At the moment there are a large number of pig breeds adapted for different climatic conditions. Among them, the Hungarian mangalitsa stands out especially. It is characterized by its original appearance and ability to withstand low temperatures, which makes this breed the best for countries with long and cold winters.
The history of the breed
Hungarian mangalitsa is a long-bred breed. The approximate year of its appearance is 1833. It is precisely known that from 1860 Hungary became famous for its new breed, the distinguishing feature of which was the surprisingly warm curly fur.
The creation of the breed is attributed to Archduke Joseph. He crossed a wild Carpathian boar with two Hungarian pig breeds, Bakonyi and Szalontai, and one imported Serbian pig, Sumadia. The unique curly, or, as it is also called, down pig, resulting from it, was especially appreciated for the ability of her body to produce large amounts of fat.
The breed quickly gained popularity. In Hungary alone, the population of these pigs exceeded 30 thousand. To breed the Hungarian mangalitsa steel in Ukraine. Central Europe actively purchased fatty meat. But by the middle of the 20th century, lard and pork had gone out of culinary fashion, more meat breeds were needed for making bacon and ham. In Hungary, the brazier population decreased to 7 thousand heads.
In the 90s of the XX century, producers of jamon and lomo meat delicacies reported a lack of quality raw materials. It was then that they remembered the forgotten breed of amazing downy pigs. The Spanish company Jamones Segovia, SA took up the cultivation of the Hungarian brazier
Since 2000, the Hungarian mangalitsa breed has been recognized as a national treasure of Hungary. Pigs are actively bred and popularized.
In the CIS countries, rare small farms are engaged in the cultivation of the Hungarian mangalits, and usually have huge profits. Elite restaurants buy meat and lard from them.
Description and characteristics of the breed Hungarian mangalitsa
Pigs of this breed of medium height (up to 85 centimeters in height), have a dense skeleton, a large head. The snout is very elongated and slightly bent upward, the patch is rounded, the ears are large, can be stretched forward or hang. Legs are flat, short, powerful with black hooves. The abdomen is large, the back may have a deflection.
The first thing that catches your eye when looking at the Hungarian brazier is, of course, wool. It is thick and long, there are downs. During spring molting, it falls out, and the wool is curled into hard rings. Most mangalits are off-white. In addition to pigs of this color, there are also black, red and mixed suits. It depends on the subspecies.
At this time, manufacturers often sell hybrid pigs, from mangalitsa and pigs of a different breed. Such individuals will also have a wool coat, but not the rest of the parameters necessary for successful breeding. Therefore, it is important to know the other external characteristics of the Hungarian mangalits:
- the tail is thickened at the base;
- eyes and hair around them, nipples, lips, patch, anal opening, inner part of the tail are dark in color, regardless of the subspecies;
- white brush;
- Velman's spot (a dark mark at the base of the ears no more than 5 centimeters in diameter), such a mark confirms the purity of the breed;
- no more than 10 nipples.
Wild boar of the Hungarian mangalitsa breed can reach 300 kilograms of weight, a sow - 200 kilograms. Already in the first year of life, young animals are able to gain 150-160 kilograms. Record recorded weight of an adult is half a ton.
The main difference between the breeds is their color. At the moment there are 4 colors of pigs of the Hungarian mangalitsa and 3 subspecies:
White brazier. The most common subspecies. It includes 3/4 of the entire current world population of Hungarian mangalits. Color can vary from light gray to white with fawn transitions in yellow and red, while the skin is gray or black.
"Swallow". The upper part of the head, ears, snout, jaw, back, sides and the outer side of the limbs of the “swallows” of a dark color. The abdomen, lower jaw, half of the sides, the inner side of the legs can be white, gray, yellow, reddish-brown.
This subspecies is often smaller than the rest, the hair is shorter and coarser, but it is more hardy.
Red mangalits. The color of these pigs is bright, in pure representatives of the breed it is spotless and tan. Red pigs are larger than their relatives and are gaining mass faster. The subspecies is recognized as disappearing. Selling red piglets to individuals is prohibited.
Hungarian breed of pig white mangalitsa
Breed of the Hungarian mangalits "swallow"
Hungarian breed of pig red mangalitsa
Before the number of these pigs was reduced in Hungary, individuals that retained the color characteristic of wild pigs or gray-brown colors were found in Hungary.
Advantages and disadvantages of breeding Hungarian mangalits
Consider the main advantages and disadvantages of this breed:
the high cost of meat and fat
often farrowing farrowing
fast weight gain
|high probability of acquiring a hybrid pig|
the need for large pastures
able to remember the way home (the pig is able to return from the pasture itself)
wool protects from insect bites
How to choose piglets and what is their price?
The key to success in breeding Hungarian manganese is the right choice for thoroughbred piglets. Indeed, although hybrid individuals may be similar in appearance, their meat and lard will not have valuable characteristics of the Hungarian mangalitsa. Therefore, when buying, you must request the pedigree of the animals, read reviews about the supplier farm itself.
You should not rely on the buyer, it is better to go and take the animals yourself, because you can verify the health of the piglets only by personally inspecting them. It is better to visit several farms, many features will become noticeable only in comparison.
It is especially important to remember that acquired babies should not be close relatives, otherwise pigs will degenerate.
A real piggy of a Hungarian mangalitsa costs at least 15,000 Russian rubles, on average, the price varies between 15-20 thousand rubles. It is recommended to acquire several piglets, without the company the animal can be sad, and this will affect the appetite and weight gain.
When buying, you should pay attention to how actively the cub eats, whether its mucous membranes are clean. The piglet should have a large breast, even legs, previously described the characteristic features of the Hungarian mangalitsa, striped color, as in wild congeners, but the coloring is inherent in the subspecies of the piglet (white, black, red, “swallow”).
A healthy pig will squeal a lot if picked up.
Do not buy too chubby and large cubs. Usually a lot of weight at a young age is the result of feeding with sweet milk. After such pigs, it’s difficult to switch to regular food.
The cross between the Hungarian mangalits will most likely also be covered with wool, but its meat is more rigid, the sebaceous layer is smaller, the character is not so friendly, intelligence and memory are lower.
Individuals of any subspecies who have a pink belly, have no black marks characteristic of all braziers, doubt the purity of the breed, the hair has brown tips, the ears are too big or too small.
Explicit culling will be pigs with white spots on the skin and brown in color, with yellow or black hooves with yellow stripes.
Color tones can change during the life of the pig, this process is affected by nutrition and the environment.
The Hungarian mangalitsa is characterized by vitality and the ability to adapt. Even in cold weather, it can do without a pigsty. Therefore, many owners do not build pigs of this breed of premises, but simply dig a hole in the pen. But then for warming the body of the Hungarian mangalits will use the stored fat. In order for the pig to gain weight well, it still needs to create the following conditions:
- insulated pigsty for the winter;
- corral in front of the pigsty;
- a drinking bowl with clean water;
- regularly replaced straw litter in the pigsty and in the corral;
- fenced field from other animals;
- canopies for protection against bad weather in the pen and grazing;
- additional heating for piglets and pregnant sows; it is also important to protect them from drafts.
This breed, due to its high immunity, does not need vaccinations.
Hungarian brazier has a good memory. Therefore, she is able to return home from grazing herself, and there is no particular need for shepherds, especially if predators do not live nearby. The latter, incidentally, include stray packs of dogs.
Every autumn and spring, pigs should be given helminth preparations.
Feeding and diet
Hungarian mangalits are omnivorous, feed mainly on pasture. In summer and spring - this is a common grass, in autumn and winter - hay. However, for active weight gain, you can enter into the diet of pigs:
- red clay;
- a piece of chalk;
- bone meal;
These pigs will not refuse food waste, snails, insects, frogs.
It is impossible to overfeed the Hungarian mangalits, this breed is prone to obesity. This can lead to a deterioration in the quality of meat and the death of the animal.
Feeding of Hungarian mangalits and purchased compound feed is allowed, but then you still need to give fresh grass or hay. Food is selected depending on the age of the animals.
Owners who care about the naturalness of meat can cook the feed themselves. To do this, mix corn, bran, chalk, bone meal, wheat, oats and makuku.
Representatives of this breed reach puberty per year. The sow should gain at least 100 kilograms by this age in order to safely endure offspring. The strongest and most healthy pigs will be at the second farrow. The first time the female gives birth to 3-7 babies, in subsequent pregnancies she will be able to bear up to 12 piglets, occasionally 14.
From mating to birth, 110-120 days pass. For farrowing, it is necessary to insulate a separate room for the sow. Hungarian mangalits have an excellent maternal instinct, therefore they will look after their offspring and protect them.
The leak can begin at the Hungarian mangalitsa and in 5 months. But at this age, the female is still not sufficiently developed, and will not be able to bear. Such individuals should be separated from the hogs and not allowed to gain the necessary weight.
It is recommended to prepare a heat lamp for childbirth. Piglets are born with short hair, but it will not be easy for them to dry it themselves. The first week they eat mother’s milk. 2 days after birth, babies are injected intramuscularly with iron-containing drugs to prevent the development of anemia.
On day 4, the fangs break off the boars, otherwise they will injure the sow when feeding them. Fifty months after birth, those who are raised for meat are neutered so that they gain weight better and do not behave aggressively. Be sure this procedure is carried out with pigs having an inguinal hernia.
In the second week of life, piglets are already given steamed bran, fried barley, and necessarily vitamins and minerals. At 1 month, you can start giving coarse food. A full-fledged transition to adult nutrition occurs at 4-5 months of life, a signal for complete excommunication from the sow will be the disappearance of "infant" strips on the skin of the piglet.
Ponytails to children of the Hungarian mangalits do not stop, they are one of the characteristic signs of the breed.
Taste features of meat and lard of the Hungarian mangalitsa
The meat and lard of the Hungarian brazier is ideal for many meat delicacies, and therefore highly appreciated. It has a marble structure and a delicate taste. In addition, the meat of this breed has a number of useful characteristics:
- anticarcinogenic properties;
- high content of zinc and iron;
- low cholesterol;
- vitamins A and group B.
The sebaceous layer of the Hungarian mangalits is 55-65 millimeters, it also has veins, which makes the fat of this breed unique.
Marina Iosifovna, farmer.
Buying piglets of the Hungarian mangalits was not an easy task. But still managed to buy a female and a male. The first offspring sold out. For the proceeds, we bought 2 more sows. After that, they began to breed for slaughter. So what happened, the "Hungarians" paid for themselves not immediately, but in full.
Stepan Andreevich, owner of the household.
I have been breeding this breed for a long time and thoroughly. There were no special problems with them, except that the dogs were driven away from the places of walking pigs, and piglets were fed. And the profit is very clear. And the character I really like them. Grandchildren are delighted with their curly hair and striped piglets.
Nina Evgenievna, farmer.
I was fortunate enough to accidentally acquire a pregnant sow. Farrow was small - 4 pieces, but the sale of piglets covered the cost of maintenance, and I was able to buy another female and wild boar in other farms. I like the breed unpretentious, omnivorous, and, of course, exotic appearance.
To learn more about the features of the first farrow of the Hungarian mangalitsa and the rules for keeping piglets, you can watch this video:
Hungarian mangalitsa is one of the most promising breeds. Her meat is considered to be elite. Therefore, there is no doubt that the breeding of this breed will pay off. Their content is also beneficial because they are extremely unpretentious in food and are able to withstand any climatic conditions.