If you think that slaughter ends with difficulties and chores around the house, then you are mistaken . Proper carcass cutting (scheme) and preparation of the product for storage are no less important stages of meat production. And for sale, and for their own use, meat must be able to cut. In addition to ease of storage, this will allow you to sell different parts of the carcass at a different, appropriate price (it is no secret that the taste, fat content, the presence of a greasy layer, the softness of the meat differs in different parts of the carcass). In this article we will look at how to cut a pig, and also consider all the necessary sanitary standards.
Scheme of the correct carcass cutting: cutting, name of the pork part
The whole process of high-quality cutting , can be divided into two main stages: bleeding and cutting itself. Removing blood from a carcass that has just been killed helps to improve the quality of the meat, as well as improve its presentation (for this reason, this procedure is an important preparatory procedure). The easiest way to remove blood is by cutting the throat of a live pig, laying it on the side before it and not making a preliminary blow to the heart. It is better to hang the carcass by the hind limbs, and install a bloodstream under it to collect the draining liquid. If the animal is killed by a blow to the chest, then it will not work to remove all the blood, small clots will remain in the area of the ribs. To avoid this, many farmers wash their gutted carcasses with cold water.
About what to feed piglets for rapid growth can be found here .
While blood is draining from the carcass, it is important to perform another procedure - to remove the upper layers of the skin along with stiff bristles. For this, most often the pig is scorched by a burner.
Before you start cutting, prepare a room where the whole process will take place. It is equally important to take care of the tool, the convenience of work and the quality of the resulting product depend on its quality. The skin of adult boars is dense, there is a thick fat layer, and the bones (especially the vertebrae) are solid, and therefore the knife should be strong and well-ground, with a convenient handle, suitable for both cutting and chopping.
There are many cutting techniques; the choice depends on the butcher. We will consider the traditional and most popular option:
- Separate your head from your torso by chopping your neck. After that, let the carcass hang a little, this will help get rid of the remaining blood.
- Open the abdominal cavity. To do this, make an incision at the thoracic white line and smoothly extend it down. It is important to hold the skin and internal organs of the animal with the fingers of your free hand in front of the blade.
- Remove the entire “abdominal apron” - the entire abdominal region, consisting of muscle and fat.
- Continue the longitudinal cut by drawing it through the area where the ribs connect.
- Slowly remove the internal organs. The digestive tract, the contents of which can completely spoil the meat, requires special attention. Tie the esophagus tightly, and then cut above the ligation. After this, the lungs, stomach, liver and others should be removed.
- Remove internal fat from the abdominal cavity. Carefully remove the kidneys and bladder (in no case damage it with a knife, the meat will be spoiled).
- At the same time, you should do the heart and intestines. The heart must be incised to drain excess blood. Guts just need to be thoroughly washed with cold water.
- The inner cavity of the body must be cleaned. Rinsing is permissible only if the product is subject to an early sale. If the meat has to be stored, then the inner surface of the carcass is enough to wipe with a dry rag (so the presentation of the meat will last much longer).
- The next step will be half-carcass cutting. A longitudinal section is made along the spine. It’s most convenient to use a hacksaw for this, and particularly stubborn bones can be cut with an ax.
- The final stage is the final cutting into finished parts. Before this, half of the body should cool down, otherwise making cuts will be problematic.
Hams of pigs are considered one of the most expensive parts, belongs to the first grade. The meat from this area has a proportional body fat, is soft and juicy. In cooking, hams are highly valued for a wide range of applications: such meat is excellently baked, suitable for drying, barbecue and other cooking methods. Hams are front and rear. The hip part of the carcass belongs to the back ham. The front shoulder blade and the shoulder part.
The boneless shoulder is used for baking and frying. Goulash, sausages and sausage are also prepared on the basis of this meat.
So the butchers call the upper back, from the cervical cut to the shoulder blade. This area also belongs to the first grade. The shoulder-neck cut consists of three types of meat:
- the cervical region, characterized by softness and fat content, is highly valued in cooking and is suitable for the preparation of any pork dishes;
- scapula meat, stiffer and requiring more thorough preparation, is most often used for making sausages, ham;
- stiff muscles from the scapula suitable for stewing or smoking (requiring long cooking).
The knob is called the lower leg of the hind and forelimbs of a pig. This is a dense harsh meat, not too fat. It takes a long time to cook, so that everything boils well. Sometimes the shank goes for smoking or for cooking meat rolls. At your discretion, you can remove the bone from the drumstick or leave it. A bone is left, as a rule, if the knuckle goes on cooking jellied meat or jellies.
Tenderloin and carbonate
Tenderloin is most often served in smoked or dried form.
Carbonate is a part of the pig’s spinal muscles located in the lumbar spine. Immediately below it, supporting it, is a notch. Carbonate is somewhat hard and slightly dry. But the tenderloin is the most delicious part of the pig, it’s tender soft meat, from which chops, escalopes, steaks are perfectly obtained. Cutting does not require special cooking technology, but carbonate is recommended to be pre-stewed in a double boiler (this way it will become much softer and juicier without losing taste).
Abdominal pig cut
The abdominal part of the carcass is divided into several pieces that make it up. The fattest and largest of them is the brisket, part of the peritoneum located in the lumbar region. Thanks to its fat content, it is excellent for frying and smoking. The flank is another part of the abdominal cut, the thinnest of all, reaching the hip part of the carcass (to the ham). Underlining - the lower region of the peritoneum, which is a small layer of fat with frequent meat veins. All parts of the abdominal cut are very fat and high in calories, which is inadmissible for milking people who have contraindications to such food. Meat and greasy breeds include Livenskaya , and large white .
How to choose a greasy breed of pigs will tell this material .
Since the muscles in this area practically do not work in pigs, this is the most tender meat of the whole carcass.
Another expensive pork variety highly regarded by culinary experts. A loin is called the upper back, which also includes the ribs and the thoracic spine. Especially popular is the loin, as well as entrecote, among European restaurants, whose chefs have found hundreds of ways to cook it. The meat from this part of the body still remains quite fat, but surpasses any other in juiciness.
The rump, or according to other sources, the rump is the lower part of the pig’s back muscles. Unlike other cuts, Kostets has little fat, almost completely represents a piece of “dry” meat. It is well suited for cooking, baking, it is used for making barbecue (it is better to marinate without vinegar, meat is already soft). Not too popular among culinary experts, and therefore it is found in stores much less frequently than other types.
Most often, jelly is cooked from the head.
Someone simply throws out this part of the carcass, someone feeds the dogs. However, the head, or rather its various parts, are used for the preparation of dishes. Pork ears are marinated and grilled or breaded. Pork tongue is a gourmet dish, completely non-greasy and rich in complex proteins. For maximum profit from livestock, it should be non-waste, so do not forget that the head is also an excellent product.
Learn all about the pig weight chart from this article .
Sanitary standards, examination of san.vet
Compliance with sanitary standards will not only save health, but also relieve problems with the law. In the territory of the Russian Federation, it is forbidden to sell meat of animals subjected to slaughter not at a specialized meat processing plant or equipped farm. Livestock and pigs must be subjected to a complete veterinary examination to ensure the product is safe (for legal sale, a certificate from the state surveillance services is required). The best meat breeds are recognized Duroc , Landras and Pietren . The place of slaughter should also meet the requirements: be clean, well-lit, cool, separate from the stalls with the rest of the livestock. The person performing the slaughter and butchering should be dressed in a sanitary suit (its mandatory elements are gloves, a mask, a hat). Chopped meat must be cooled. Before entering the market, it is necessary to obtain permission and all necessary documents of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.
But about slaughtering pigs at home, you can find out here .
This video demonstrates how to carve a pork carcass.
- Butchering pork carcasses consists of two stages: preparation (bleeding, necessary treatment of the skin) and the butchering itself.
- There are many different techniques for cutting pork carcasses, but the basic principle is similar and comes down to the gradual evisceration of the carcass and its division into two halves in structure.
- Cutting half-carcasses into culinary parts will help to conveniently store meat (freeze) and sell each grade of pork at the corresponding price.
- Compliance with the description of sanitary standards (dignity. Vet. Examination) when cutting, chopping (as with breeding or keeping) pigs is required not only for hygienic reasons, but also due to legislation.
Also read about slaughtering Vietnamese pigs at this link .