Chinese geese are one of the most prolific and unpretentious breeds. These small, strong and hardy geese, leaning on green food, are prolific, they are distinguished by quality meat, tasty and tender. We learn how to breed and maintain Chinese breed, how to breed and feed goslings?
History of occurrence
The ancestors of the Chinese geese are waterfowls from the family of ducks, referred to as drylands. The latter were domesticated in Manchuria. From China, these birds were brought to Europe and Russia.
In order to borrow the best qualities of the “Chinese,” our breeders actively used them to create new breeds. With the participation of Chinese geese, the famous Kholmogorsky breed, Pereyaslavl, Kuban, Gorkovskaya were bred.
Description of the Chinese breed
Chinese geese are stately and slender. Characteristic features of the breed:
- The average size of the body, slightly elongated in length. The front part is slightly raised.
- The neck is long, strongly bending - similar to the neck of a swan.
- The head is elongated. There is a bump on the forehead - this characteristic feature makes it easy to distinguish the breed.
- The chest is round, smoothly transforms into a powerful stomach.
- The beak is small. Color - bright orange or dark brown, sometimes almost black.
- The tail is short.
- Paws are strong, set apart.
- The plumage is thick and dense.
Some birds may have a small leather pouch above their beaks. The voice is sonorous, high.
Defects in the breed are rare. Possible birth defects:
- neck is too thick;
- underdeveloped bump;
- sagging abdominal folds.
According to the color of Chinese geese, they are divided into two subspecies - gray and white, Body standards for white and gray Chinese geese are the same, body, legs, beak, neck and other parts of the body correspond to the above signs.
White Chinese Geese
The white subspecies of Chinese geese appeared as a result of the domestication of a lumpy Chinese goose. White "Chinese" were bred for a long time back in Soviet times, they are popular now. The description of the white subspecies coincides with the common exterior features of the Chinese geese. The only distinguishing feature is the white plumage. The color of the beak, paws, frontal cone and metatarsus is bright orange.
White subspecies attract farmers with good reproduction rates - 70-80%, and goslings with high viability - up to 99%. The lack of white "Chinese" is considered aggressive behavior that is observed in these geese in certain periods.
Gray chinese geese
The gray subspecies have the same ancestors as the white. Gray “Chinese” have been actively bred in Russia since the 18th century, and are actively bred with other breeds in order to improve their meat characteristics.
The difference between the gray subspecies, as well as white, is only in the color of the plumage:
- The birds as a whole are grayish brown.
- At the edges of the wings, humeral part and lower legs there is a white strip.
- Thoracic coloration is pale brown.
- On the upper part of the neck - from head to shoulders, there is a dark strip.
- Beak and frontal bump are black.
Chinese geese are popular with farmers and small private farms due to their excellent characteristics. This breed is tenacious, unpretentious, productive and reproduces well.
Climate and distribution
Chinese geese come from the northeastern regions of China. They are undemanding to the conditions of detention, but can not always adapt to a strong cold. The breed is ubiquitous, but it is most comfortable in the regions where there are no extreme conditions - severe frosts and abnormal heat.
They feel great in temperate climates. The main thing is to provide them with a warm house for the period of severe frosts.
The breed is not large, it is grown for eggs and meat. Goslings quickly gain weight, at 9 weeks they weigh 3 kg. Goose laying , starting in December, lasts six months. Key performance indicators in table 1.
|Goose weight, kg||4-4.5|
|Gander weight, kg||5-6|
|The maximum number of eggs per year, pieces||120|
|Number of eggs per egg laying in white / gray geese, pieces||65-70 / 45-60|
|Weight 2.5 months, kg||3-3.5|
Maturity in males and females occurs at 9-10 months of life.
In geese, the maternal instinct and incubation instinct are poorly developed. Adult birds - geese and gander, often without recognizing the brood, do not protect it from predators and dangers. The farmer has to take care of the safety of the goslings himself.
All geese are mobile and energetic, and Chinese can behave aggressively. That is why the "Chinese" are kept separate from other birds and breeds of geese. Particularly aggressive birds during egg laying. Chinese geese are loud, often demonstrate their voice capabilities.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the Chinese breed:
- high egg production;
- rapid growth of young animals;
- undemanding to care and nutrition;
- good taste of meat;
- high-quality fluff;
- excellent incubation characteristics of eggs;
- high survival of chicks;
- disease resistance.
- inferior to other species by carcass weight;
- problems of survival in harsh climates;
- poorly developed parental instinct in males and females - few geese are able to hatch eggs.
Undemanding to the conditions of detention is one of the key advantages of the breed. Caring for Chinese geese comes down to standard activities that even a beginner poultry breeder can handle. The main thing is to provide the birds with a good poultry house, a spacious range and good nutrition.
Chinese geese definitely need a house. Without an insulated room they can not survive the winter. If there is severe frost in the yard, then it is not recommended to remove the birds at all - paws can frostbite. The geese keep the whole cold season in the house, and in good weather let go for a walk in the fresh air.
- The room is warm and dry, without drafts, but with effective ventilation, preferably with supply and exhaust.
- Building height - from 2 m.
- The area is calculated on the basis of the number of birds and the maintenance rate of 2 square meters. m per goose.
- Lighting is natural and artificial. The minimum daylight hours are 14 hours.
- The optimum humidity in the room is 70%.
- On the barn floor there is a bed of hay, straw or sawdust. It is periodically updated.
- Nests are equipped in the house, at the rate of 2-3 geese per nest.
Geese gain good weight and eat with appetite at + 16 ° C. To monitor the temperature in the house, it is recommended to hang a thermometer in it.
Drinking bowls, feeders and other equipment
Birds should have round-the-clock access to water and food. Drinking bowls and feeders are regularly cleaned and washed, removing residual feed and debris entering them.
Two feeders are installed in the house and on the paddock. Feed is put in one, river sand, shell rock, and gravel in the other. They make feeders from boards, plywood, and other materials. Installation height - 20 cm from the floor surface.
Above the main feeders - 10 cm higher, hang feeders with additional food for gander.
Drinking bowls should be comfortable, they are made with their own hands or they are bought ready-made. There are special drinkers for poultry in which trash does not fall. Each individual should have 15 cm drinkers. In winter, drinking bowls are heated - so that the water does not freeze.
Geese need good walking for good growth and development. In a fenced area, a bird grazes, picks grass, just walks in the fresh air. Here, as in the house, drinkers and feeders are placed. The passage through which the birds will go out is made from the south or southeast side.
Walking is fenced with a grid 1.3 m high. Mount the canopy so that the geese are not wet during the rains and do not suffer from the scorching sun. On walking, Chinese geese can graze until the frost. The longer the geese graze, the more fat the birds will build up by winter, and the more feed will be saved.
If there is a pond nearby, geese will be able to look for food there. In addition, swimming positively affects the growth and health status of waterfowl, which include geese.
The nutrition of geese is slightly different from the diet of other poultry. Geese have the ability to gain mass without eating grain feed - it is usually used as a supplement to greenery.
The main ingredient in the diet of Chinese geese is greens. If the bird regularly grazes on a paddock, feeds in a pond, then they grow strong and healthy. But in winter, the bird will need additional nutrition.
What is the feeding of Chinese geese:
- In winter, the following are introduced into the diet of geese:
- Mishmash - they are steamed from potatoes, carrots, beets;
- whole grains - wheat, barley, oats;
- mineral and vitamin components - they are mixed into the feed;
- fish and bone meal ;
- salt and chalk .
- Chinese geese must be given root crops, garden tops, grain mixtures with bone meal, vitamin and mineral supplements.
- In summer, geese eat plant foods, they like plantain, clover, yarrow, dandelion and other plants. In a pond, they are happy to eat cattail and reeds.
- Geese should get plenty of water. The bird can drink up to 2 liters per day. Water deficiency leads to a critical drop in egg production, which is difficult to recover.
In the autumn-winter period and during the end of laying, the geese are given grain. If the bird is losing weight, grain norms are increased, and meal, cake, soy or sunflower are added to wheat, corn and barley.
In summer, the bird grazes on a paddock, eating food as needed. In winter, geese are fed 2 times a day - at one time. Feeding rates for adult Chinese geese are shown in table 2.
|a piece of chalk||5|
Recommended feeding regimen with two meals a day:
- in the morning - a mishmash;
- at night - cereals.
When breeding the "Chinese", the breed is crossed with more weighty geese - in order to get more meat. For breeding, usually used large meat breeds - Kholmogorsky or Toulouse. As a result of selection, geese with a large yield of meat and a moderate amount of fat are obtained.
Crosses and crossbreeds obtained by crossing Chinese geese with meat breeds are in high demand among farmers. They are bred on a domestic and industrial scale.
The Chinese geese of both subspecies are extremely prolific, but do not seek to incubate. Because of this, goslings are often hatched in an incubator. About 80% of the eggs laid in the incubator produce viable offspring.
A goose ready for masonry behaves uneasily. Features of natural hatching:
- Females perch on their eggs from February to May, usually somewhere in early April.
- One goose hatches up to 13 eggs, it is more difficult for it to heat.
- The nest is equipped away from the herd, it should be dry and quiet, temperature - 15 ° C.
- If there are several hens at once, they are separated from each other by partitions.
- The hens are fed with the best grain.
- The duration of hatching is 28-30 days.
After the specified period, the eggs are placed in a box and highlighted with a lamp. When the chicks begin to hatch, they are returned to the goose. The best option is to leave the goslings with the goose. If this does not work, the chicks are placed in a separate enclosure, warm and dry.
If one of the eggs breaks during incubation, it is removed from the nest, and the remaining eggs are wiped.
It happens that a goose, having left the nest, does not return for more than 20 minutes, in this case it is forced to return - probably its instinct for incubation is poorly developed.
Through the incubator
With insufficient maternal instinct, when geese refuse to incubate eggs, we have to use an artificial method of hatching.
For artificial breeding goslings you will need:
- brooder is a device for heating chicks;
- ovoscope - a device for transillumination of eggs.
A good hatching result for the incubator is 70%, but it can also be higher.
Stages of incubation:
- Eggs are taken. The maximum “age” of eggs is 10 days. They choose even, healthy-looking, the form should be perfect. They are not washed, only sprayed with potassium permanganate - to kill germs.
- 4 hours before laying eggs, the incubator is heated to 39 ° C. Humidity is maintained at 60-65%.
- The eggs are laid in an incubator and the temperature is set at 38 ° C for 4-5 hours. Then it is reduced to 37.8 ° C, and 2 days before the eggs are removed from the incubator, the temperature is reduced to 37.5 ° C.
- If there is no automatic turning in the incubator, the eggs are turned manually up to 8 times a day - so that there is uniform heating.
- 15 days after the start of the process, the incubator is periodically ventilated. Airing time - 10 minutes.
- On day 11 and 27, the eggs are inspected; if there is no embryo spot, they are discarded. If during the 2nd inspection a continuous dark clot is visible, the embryo is dead.
From the first days of life, goslings need proper care - at this time their immunity is formed and further development depends.
In the enclosure, where they contain goslings, they maintain heat, dryness and cleanliness. Conditions of detention:
- Temperature. In the room where the brood is located, the temperature is maintained at 28-30 ° C. If the goslings are uncomfortable, they lose activity:
- overheating, the chicks open their beaks and often drink;
- freezing, goslings get stuck in a heap, and practically do not eat.
- Humidity. Should not exceed 75%. With excessive dampness, the incidence of livestock increases. The situation is aggravated by a rare litter replacement and poor ventilation.
- Ventilation. It is necessary from the first days of life of goslings. In the warm season, round-the-clock ventilation is desirable.
- Litter. Thickness - 3-5 cm. Update - every other day.
- Lighting. The first 7 days, the home of the chicks should be lit around the clock - the development, health and speed of weight gain of goslings depends on the length of daylight hours. But the separation of day and night should still be - at night the light is muffled. After a week, daylight hours are reduced to 16-17 hours. Do this gradually, every day reducing the "day" by 30-40 minutes.
From the moment of hatching to the full plumage of goslings - 75-80 days.
Goslings need a balanced diet - then the birds will grow large and healthy. At each moment of time - your diet:
- The first 5-7 days give yolks of boiled eggs. They add greens - finely chopped onion feathers. The first 2 days of goslings are fed 7-8 times a day.
- Different herbs are gradually introduced into the diet - in addition to onions, goslings are fed with clover and alfalfa. You can’t give a lot of greens right away.
- After 10 days give feed compound or mash. The first mixers are made from eggs, crushed corn, wheat and barley groats, a little semolina is added - for friability. Tricalcium phosphate is added to the mash - it prevents "falling to the feet."
- After 5 days, instead of eggs, cottage cheese, crushed boiled potatoes, sunflower meal and greens are introduced into the mixes.
Vitamins “Tetravit” and “Chiktonik” are introduced into goslings nutrition. They are added to the water. In the access zone they put feeders with fine gravel or crushed shell. Sand is not given to young animals.
20 minutes after feeding, the remains of the mash are removed - so that perishable components do not begin to decompose and lead to poisoning of the chicks.
Disease and Prevention
Chinese geese are resistant to disease and rarely get sick, especially if you do not violate the conditions of detention. Key Disease Prevention Measures:
- keeping the house clean
- routine vaccination;
- compliance with the area.
Before colonizing the young in the house, they must be disinfected. They also process the house:
- the walls are whitewashed;
- litter is changed;
- goslings are given a weak solution of potassium permanganate and glucose (on the second day of life) - to strengthen immunity;
- for the prevention of salmonellosis give the drug "Tilan".
Geese suffer from infectious diseases - viral enteritis, salmonellosis, and non-infectious. The former are associated with a violation of sanitary standards, the latter are usually provoked by a violation of the rules of keeping and feeding.
Nurseries and prices for geese
Prices for white and gray Chinese geese are from 1,100 and 1,500 rubles, respectively. It is possible to buy breeding geese, young growth and hatching eggs both at private traders, and in nurseries, poultry farms.
So, Chinese geese are offered by the Ecofazenda Moscow farm. And hatching eggs can be bought on the website UPFERM.RU (Moscow, Ivan Franko St., 46, p. 3) or by calling +7 (965) 196-29-39.
Chinese breed reviews
Anatoly N., 56 years old, amateur poultry farmer, Murom.
I’ve been doing geese for a long time, mainly I bred Kholmogorsky and Linda. Chinese geese are clearly inferior to them in weight; there is no such way of meat. But they are ideal for the sale of young animals - they are very prolific. Another plus is tender and lean meat.
Roman G., 47 years old, amateur poultry breeder, Kovrov.
I have been keeping the "Chinese" for eight years. Safely crossed them with a large gray breed. Hatchability is 95%. The weight of geese is from 6 to 10 kg. Over time, he switched to some Chinese ones. Gander is very active, even when the ratio with geese is 1: 7. From one gander and 7 females last spring there were 78 offspring of goslings. About the fact that the gander is evil - the truth.
The main advantages of Chinese geese are the simplicity of care and maintenance. Goslings grow by leaps and bounds and do not require expensive feed. The bird, having a small body weight, compensates for minus excellent egg production and excellent meat taste.