When a body of water begins to die, a series of radical measures are required to fundamentally restructure it. In this case, they resort to the flying procedure. This is a complex complex process, which consists in draining the water and cleaning the bed of the reservoir from vegetation, snags and other residues. Read more about the organization of flying a pond.
What is this procedure?
Flying is a whole complex of fish-reclamation and veterinary-sanitary works, which are periodically carried out in fishery reservoirs according to a previously developed plan taking into account local characteristics. This complex invariably includes a number of stages:
- Drain the pond in the fall.
- Freezing his bed (bottom).
- Clearing bottom sediments in winter.
- Reclamation in a drained pond in the summer.
In its effectiveness, flying has no alternative and is used for such purposes:
- to eliminate in ponds farms all pathogens of invasive, viral and bacterial infections (after drying the pond, pests die or lose their ability to become infected under the influence of sunlight and disinfectants);
- stabilize the gas and salt regime of water;
- to improve the fish farm if it is subject to contagious diseases, including branchiomycosis and aeromonosis (rubella), which is dangerous for carps and salmon;
- improve zoohygienic conditions for fish;
- increase soil fertility and natural fish productivity of the reservoir by 50-100%;
- to conduct fish farming, land reclamation and repair work on the site.
After flying, the bed of the reservoir is aerated, the organic matter accumulated in it is mineralized, and the hard underwater and surface vegetation is destroyed.
What ponds are flying used for?
This method of improving the reservoir is often used in areas such as:
- Spawning and wintering ponds . They are subjected to the procedure with the same frequency, but they perform different reclamation measures.
In spawning ponds, grass is preserved, since fish hides in it from direct sunlight. Moreover, similar plant crops for them are the forage base.
In wintering reservoirs, on the contrary, they struggle with vegetation, since in winter unfavorable decomposition of organic substances takes place at their bottom.
- Feeding ponds . Commodity (table) fish is grown in them - carp, carp, crucian carp, tench, pike perch, etc. Usually, such ponds are arranged by erecting dams that block the channel of the river or stream. In some cases, parts of the floodplain are collapsed with dams, and water is supplied from the reservoir through canals.
- Earth cages . Often these are fenced areas of natural reservoirs. The barriers are dams, dams or stemming from stakes. There are also artificial earthen cages in the form of various depressions in the coastal part of the land or specially dug ditches or holes in the ground that are filled with water.
Regardless of where such a procedure is applied, the technology of its implementation remains unchanged.
Improving fisheries in this way is subject to the following conditions:
- it is possible to simultaneously drain water from all the ponds of the holding, and then thoroughly dry their bed and hydraulic structures;
- there are no diseases and parasites in the water source, or there is the possibility of their destruction during the period of work;
If after flying, fill the pond with water, in which there is a causative agent of an infectious disease, then all the work will go down the drain.
- it is possible to purchase the necessary planting stock and high-quality breeding stock from a prosperous farm for the pond.
In order for the healing procedure to bring only positive results and not harm the pond, it must be carried out in stages with a number of important rules:
- Site survey . Experts examine the reservoir in order to accurately diagnose the presence of parasites or pathogens of various diseases. If any are found, the fisheries are declared dysfunctional. It is quarantined and a further plan is made for its improvement.
- Removing the source of the pathogen from the pond . It may be infected fish or water. So, to eliminate pathogens in the fall, all fish are caught from water bodies (they are sold), and water is drained from all ponds.
- Disinfection Ditches and barrels - local extensions and deepenings of the reservoir channel - are treated with bleach (5 kg / ha) or quicklime (20-25 kg / ha). Freshly prepared 20% quicklime solution or 10% bleach solution is treated with hydraulic structures - monks, trays, grates, etc.
Disinfection is also carried out on all fish-breeding equipment, as well as fishing gear and transport packaging. Small equipment like nets and canvas stretchers should be replaced with a new one.
- Cleansing the bed of hard vegetation . Rhizomes and natural debris are removed from the bottom of the pond, stumps are uprooted. The alloys (woven roots and stems of plants that float on the surface of the water surface) are dried and pulled out of the bed, after they were cut into small parts.
If the autumn is warm and dry, the bottom of the pond is well dried, and after that they are engaged in the necessary land reclamation works - they straighten and deepen the drainage ditches on the bed of the pond, fill up the flanks, etc. At the end of the pit, they fall asleep.
- Freezing . With the onset of winter, the bed is left to freeze.
- Improving the bed . The following spring and summer, the pond remains without water. Wellness continues at this time.
The next disinfection is carried out by drying and insolation - irradiation of the surface with sunlight (solar radiation). Pathogens on the soil surface die in direct sunlight, while those living in the upper layers of the soil die under the influence of disinfectants or drying.
After that, the soil moisture at a depth of 0.5-1 cm should be no more than 13%. This indicator must be controlled. In places where the moisture content of the soil is greater, slaked lime or bleach are added in the previously mentioned calculations.
Liming not only helps to disinfect the soil, but also neutralizes the acidity of the soil, improves its quality and contributes to a faster process of decomposition of organics.
- Tillage . For better drying and disinfection of the bed, all the vegetation that managed to grow is mowed, and the soil is harrowed or plowed. The areas where bog vegetation grows are treated with a swamp plow with a screw dump to a depth of 20-25 cm. After plowing, the layer is treated 2-4 times with disk harrows. Plowing helps oxygen penetrate deeper layers of dried sludge.
- Mineralization . To completely mineralize organic deposits and improve environmental conditions during subsequent fish rearing, the bottom of the reservoir is inoculated with a oatmeal mixture, seradella or lupine. After harvesting the grass, row crops are sown:
- cereals (oats) - consume nitrogen in deeper layers of the soil, therefore they are the best option for excessively deep sludge deposits;
- legumes - enrich the soil with nitrogen, so they are more suitable for surface sludge bedding;
- grain and fodder (barley, wheat, Sudanese) - allow the farm to provide itself with its own feed for fish, as well as reduce soil toxicity and increase its fertility, improve the productivity of the reservoir and microbocenosis (a set of populations of different types of microorganisms living in a particular biotope);
- vegetable (potatoes, beets, rutabaga, cabbage, carrots) - provide mineralization of organic matter and detoxification of harmful compounds.
The founder of pond fish farming in our country, A. Bolotov, in his writings recommends sowing the bottom of flying ponds with bread: sow winter and spring rye in the first year, barley in the second, and oats in the third.
The root system of crops supports the soil of the bed in a loose state and takes away excess minerals. If the pond does not dry well, it can be used as a meadow.
- Final disinfection . Conducted in the fall of next year in those places where pathogens could have survived.
Alternating low temperatures in winter and high summers, exposure to solar radiation and planting vegetation in a dried pond in summer all contribute to the mineralization of organic substances and the death of pathogenic microorganisms that cause contagious fish diseases.
For how and why the liming of the pond is carried out, see the following video:
After flying in the ponds, favorable conditions are created for the development and growth of fish. So, depending on the farm’s capabilities in spring or autumn, they can be filled with water from a clean source, and after that a new herd of healthy fish acquired in successful farms can be launched into them.
In spring, quarantine ponds can also run repair fish. These are individuals at an age nearing the first maturity, and selected to replenish the brood stock. Subsequently, they must be moved to separate uterine reservoirs. If they do not get any infection, then next season they can be used for spawning.
If during the growing season the planted fish do not show signs of infectious diseases, then quarantine can be removed from the farm.
Frequency and duration of flying
In order to increase fish productivity and destroy parasites, the procedure should be carried out on average every 4-5 years. This parameter can be adjusted depending on the category of the pond and the method of growing fish. So, feeding ponds with intensive fish cultivation can be brought to flying after 4-7 years, and with extensive fish - after 15-20 years. The same terms are acceptable for growth ponds, but spawning and wintering ponds should be subjected to such a procedure every year.
As for the duration of the procedure, but it can not be less than 1 year. This is the time during which the pond remains without water. It needs to be adjusted depending on the sludge layer. If when leaving the pond without water for one summer, its intensive overgrowing with vegetation is observed, then the process of improving the reservoir can take several years.
What is the difference from fishing?
Fish farming can be effectively combined with agricultural production. Such a combination is called fish rotation. It differs from traditional flying in that it involves the targeted alternation of the use of ponds for fish farming and plant growing after 1-2 or more years. In the bed of the pond, feed for farm animals is often grown - cereals, fodder, melons, etc.
The regular use of crop rotation is advantageous in that it allows you to effectively fly and receive additional agricultural products in the form of a bonus. However, this method in practice has shown its drawbacks. They are in violation of the stability of the veterinary-sanitary state of the site.
Experts note that for 2-3 years the pond is significantly overgrown with macrophytes (aquatic photosynthetic plants that float on the surface of the water or plunge into its thickness) and weeds of agricultural crops. In addition, outbreaks of fish diseases and, as a consequence, a decrease in fish productivity are observed. To minimize such negative consequences, crops should be mainly used for sowing on a dry bed of a pond.
Flying is a time-consuming and complex process, which is usually carried out on feeding ponds, ponds and earthen cages in order to increase natural fish productivity by improving the soil structure and creating favorable conditions for the development of food organisms. It is carried out in several stages, each of which requires strict observance of a number of rules.