess of salt is contraindicated in pigs. Overdosing can cause death.
- Boiled beets, long lying in hot water.
To feed a pig at home, you have to tinker. Not following the advice of experienced pig farmers, you risk spending more feed than necessary, and at the same time get low-quality products. Get ready to strictly follow the diet and diet, and then breeding pigs will bring you the desired profit.