Steppe Ukrainian bee has gained great popularity among beekeepers, because it is this insect that gives a good result, allowing you to collect a lot of honey during the season. Steppe bees have a calm disposition, but can be aggressively opposed to their enemies, do not give offense. The article describes the characteristics and productivity of Ukrainian steppe bees.
The origin and description of the breed
Around the origin of the steppe bee, there are violent disputes between scientists. Some are convinced that the breed is the southern branch of the Central Russian breed. Other scientists are sure that the Ukrainian steppe bee is a relative of Karpatka and Krainka. Some insist on the origin of the Macedonian bee.
In 1929, the bees that live in the south of Ukraine and Russia were named Apis mellifera acervorum Scorikov. It was given to them by the scientist - beekeeper A. S. Skorikov. During further research, it was found that the part of the population that inhabits the steppes and forest-steppes of Ukraine differs in many ways so much that some consider it a separate breed. In 1999, a scientist from America M. Engel named the bee Apis mellifera sossimai Engel.
In the second half of the 20th century, Caucasian and Carpathian breeds began to be imported to Ukraine. For this reason, in many areas, Ukrainian steppe bees mixed with them, because of which the purity of the breed was lost. The original population is now being restored. Large bee nurseries were created, where scientists created all the conditions for breeding new lines.
Steppe Ukrainian bee has a lighter color in comparison with the Central Russian breed. The steppe bee has a grayish monotony with slight yellowness. The mass of the working bee is about 105 mg, the infertile uterus is 180 mg, and the fetal uterus is 200 mg. Fertility of uterus is slightly less than that of the Central Russian breed - 1,500 eggs per day.
The steppe Ukrainian bee is characterized by a calm character. They are not very aggressive if the beekeeper inspects the nests and opens them. Differ in winter hardiness. Steppe bees slowly develop in the spring, do not fly out when it's cold.
Ukrainian steppes are excellent hard workers, characterized by productive insects. They have excellent health, so they are resistant to nosematosis, European foulbrood. In cold weather, bees spend a minimal amount of food. They are transported - they carry the road without difficulties, they are cultivated for roaming and organizing visiting apiaries.
If necessary, tame bees with smoke. They are distinguished by a small swarm. They are valued for good and reliable honeycombs, which, when built, the bees are sealed with white mass.
The advantage of the breed is that they are not prone to theft, due to which they differ from the Central Russian breed. They are also considered good guards of their nests; they do not allow enemies to get there. At the same time, the Ukrainian steppe bee is peaceful.
Beekeepers have very different opinions regarding aggressiveness. Some consider the steppe Ukrainian bee to be evil, others - peaceful. It is possible to comprehend this in comparison. In fact, the insect will not attack for no reason, only if its peace is disturbed. Not to provoke a bee is simple: to be in protective clothing, to be calm, not to fuss.
To maintain the purity of the breed, bee breeding is carried out in nurseries located in the Khmelnitsky and Sumy regions.
The likelihood of swarming is moderate - up to 10% of the bee families turn into a swarming state, moreover, a week later than karniks or Carpathian bees. One family is laying up to 15 queen cells, which are removed. They struggle with swarming by replacing old honeycombs and updating bees every few years.
When gaining knowledge about the Ukrainian steppe breed, in the future it will be very easy to harvest a good crop.
Acacia is a favorite plant of Ukrainian steppe bees. During the flowering period of acacia, the amount of honey collection can be about 60 kilograms; when roaming, up to 10 kg of honey is collected.
Insects like to harvest in the forests. Buckwheat, canola, sainfoin are especially preferred.
Bees carefully spread nectar into the “store”, due to which the uterus does not have any obstacles for laying eggs, and working bees do not interfere with the formation of the fetus.
Ukrainian steppe bee is appreciated for the production of wax in large volumes. For this reason, scientists compare the steppe bee with the Italian breed. In one season, “hard workers” are able to build about 20 frames, strong and strong bee families can boast the best results - up to 25 hundred. The beekeeper needs to establish a wax during the period when insects start working in the garden, after which they move to acacia, herbs, sunflowers, linden.
It is permissible to set a wax for Ukrainian steppe bees in different ways: contrary, in a row, under the bars, when taking a bribe. If the bee finds a place to settle honey, it will not limit the uterine egg laying. The insect is able to rebuild many neat honeycombs, which is why they consider it similar to the Central Russian breed.
Another feature of the Ukrainian steppe bee is the ability to build a wax near the brood and over the nests, but for this it needs a bribe.
A negative point is the tendency of the bee to worm cells after the first pollination. And the strength of families is building closer to summer. Prior to this, the numbers are provided by those bees that survived from the winter. And in the spring, there is little death . Until June, when the weather is cloudy, worker bees remain in the hives. Until mid-summer, the collection is minimal.
The bee will only be able to build strength at the end of the summer. They finish pollination flyby in November. In winter, a club is formed - the standard framework is 3, on the 6-8th framework of Dadan, root = 7-10th framework. By the first flyby (in March) bees spend 10 kg of honey, sometimes sunflower. Ukrainian beekeepers prefer to keep hives in the open.
The duration of the period when the bees do not fly is up to 180 days. Another advantage is that the bee does not react to the thaw, that is, it does not start to worm.
The Ukrainian steppe bee is highly resistant to mortal toxicosis, ascospherosis , European foulbrood. This is explained as follows:
- The breed is considered to be clean, because the insect immediately gets rid of the culprit of the disease. Ukrainian steppe bee does not allow the accumulation of wax and death. This leads to the frequent population of the moth, destroying the honeycomb, after which the insects are infected. In the spring, after the first flyby, the bees carefully clean their nests. In Germany, bees are specially grown that can clean up after themselves, Ukrainian steppes - have a feature at the genetics level.
- Insects are distinguished by moderate polishing of nests, and in winter they are capable of increasing it to 80 grams per family. Bee families are healthy, their propolis contains many useful substances, which helps to get rid of various diseases and pests.
- Bees of the Ukrainian steppe breed are not prone to theft, are able to withstand other insects that try to penetrate their nests. Rarely get infected from other families.
The Ukrainian steppe breed is notable for its cleanliness, disease resistance, but slow development.
Advantages and disadvantages of the "Ukrainian steppe" bee
Most beekeepers want this particular bee breed. This is explained by numerous positive points:
- Good health. Insects do not undergo nosematosis and decay.
- Hassle-free transportation. Even with constant relocation, there are no difficulties. The breed is used for roaming, thereby increasing honey collection.
- Socket protection. Ukrainian steppe bees are considered excellent guards, despite the fact that they do not have an aggressive character. But before the enemies they are ready to defend their hive.
- Weak swarm. Only a minimal number of bees of this breed can undergo this process. With the right approach, the beekeeper will be able to cope with difficulties.
- Easy wintering. Insects tolerate the winter period, and during frost consume little feed.
- Significant honey collection. Under good weather conditions and proper care, the bees manage to collect about 150 kg of honey per season. This is a high indicator that exceeds the results of many breeds.
The disadvantages of the Ukrainian steppe bee include slow spring development, refusal to fly in bad weather, poor switching to new plants.
Where to buy and what price?
You can buy a steppe Ukrainian bee in the country where it appeared - Ukraine. Find the breed in the following areas:
The cost of one steppe Ukrainian bee varies from 80 to 250 hryvnia.
About this breed of bees leave only positive reviews, there is a high productivity and frost resistance of insects.
Sergey Vasiliev, 44 years old, experienced beekeeper.
This is a wonderful bee, because, despite the fact that they are not aggressive, other insects are not allowed to enter their homes. Very good good results on honey collection.
Vladimir Lutsenko, 37 years old, amateur.
I especially like the fact that insects tolerate dry periods. I noticed that the bees spend more time on acacia trees. They show good performance in collecting honey, do not get sick.
Rodion Egoshin, 52 years old, Samara region.
I like the Ukrainian steppe bee, due to the fact that it has the ability to recover within its natural habitat. I believe that these insects should be distributed in the steppe and forest-steppe zone to ensure pollination of crops and high honey collection.
The steppe Ukrainian breed of bees began to be forgotten by humanity. Now beekeepers have made every effort to ensure that this breed is restored to its natural habitat. The breed is famous for its high productivity, good honey collection results, and calm nature.