What is bee brood? To answer this question you need to know more about the significance of the brood and the process of its formation. You will learn about this, as well as about the main types of brood, the diseases to which it may be susceptible, and the methods of treatment when you familiarize yourself with this article.
Definition of a concept
The brood is called the totality of the offspring of insects, which has not yet become a full-fledged part of the bee family. This includes eggs, pupae, larvae.
Brood formation is of great importance for the full development of the insect family.
The brood is grown in a nest created on the basis of honeycombs arranged vertically. In the wild, the size of honeycombs depends on the type of bees living in them.
There are several main stages:
All stages, from laying eggs to the birth of a working bee and the very process of the bee being born, can be seen in the video presented:
One day is called brood, in which the future bee is at the initial stage of formation - in the egg. When breeding bees, it is necessary for hatching.
To obtain larvae of the same age, honeycombs are placed in the center of the bee nest, from which a generation of bees have already hatched. They are examined daily, until it becomes clear when the uterus will give birth. 4 days after the laying of the eggs, the age of the older larvae will be about 1 day. They are used to remove the uterus.
If the brood consists only of eggs, it is called sowing, and if the larva is called a worm. The composition of an open brood includes eggs and larvae. It got its name, because the cells of the honeycombs remain unsealed wax caps.
This brood is more vulnerable. Sowing and grass are more often exposed to diseases, therefore it is required to monitor their condition with special care in order to take appropriate measures in time.
If the cells of the cells are sealed with wax caps, then this kind of brood is called printed or closed. During a stay in a sealed cell, a full-fledged bee is formed. First of all, her eyes, limbs and wings appear, then she changes color to darker. It is a change in color that indicates the hatching of an insect soon.
For normal brood formation in sealed cells, a temperature of at least 35 degrees is required.
What is printed bee brood and how does it look like you can find out more while watching the video presented:
It is a feature of only some breeds of bees. In this case, the formation of individuals occurs in a shorter time. This kind of brood is characteristic of insects living in warm climatic conditions. In cold climates, to accelerate the brood of the hive must be taken out of the winteries earlier. You can also activate the uterus with the help of special feed impurities.
For late brood, special conditions must be provided, otherwise it may die.
Among the precautions:
- use exclusively young queens;
- insulate hives before wintering;
- take care of the availability of a sufficient amount of feed and cells for the implementation of masonry;
- remove the lids from the honeycombs.
Precautions are necessary if the uterus independently began to prepare for a late brood. Creating an artificial need is undesirable.
Care should be taken that with the onset of heat, young bees can make a cleansing flyby.
All drones are male. They emerge from unfertilized eggs. For their full formation takes about 24 days. Cells in which drones develop are sealed with more convex caps.
The role of the drone is only in the fertilization of the uterus.
Often, beekeepers cut the drone brood from the frame to reduce the number of males in the apiary.
The video shows the birth of a drone, what the sealed cells of a honeycomb with a drone brood look like and the value of the drones in the hive:
Squeezing from hundreds of drones, which is called a homogenate, is of great value for the storage of nutrients and is used in medicine.
For medicinal purposes, drone larvae are also used.
There are several main types of diseases that bee brood is exposed to.
In another way, this disease is called aspergillosis. It has a fungal nature and enters the bees through nectar and pollen.
The main reason for the development of aspergillosis is increased humidity in the nest due to improperly created wintering conditions or a large amount of rainfall. The fungus can be black or yellow.
The infected bees harden the abdomen, they become more restless. Dead insects and larvae look petrified, their bodies are covered with a black or yellowish coating.
Treatment is carried out by raising the temperature in the hive to 60 degrees. In addition, a formaldehyde solution is sprayed.
Ascariospherosis is also a fungal disease. It enters the body of larvae and adult bees through food. Limestone brood destroys insects from the inside, gradually making them look like pieces of limestone, which determines the name of the disease.
Pathology is treated with the following measures:
- placing healthy bees in new hives that should be dry and clean;
- burning of all dead individuals;
- melting honeycombs into wax;
- replacement of a diseased uterus with a young and healthy one;
- the use of drugs such as Unisan and Askosan.
Infection occurs in early spring, when warm weather has not yet settled. The disease enters the nest through infected individuals or the beekeeper’s inventory and infects larvae with pupae under 10 days of age.
Symptoms of the disease:
- the body of the larva begins to darken until it becomes completely black and dries;
- in appearance, the larvae resemble small sacs;
- larvae roll over;
- a wax cap breaks through, through it you can notice the larva, which lies at the bottom of the cell.
As therapeutic measures:
- destroy the infected brood and adults;
- the queen bee is transplanted for a while (if it was infected, replacement is necessary);
- the hive is treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, but you need to make sure that the product does not fall into the open cells of the cells.
The cause of this disease can be the death or severe weakening of the queen bee. Because of this, ordinary bees begin to eat her food and soon become capable of reproducing offspring. But due to differences in the structure of the genitals, only males appear from the eggs.
An increase in the number of drones is the main sign of a humpback brood. Also, with the development of the disease, masonry is carried out randomly. As a result, drones are formed in inappropriate honeycombs and their bodies look deformed, and the sealed cells look humped.
The treatment is a new uterus transplant. If the family is small, then the bees disperse or settle in another hive.
Sometimes “humpback” is called any drone brood.
The occurrence of pathology is associated with a disease or weakness of the uterus. Sometimes it develops due to late preparation of honeycombs or the presence of other brood diseases.
A feature of the pathology is the uneven filling of the cells. Because of this, weak, non-viable individuals appear.
Treatment of the pathology depends on the cause that provoked it.
Only insects that are kept in poor conditions are susceptible to disease. Due to temperature changes, the bees cannot warm the younger generation and the brood dies.
After the death of the brood, the bees carry it out of the nest. An increase in the number of dead larvae indicates a problem.
You can cope with this type of disease by maintaining a normal temperature in the hive.
The disease occurs at the stage of formation of the printed brood. Its source is the bacterium Larve. It enters the nest with an infected insect and multiplies very quickly.
Infection with American foulbrood can cause the death of the entire family of insects.
- discoloration of larvae to brownish, gray tint may be present;
- complete growth arrest of pupae, their adhesion to the seals;
- darkening and deformation of the caps of honeycombs, they begin to fall through inward.
It is possible to cure the disease with the help of strong antibiotics, but in cases of large-scale infection by the bee family, it is recommended to burn the hive so that the foulbrood does not spread to neighboring nests.
The symptoms of this disease resemble an American foulbrood, but are less dangerous.
It develops due to bacteria streptococcus pluton, which fall into the nest with bees. They infect bee brood at the stage of larval development.
The infected individual darkens, loses elasticity. If you move the dead larva, you can feel the unpleasant smell of rot, which indicates a disease.
Antibiotics are used for treatment. Also, replacement of honeycombs and transplantation of insects into other hives is required.
To prevent brood diseases, the following measures are used:
- sufficient feeding of bees;
- ensuring normal feed quality;
- elimination of weak bee colonies;
- replacement of weak and painful uterus;
- melting old honeycombs into wax;
- ensuring optimal temperature and humidity level in the hive;
- timely change of water and feed;
- hive cleaning;
- preventive treatments.
Timely and correct formation of the brood is of great importance for the prosperity of the bee family, its growth and development. Therefore, the beekeeper should be especially careful about brood at all stages of its development and take measures for the prevention and treatment of diseases.