Carpathian bees are among the most common breeds among many beekeepers, both beginners and professionals. But before you get these bees, you need to carefully study the necessary conditions for their maintenance and care features.
General characteristics of the breed
The Carpathian bee breed still causes controversy among experts regarding its origin. However, they confidently claim that these insects appeared several million years ago. For such a long period of time, the Carpathian breed has adapted well to living conditions in the mountains.
Only in the middle of the last century, scientists learned about these bees and began breeding and improving their qualities. Improved insects have begun to be popular in many countries.
To preserve the breed in some countries create conservation areas for this species, where it is forbidden to import other bees.
A characteristic feature of the appearance of the Carpathian bee, or as the people call it Carpathians, is the absence of pronounced stripes on the body. The insect has a gray tint with an ashen glow.
The color of the body of the uterus can vary from black to cherry (depending on type). Each working bee weighs approximately 110 mg, the uterus weighs 205 mg (fetal) or 180 mg (infertile).
The body structure is correct, the proboscis is about 7 mm long, the tergite is 4.8 mm wide. A long proboscis allows the Carpathian bee to collect nectar in hard-to-reach places and to pollinate legumes.
For 24 hours, the uterus lays an average of about 1,800 eggs, and in breeding apiaries this figure rises to 3,000.
Today, breeders have bred several types of this breed. The most popular are:
- Vuchkovsky. It belongs to the most common types of Carpathian bees in countries such as Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The bees are gray in color, the body of the drones may be brownish, and the queens may be brown or black.
- Kolochanovsky. The features of this type include large wings. In addition, some representatives have small brown spots on the body.
- Hoverla. In appearance, this type is very similar to the above. However, it is characterized by a longer proboscis and high egg production in the uterus.
- Maykop. Bred specifically to improve the adaptation of insects to the conditions of the middle zone and southern Russia. Thanks to selection, this type of bee has a longer proboscis, which helps to increase their productivity in the above regions.
Carpathian breed of bees is characterized by good productivity. For 1 season, insects collect an average of about 40-50 kg of honey, and in the case of favorable conditions and the proper placement of hives, the amount increases to 80 kg.
Carpathians collect pollen from various plants without being attached to one, which is the main reason for good productivity even during adverse conditions. This breed is also highly productive in wax production.
Carpathian belongs to the calm and non-aggressive breeds of bees. When examining their home, the use of smoke is usually not required, because insects work quietly on the frame and practically do not pay attention to humans.
However, despite the non-aggressiveness, the Carpathian is very actively protecting its home from parasites. The only exception is wax moth.
Under the conditions of competent beekeeping, the Carpathian breed has a low tendency to swarm. Carpathians are also independent, so their breeding does not require special equipment or additional work.
This breed is bred not only in Ukraine, but also in Russia, Belarus, mainly in the south of countries, as well as in several regions of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
Recently, the Carpathian breed of bees has also been successfully used in some European countries, mainly in Poland.
Honey Harvest Features
One of the undoubted advantages of the Carpathian bee is the ability to start collecting young individuals at an early age in early spring. Even from poor honey plants, these insects collect a good amount of nectar with different sugar contents.
Bees pollinate plants both in open areas and in pavilions. Carpathian honey has excellent taste and quality, a small amount of sugar.
Bees tolerate transportation well, so hives can be transported to remote areas. Carpathian breed quickly builds a honeycomb, but bees give propolis in small quantities. This is due to the mountain conditions in which these insects appeared.
Most experts note that the Carpathian breed is well suited even for beginner beekeepers, however, for the successful maintenance and breeding of such bees, attention should be paid to some features of their maintenance.
Conditions of detention
After buying a Carpathian bee breed, you should take care of choosing a suitable hive. A multi-hive hive is most suitable for this species, since such a dwelling is as close as possible to the natural habitat of the bees of the above breed.
Specialists recommend making holes for departure in the direction of the southeast or southwest. This technique will help insects navigate in time. The hives themselves should preferably be staggered at a distance of at least 2 m from each other. In this case, the bees easily find their home and do not interfere with other families. You can also put them in rows.
Carpathian bees are kept in various conditions:
- in greenhouses;
Placement of beehives in natural conditions is well suited only for temperate climates, however experienced beekeepers placed bees on the street and in more severe weather conditions.
When choosing a location for installing beehives, it should be noted that honey bees should be at a distance of 2 km. Well suited areas near the forest. Beehives can also be placed in the garden, where there are many fruit trees.
Additionally, you need to take care of the presence of drinking bowls for insects. In the apiary should be placed a few pieces. Bees will choose the most suitable place for them to receive water, and the remaining drinkers can be removed.
For feeding in the spring, sugar syrup with the addition of acetic acid is used. For its preparation, 1 kg of sugar and 3 g of acid are stirred in 1 liter of water. Many beekeepers are also currently using Alimak, which helps insects quickly move away from winter and start work more efficiently. Additionally, various additives containing cobalt are used (for example, Pchelodar).
For a good wintering season, experts recommend top dressing to stimulate the growth of bee bread by winter and accelerate the spring development of bee colonies. Such an event should be held in the fall. For feeding, 33% sugar syrup (200 g) is used, to which 2.5% of pollen is added.
Carpathian bees tolerate winter time well. This factor contributes to the breeding of this breed even in Siberia, because due to its productivity, bees are able to provide themselves with the necessary amount of food for the cold season. For successful wintering, the Carpathians need about 30 kg of flower honey.
However, for the insects to winter well, you should regularly inspect their home and, if necessary, replenish the drying up supply of food.
Additionally maintain a suitable humidity level (65-80%). To do this, it is necessary to remove the bees on time in the winter. The most suitable period is the beginning of stable frosts.
In case of breeding in moderate climatic conditions, some features for wintering should be taken into account. In case of keeping in multihull hives, it is necessary to remove the upper bodies one by one in the autumn. They are placed on top of the bottom of the stand, and bees shake off the frames of the lower case.
First you need to remove the splash screens. The result is a 5 mm hole for bees to fly out, ventilation and another hole in the first building. In the spring, the lower block is placed below.
What do beekeepers advise?
Bee breeding specialists give some useful recommendations for the successful maintenance of Carpathian bees:
First of all, when choosing bee packages, it is necessary to be especially careful with standard sets, since unverified suppliers can sell completely different bees instead of Carpathian ones. And in this case, insects can be unbearable, painful, and also have low productivity.
Signs of a full package are:
- the presence of feed supply (about 3 kg);
- a sufficient number of working bees (about 15,000 individuals);
- uterus of a young age;
- the amount of death should not exceed more than 20 bees.
For beginning beekeepers, experts recommend purchasing packages from well-established suppliers or from acquaintances.
To combat such a pest, you can use natural products that are safe for bee families. Often, the method of repelling is applied using various odors that the mole does not tolerate.
To do this, use mint, garlic, hops, wormwood. These plants can be used both alternately and in compositions. There are various chemical processing methods, such as vinegar or paradichlorobenzene. Well-proven drugs Biosafe and Entobacterin.
Although the Carpathian bee breed is practically not prone to swarming, however, this happens. Therefore, take measures against swarming in time . To do this, you must:
- create good ventilation and reduce exposure to sunlight;
- to separate young and mature bees from the same family and combine them with the main families when nectar occurs;
- use multihull hives.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like every breed, Carpathian bees also have advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of the Carpathian breed include:
- The lack of aggression in insects. This allows you to breed them near the house and easily inspect the condition of their homes.
- High productivity. From Carpathian bees you can get a good amount of honey even in adverse years.
- The ability of an insect to use various tricks to collect.
- Carpathian bees well protect their habitat from pests, which, in turn, significantly reduces the loss of honey and various diseases in insects .
- High breed endurance. They tolerate various climatic conditions with a temperature difference.
- Unlike other species, they begin their activity at a younger age.
- They tolerate transportation well, which allows families to be moved to a more favorable area for work.
- Perfectly cope with the pollination of various legumes.
- Carpathian bees use a dry method for sealing honeycombs.
The following factors are attributed to the disadvantages of the breed:
- Carpathian bees do not manage pollen harvesting well.
- They do not protect their home from wax moths. In the absence of a timely response of the beekeeper, this can lead to significant damage to cells.
- Carpathian has a tendency to theft. Often, the reason is the lack of good prey.
Carpathian breed of bees (video)
In this video, beekeepers show how to populate the Carpathian bee breed from a package into a new hive:
Valery, 45 years old.
I have been holding Carpathian bees for more than 15 years. I always get honey in sufficient quantities, at least 40 liters per season. Problems for all this time practically did not arise, the winter was well maintained. The only difficulty is the wax moth periodically. However, with timely action, there are practically no problems. Beehives stand in the back of the garden, where there are many trees and not far from the garden.
Oleg, 39 years old.
I have kept the Carpathian breed for the third year. I can confidently say that these are quite productive and calm insects. On examination, I do not use smoke. I get a good amount of honey in the spring due to the early departures of the Carpathians. Bees have already been well tolerated for two winters, minimal mortality. The disadvantages can be attributed to a small amount of pollen, but this is more likely related to the characteristics of the breed.
Igor, 35 years old.
I am a beginner beekeeper, on the advice of more experienced specialists, I acquired several packages of the Carpathian breed. Placed beehives in the garden. I can say that such bees are very easy to care for, their nests are clean. They are non-aggressive, which for me as a beginner has become a big plus. The first winter was well transferred, in the early spring they started to work. By cons I can include the detection of a wax moth.
Valentine, 54 years old.
I have been doing beekeeping for a long time. Recently I have been breeding the Carpathian breed. I really like the calm nature of these insects and their ability to produce a good amount of honey even in not very favorable conditions. Bees practically do not swarm, create honeycombs in large quantities and tolerate transportation well if necessary to change the site.
Yuri, 58 years old.
The Carpathian bee breed has been living with me for more than 10 years. I can confidently say that these insects have good productivity, rarely show aggression when inspected, and also tolerate wintering well. Another advantage is that the bees use a little feed for their keeping. Wax moth sometimes starts, but with timely detection, losses are minimal.
The Carpathian bee breed is unpretentious in maintenance, so it is perfect even for beginner beekeepers. It stands out for its non-aggressiveness, high productivity in any conditions and the fact that it tolerates transportation well. But when maintaining the Carpathian breed, hives should be regularly inspected for the presence of a wax moth.