Nutria is a waterfowl rodent with valuable fur and dietary meat. Growing nutria is a profitable business that any beginner can master. In the article you can get acquainted with the popular breeds of nutria, which are suitable for home and industrial cultivation.
Nutrieva breeding nutria divided them conditionally into three groups:
- Standard breeds. These nutria are almost identical to animals living in nature - in color and size.
- Colored rocks . They are divided into two subgroups. The essence of the division is the ability of animals paired with “standards” to produce offspring. Two types of rocks are distinguished:
- Dominant. These include the golden, black and Azerbaijani breed. Crossing a dominant specimen with a standard one, offspring with a unique color are obtained.
- Recessive. This includes mother-of-pearl, Italian, smoky, white and beige nutria. If you cross them with the “standard”, the offspring will be predominantly with a brown shade of fur.
Colored nutria weigh 5-7 kg. Length - 45-60 cm.
- Large breeds. If you feed nutria with especially nutritious feeds, you can get carcasses more than usual. But there are breeds that are themselves gigantic, among them:
- black nutria;
- Azerbaijani whites.
If an ordinary individual weighs 5-7 kg, then representatives of large breeds grow up to 15 kg. Especially large males. The value of these breeds in a large yield of meat and in a large area of the skin.
The fewer skins used when sewing a fur product, the higher it is valued. Therefore, the fur of large breeds is considered particularly valuable.
In appearance - an ordinary water rat living in the wild. She has the same brown skin as wild counterparts. Standard breeds are the easiest to breed, they are unpretentious in nutrition and undemanding to the conditions of detention.
Description. The color of the fur varies from light brown to dark brown, almost black shades. Signs of the breed:
- dark brown eyes;
- wool on the belly is always lighter;
- the hairs are lighter at the ends.
Productivity and properties of fur. 6 rodents from one litter are born. The maximum weight of an adult is 7 kg. Minimum - 5 kg. Individual instances are capable of reaching 12 kg. Length - from 45 to 60 cm. Fur, thanks to the strong and long core hairs, which are tightly adjacent to each other, does not get wet.
If you get caught in the rain in a fur coat from nutria, it will not get wet - all the water drains from the hairs without falling onto the fluffy undercoat. Therefore, nutria fur is so appreciated in rainy regions.
Features of the breed. They are distinguished by strong immunity. Easy to care for and undemanding in feeding. The disadvantage is that fur is prone to stall. They are distinguished by good reproductive abilities, maternal instinct is developed. Love the aquatic environment. When kept in enclosures, it is important to provide them with access to water - artificial ponds are organized.
The standard nutria menu consists of:
- shoots of trees - poplar, willow, birch;
- beets, carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage;
- hay and dried brooms with leaves.
So that the animals do not have bloating, the food must be washed before feeding. For better absorption, the grain is steamed.
This variety was bred in the homeland of nutria breeding - in Argentina.
Description. Pure black color, uniform. Behind the ears there are zoned colored tufts of hair. The length of the individuals is 65 cm. The color of the eyes is brown or black.
Productivity and properties of fur. When crossing black females and males receive black offspring. But occasionally cubs of a standard, brown color appear. Fertility of females - 5 cubs. The weight of individuals is 6-8 kg. Fur of black nutria looks extremely luxurious. Hair is pigmented with the same intensity along the entire length. The underfur is dark gray.
Black nutra fur coats are a fashion “squeak"; they enjoy stunning popularity in the market.
Features of the breed. If you pair "chernushki" with the "standard", then the output is 50% black and 50% standard cubs. Dignity is a good brood, as well as ordinary nutria.
More pluses of black breed:
- thick coat;
- the woolen cover practically does not fall off;
- unpretentious in nutrition;
White Italian nutria is often confused with Azerbaijani white. But they are easy to distinguish by the creamy shade of the white underfill. In the USSR, this breed was brought from Italy in 1958. When they started to breed, they called it differently - “albina”, “ivory”, “melting snow”. Later the name was fixed - "white Italian".
Description. The color is white, the underfill is cream. The skin is pink. Eyes are the color of dark chocolate. Vibrissas - tactile hairs on the head, white.
Productivity and properties of fur. Fertility is similar to the standard breed - 5 puppies. When crossing white nutria, all cubs are white. If you cross standard nutria with white, silver cubs are born. They are distinguished by delicious meat - it is tender and nutritious. Fur is valued significantly higher than other breeds.
Features of the breed. Unlike many artificially bred breeds, white nutria are just as fertile as standard ones. They look very presentable.
In the USSR, breeders received nutria in the 30s. last century, immediately began to breed animals with white fur. But all the animals they received were albinos that could not have viable offspring. Re-selection began in the mid-20th century. Then it was possible to remove nutria with white spots on the head. But the real white nutria was bred in Azerbaijan - in 1956. This breed had everything white - and the rest of the hair and underfur.
Description. White animals have a dense physique. They have a thick neck, which smoothly passes into the body. Near the eyes, mouth and ears there is a border that is slightly darker than the main color. The webbed feet are pinkish. Eyes are the colors of coffee.
Productivity and properties of fur. Normal weight - 5-7 kg. Fertility is average - from 4 to 5 cubs in a litter. If two Azerbaijani nutria are mated, then in the litter there may be animals of white and standard color, but there are still more white ones. The breed has a very high taste characteristics of meat - it is also nutritious as rabbit meat, but tastier than it.
Features of the breed. Dominant genes convey the natural color. The advantage of this breed is the same structure of fluff and integumentary hair. Due to this, hair and underfill are indistinguishable from each other, and the fur of Azerbaijani nutria is valued especially highly.
The quality of the fur depends on the nutrition and conditions of detention. The animals need an artificial pond in which succulent grass grows. The quality of the fur will be poor, both with malnutrition and with overeating.
The breed is obtained by crossing Italian and beige nutria.
Description. It is characterized by an unusual color of fur. Color varies from light to dark silver shades. It has a dense and dark undercoat, and the hairline is dark gray or almost black, silver at the ends. The fur looks glossy. A distinctive feature of the breed is a silver strip running along the ridge. Eyes are red.
Productivity and properties of fur. With good nutrition, males can reach 12 kg. The average weight is 6-8 kg. The length of the body is 48-62 cm. Very luxurious fur - goes for tailoring fur coats, jackets, hats. Fur, with a bluish downy, is especially appreciated. Slaughter yield for meat - 53%. It has a pleasant taste and juiciness.
Features of the breed. The breed has a powerful constitution, but they are grown mainly not for meat, but for skins. Silvery nutria can be mated with other breeds, producing offspring of 50% silver, 50% of a different shade.
This breed has very beautiful fur that attracts both breeders and consumers. The breed was bred by pairing gold and silver nutria.
Description. The color is snow-white, and the legs, tail and nose are pink. On the lips and cheeks - vibrissae - hard long hairs of white color. Eyes are light brown. The body is squat, slightly elongated. The head is large, the eyes are located on the top of the head - to make it comfortable to watch while swimming. Auricles outside with almost no hair, and inside - overgrown with hair.
Productivity and properties of fur. With good fattening, adults reach 10 kg. The length of females is 50-60 cm, males 70-80 cm. When crossing with other breeds, in the litter - up to 6 cubs. The average fecundity is 4-5 cubs. The fur is luxurious, in demand among lovers of fur coats. Manto, jackets and hats are also sewn from it. The quality is not inferior to the classic mink. The hairs are pure white, without the slightest pigmentation. The meat is delicious, not inferior to rabbit meat and chicken.
Features of the breed. To get a good offspring, snow-white nutria are mated with other breeds. When mating two snow-white individuals, the litter is very small. It is better to mate with snow-white nacreous or beige nutria. The breed has three varieties, but they are so similar that only a nutrider can distinguish them.
In the USSR, golden nutria was brought from abroad in the 60s. last century.
Description. In weight and size they comply with the “standard”. Coloring - intense golden. The abdomen is slightly lighter than other parts of the body. The undercoat on the back and abdomen has a pinkish tint, which gives the skins a special cream color. The hair shaft has a pronounced noble shine. Eyes are brownish. The length of the animal is up to 60 cm.
Productivity and properties of fur. Weight - 6-8 kg. Mating two golden individuals does not give a big profit - only 3-4 puppies. The underfill is pleasant to the touch, silky. The fur is in demand.
Features of the breed. In order for the fur to shine, animals must be fully fed and kept in good conditions. To increase fertility, golden nutria are mated with other breeds. Then 50% of the offspring are golden. The number of puppies in the litter is 5.
Mother of Pearl
This breed was obtained by crossing white Italian and beige nutria.
Description. The fur is colored non-uniformly. Silver-gray skin with a cream tint. The remaining hairs have different shades on different parts of the body - beige, pink, bluish. A similar coloration is also called zonal.
Productivity and properties of fur. Standard weight - 5-7 kg. Length - up to 60 cm. If gray outer hair predominates in the pearl nutria, this is considered a defect. The fur of mother-of-pearl nutria is highly valued; it is used to create rich fur coats that are no worse than mink in aesthetics. The fur is worn extremely long. The meat is tasty, dietary.
Features of the breed. The color of puppies of pearly nutria can be anything - it is impossible to predict. For the fur to become beautiful, the animals need excellent nutrition and care. Mandatory mini pool, in which the animals would clean their skins. Improper content leads to the irretrievable loss of the splendor of pearl skins.
Pastel nutria are derived by direct crossing of golden and black nutria. The same color is obtained by crossing straw and pearl rocks.
Description. The color is brown. The hue may be lighter or darker. There are individuals that have ripe chestnut-colored skins. Down - brownish or lighter. Eyes - a pleasant brown color.
Productivity and properties of fur. The weight of individuals is 5-6 kg. There are 4 puppies in the litter. The fur of pastel nutria is extremely beautiful. Fur items are sewn from it - fur coats, hats, etc. The color of the fur is similar to pastel mink.
Features of the breed. Pastel nutria is bred mainly because of the beautiful fur, meat - in second place. They are also used for breeding other breeds. Pastel nutria reproduce progeny well. When crossing pastel nutria with lemon or snow, get animals with a pearl color. For fertility and a good appearance of fur, animals must be fully fed and have good living conditions.
The breed is obtained by crossing beige and Italian nutria.
Description. Although the breed is called lemon, the skin color is rather warm orange. The color is almost the same as that of the golden nutria, but somewhat lighter.
Productivity and properties of fur. Fur of lemon nutria is in special demand - if the color is clean and the quality of the skin is high. Weight - 5-7 kg.
Features of the breed. Females are fertile, in the litter - 5-6 puppies. Cubs may have a different color, but all have lemon notes. If you mate lemon and snow-white nutria, you get animals of lemon, white and silver color.
In order for the fur to meet quality standards, the animals need to be fully fed. The optimum temperature of the content is 15-20 ° C. Nutria does not tolerate cold weather - these are extremely thermophilic animals. The houses should be kept clean. A clean pool is required for free access. The basis of the diet is plant food, nutria also needs fruits and vegetables. Necessarily - feed with vitamins and mineral supplements.
This is one of the most popular breeds among breeders. She is bred in an amateur and industrial way. In the USSR, the breed was brought from Italy in 1958, along with silver and pink nutria.
Description. Beige nutria is painted in brownish tones with a grayish and beige bloom. Color saturation may vary. Light, medium and dark colors are distinguished. Color ranges from beige gray to dark with silver. The underfur range is from light beige to dark chestnut. The animals' eyes are dark brown.
Productivity and properties of fur. The fur has a noble appearance, suitable for sewing rich fur coats, hats, etc. The fur is distinguished by increased wear, it is not brandy and is pleasant to the touch, beautiful in appearance. Fertility is usual - 5-6 puppies. The weight of individuals is the same as that of standard breeds - from 5 kg. Meat of excellent taste and high nutritional value.
Features of the breed. Actively breed, very prolific. There are 2-3 litters of 5 puppies per year. Cubs are viable, gaining weight quickly. The case is small. Beige nutria is a recessive type of multi-colored rocks, therefore, when crossed, they are inferior to dominants. So, when mating a beige male with a standard female, silver offspring are obtained.
These animals were allocated in a separate group, due to the unique color.
Description. The color of the fur is heterogeneous. Back - beige or brown. The belly is lighter - pale beige. The skin of the nose is brown, the legs are bluish pink.
Productivity and properties of fur. They appreciate the fur of six-month-old animals. If the fur ages, it is covered with a yellow or brownish coating, and is of no value. There are 4-5 puppies in the litter.
Features of the breed. The skins acquire the most beautiful color at 4-5 months of the life of the animal. Then the fur darkens or becomes yellowish. To get cream cubs, you need to cross cream individuals with each other. If you cross a beige animal with a “standard”, the offspring will be brown.
In appearance, representatives of smoky rocks are similar to ordinary, standard nutria, but they do not have a brown shade.
Description. Color - smoky gray. The underfur is a uniform gray color. Eyes are gray.
Productivity and properties of fur. The female brings up to 5 puppies in the litter. The weight of an adult is 5-7 kg. Keep them on the fur, meat.
Features of the breed. Unpretentious and undemanding to the content. Perfectly breed. When crossing with the "standard", smoky hair does not work.
Brown Exotic Nutria
Brown exotic breed was bred during the times of the USSR, in the Krasnodar Territory. Breeders crossed golden and black nutria.
Description. The color of the fur is rich brown, gradually turning into a lighter shade on the abdomen. The cushions are taupe. The muzzle, paws and tail are darker than the rest of the body.
Productivity and properties of fur. The fur, shimmering in the sun, has a luxurious look. Near the skin, as if a shining halo soars - the fur looks rich and solid. The fur of brown exotic nutria is worn for 12-15 years. The weight of the animals is 6-7 kg. The meat is nutritious, tasty and relatively inexpensive.
Features of the breed. Cubs are born with dark fur, and as they grow older, the intensity of the tone decreases - the fur brightens. The breed is prolific, cubs are born viable and grow quickly. The fur brightens as you molt. When a brown exotic nutria is crossed with each other or with a standard breed, the offspring is black, golden, brown exotic or standard color.
This breed is obtained by crossing lemon and snow nutria with pastel. This is a very rare and valuable breed.
Description. Upper hairs - light grayish, somewhat even ashen. The underfur range is from rich silver-cream shades on the back to sand on the belly.
Productivity and properties of fur. Weight as standard breeds - up to 7 kg. 5-6 young animals are born. The fur is very valuable and beautiful.
Features of the breed. Puppies - with a darker color, and acquire a pearl suit by the age of six months. Fertility decreases with inbreeding. To obtain a pearl suit, it is recommended that females be crossed with pastel or standard males. Very demanding on the content. They need a spacious pool, a place for walking and a comfortable home.
When choosing a breed of nutria for breeding, it is important to consider your abilities - can you create optimal living comfort for these waterfowl rodents. Poor conditions will immediately affect the quality of the fur of any breed.