All the largest horses were obtained by breeding heavy trucks - today there are more than a hundred of their breeds. All heavy trucks are distinguished by a powerful body, large growth and weight. The differences between the breeds are insignificant and are mainly in the nuances of appearance.
Ardenes - the oldest breed of horses. Her homeland is the mountainous regions of Ardennes, located on the border of Belgium and France. Horses were needed here to move heavy loads on mountain roads. A strong short horse - and the height of the ardenes does not exceed 160 cm, was ideally suited for this mission. The Ardennes even had to participate in the wars of Napoleon - they had to transport large guns.
It is believed that the ardenes originated from the ancient breed of Solutre, who lived in Europe about 50 thousand years ago. The history of the Arden breed dates back to the 19th century. Then their growth reached 140 cm. These horses are small in comparison with other heavy trucks, therefore they are known as “small drafts”.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Ardenes were crossed with Arabian horses - to increase the stamina of the latter. It was the Arden breed that was used to breed the famous Russian heavy trucks. In 1900, during the regular breed show held in Paris, the latter were presented as “Russian Ardenes”.
Description of the breed:
- Height - 152-163 cm.
- Color - bay, red or dark red, roan.
- Exterior. The head is large, with a low forehead and large expressive eyes. Pointy ears. The neck is curved, the shoulders are strong. The profile is smooth. The case is compact, massive. Legs are short, strong, covered with thick brushes.
- Using. Workhorse. Getting horse meat.
Brabancons are Belgian horses that are considered the most powerful heavy trucks. Today they are the visiting card of Belgium. Brabansons can carry very large loads over long distances. Their weight is 700-1000 kg. The breed is obtained by crossing the Ardenes with the Flemings. Brabansons look powerful but elegant.
Description of the breed:
- Height - 156-168 cm. This is a small indicator. But high growth in horses is achieved due to the length of the legs, and it is unimportant for heavyweights. These horses are driven, not galloped.
- Suit . There are no strict standards, but brabansons of light bay and red color are predominantly found, less often - gray and black.
- Exterior. A powerful body with a massive skeleton and a wide chest. They have traditional cereals for heavy trucks - wide, rounded and bifurcated. The back and lumbar region are short - the main power falls on the front of the body. There is no sag of the back, characteristic for tezlovozov. Legs are strong, with bulky joints and wrists, hooves are covered with brushes. The neck is powerful, short, the profile is rounded. The head seems small, the forehead is well developed, it has a small hump.
- Using. Performing heavy physical work. Use as a "tractor".
Perchersons are the most popular French horse breed. There is no exact data on its origin. But, there is an assumption that their homeland is the Norman province of Persh. The exact time of occurrence is unknown. Perhaps the ancestors of the Perchersons were ancient French horses. The latter are described as bay horses of medium size, strong and efficient. But the first mention of percherson appears only at the dawn of the 19th century.
Perchers were formerly knightly horses, then they began to be used as draft horses. There were different types of perchers - heavy used in cities, light - for army needs. Horse weight - from 500 kg. Now the breed is extremely popular, in France they are engaged in private breeders.
- Height - 150 cm.
- Suit . Gray and black, less often - roan and red.
- Exterior. They have a very expressive and recognizable appearance. A small head of a beautiful shape. Wide forehead, slightly bulging eyes. The ears are sharp. The muscular neck is beautifully curved. The mane is thick, the tail is fluffy. The croup is long enough. Body with a wide and deep chest. Powerful legs.
- Using. Previously used on hunting trips and in military operations - as a draft force. Small perchers are used today under the saddle and for fast driving, large ones - for agricultural work and for transportation of goods in eco-zones.
Persheron effortlessly, without losing the grace of movement, will run 60 km with a rider on his back. A distinctive feature of perchers is an even step under the saddle and harness.
Perchers are extremely smart, kind and complaisant. They are calm and balanced, patient and well trained. Despite the size, they are characterized by mobility and energy.
Vladimir heavy truck
The breed was bred by crossing Russian breeds with kledesdaly and shire. This is the most massive and strong domestic breed. Vladimir heavy truck can trot for a long time, moving colossal loads. Weight - about 800 kg, and chest girth - more than 2 m.
Characteristics of the breed:
- Height - 166-162 cm, maximum - 175 cm.
- Suit . The bay and redhead prevails, less often - brown and black.
- Exterior. The head is massive, convex. The neck is long and full. The body is wide. The legs are long, with developed muscles. Below the legs are white “stockings”.
- Using. This breed is universal, it can be used for almost any need - under the saddle, in harness, for transportation of goods, for agricultural work, on the hunt. They look beautiful in a team - today Vladimir heavy trucks are actively used at celebrations and festivities.
Despite its impressive size, the Vladimir heavy truck is not a clumsy and slow-moving horse - it is able to briskly run with a load of 1.5 tons. The breed has a calm and complaisant disposition. Horses are obedient in harness. Very hardworking and zealous. Manners are shown only with mistreatment. Quickly adapt to new conditions of life and work.
Russian heavy truck
The breed leads its pedigree since the 19th century. Bred on the basis of the Belgian ardenes and French perchers. For a long time they were called “Russian Ardenes”. In small ardenes, breeders were attracted by unpretentiousness and mobility, in perchers - power and size.
The main difference between the Russian heavy truck and other heavy-duty breeds is its small size. The stiff type of physique is clearly expressed. The weight of the stallions reaches 700 kg.
- Height - 150 cm.
- Suit . More often - red, brown. Less often - bay, roan, black.
- Exterior. Long and massive body. Legs are strong, sinewy. Below - a small overgrowth. The croup is powerful, muscular, the neck is massive, beautifully curved. The head is small, broad-faced. Small erect ears. Wide, barrel-shaped chest. The tail and mane are thick.
- Using. In rural life, the Russian heavy truck replaces a small tractor.
The breed is distinguished by endurance on the move and in lynx. Horses have a flexible and balanced disposition. Mobile and curious. These horses are obedient in harness. They are tireless workers - are considered ideal workers. Easily adapt to the harsh climate, new places and hosts. By nature, they are good companions.
Soviet heavy truck
Soviet heavy trucks are large and massive horses that can easily move multi-ton loads. The breed was bred in the days of the USSR on the basis of the Belgian Brabansons. The aim of the breeders was to create a powerful and hardy breed. The breed was officially approved in 1952. The weight of the horses is about a ton.
Characteristics of the breed:
- Height - up to 170 cm.
- Suit . Red, red-roan, bay, bay roan.
- Exterior. Head - medium, proportionately folded. Ears are straight, less often - saggy. Massive and wide chest. The neck is powerful and muscular. Wide and even lumbar, croup bifurcated, slightly sagging. The legs are strong and muscular. A magnificent mane and no less magnificent tail.
- Using. He walks under the saddle. Agricultural work, transportation of goods. Participation in competitions. In terms of traction, they are able to replace the tractor. Move loads that are too heavy for other breeds of horses. Ideal for large agricultural enterprises and farms.
Representatives of breeds have incorrectly set legs, but this drawback does not affect the qualities of horses. The nature of the Soviet heavy trucks is friendly, they are very energetic and efficient.
The breed is characterized by rapid growth and precocity. At 2.5 years old, the horse can be used in heavy work. Unpretentious to feed. They have the ability to reproduce continuously - mares can have foals even after 20 years.
These are draft heavy vehicles of English origin. Their pedigree comes from knightly horses, and those from the descendants of the horses of the Roman conquerors. The exact origin of the breed is unknown. But it is assumed that the Shires are obtained by crossing the local English breeds with the Flemings and the Frisian breed. Shires are the largest horses on the planet. Their weight reaches 800-1220 kg. There are specimens weighing up to one and a half tons. Features of the breed:
- Height - 170-190 cm. There were cases when the growth of the breed representatives reached 2 m.
- Suit . Shires can be black, bay, caracal, gray.
- Exterior. The body is powerful, proportional. Wide and strong back. Long and muscular croup. The skull is massive, the forehead is wide. The ears are sharp. Fluffy tail set high. Legs are powerful. The hooves are strong, large. At the bottom of the legs are "friezes." A distinctive feature is a bald spot on the head and “stockings” on the hind legs.
- Using. Today they are rarely used in agricultural work. More often they can be seen at exhibitions, various horse breeding events.
Shires are characterized by a balanced and calm character. Easy to manage, trainable. They are slow but strong. At 3 years, the shire is capable of moving cargo five times its weight - that is, 5000-6000 kg.
The birthplace of the breed is Scotland. The breed received its name in honor of the Kleid River Valley. Mighty horses have long been found in this area. The first mention of the breed dates back to the early 18th century. The breed was created by crossing Flemings and local Scottish mares. The weight of the horses is 800-900 kg. Individual specimens weigh 1 ton.
Features of the Scottish Claydesdale:
- Height - 163-173 cm.
- Suit . Black, bay, roan, gray.
- Exterior. Large and powerful body. Big head with a direct profile, wide forehead. Large nostrils, large and expressive eyes. The neck is long and muscular, beautifully curved. Long and wide chest. The body is somewhat shortened - the back is wide and short. Muscular croup. Long powerful legs. Wide hooves. At the bottom of the legs are brushes. The breed is characterized by the presence of white marks - they are found on the face and legs.
- Using. Agricultural work. Celebrations, ceremonies.
Kleidesdal differ in complaisant and good-natured disposition. They are even a little phlegmatic. Comprehensible and obedient, energetic and active. They are distinguished by endurance, unpretentiousness, high carrying capacity, the ability to adapt in any climate. Previously, they were widely used to carry stagecoaches.
Breeding aimed at creating powerful and hardy horses led to the appearance of real giants. Many heavy truck giants went down in history as unique examples of breeding work, and their names became known throughout the world.
The fame of the largest horse in the world won the Belgian gelding Big Jake. Today, he belongs to the palm in the ranking of giant horses. Big Jake is listed in the Guinness Book of Records. Its height is 2 m 17 cm. Its weight is the same as that of a large jeep - 2600 kg. Just incredible numbers. Big party of all kinds of performances. Speaking in the talk show "The House of Ronald McDonald", Big "gives" all the money earned to charity.
To maintain its excellent shape, the gelding eats a couple of bales of straw and 5 kg of oats daily. And in order not to thirst, he needs 30 buckets of water every day.
Noddy is a Shire breed horse. Lives in Australia. His weight is 1300 kg and his height is 205 cm. Today Noddy is considered the tallest horse. He inherited his massive addition from his ancestor. Noddy's grandfather - Edward, lived in England, and also once led the growth rating. In order to recoup his expensive maintenance, Noddy has to work on the farm of his mistress D. Greenman.
Digger is a member of the Royal Horse Guards. They got used to large horses here, but Digger caused a furor in his appearance in 2012. This kledesdal is the largest horse in the guard. The growth of this giant is 220 cm. Every day he needs 25 kg of hay and 95 liters of water. Digger weight - 1200 kg. The horse has already hit the Guinness Book of Records, but its growth continues.
Cracker represents the English Shayrs. This giant reaches a height of 198 cm and weighs 1200 kg. Every day the giant eats two bales of hay, 4-5 kg of grain. The norm of drinking is up to 13 buckets per day. The horse often appears on television - he is a popular person in England.
Duke lives in the UK. The growth of this gelding is 207 cm. But the horse continues to grow. It is real that Duke will be able to break the record, and will become the highest horse in the world. Duke eats in a special way, and therefore grows by leaps and bounds. The mistress gives him special herbal infusions and feeds them with apples. The giant eats plenty of grain and hay, washing them down not only with water, but also with 20 liters of herbal tea. Although Duke is a giant, he is shy and terribly afraid of mice.
Brooklyn Suprim was a Belgian Brabancon and lived in the middle of the 20th century (1928-1948). He belonged to no one S.G. Gudu (Ogden, Iowa). This stallion lived and died in the USA, in Iowa. At the age of 10 years, the giant reached a weight of 1450 kg, and his height at the withers was 198 cm. The horse had huge hooves, the total weight of its horseshoes was 13 kg. An ordinary horseshoe weighs 700 g, Brooklyn horseshoes weighed 3.5 kg. The suit of this giant stallion is bay roan. The volume of the chest is 259 cm.
Samson (Sampson), a stallion of the Shire breed, is considered the record holder among the giants-heavy carriers. He lived in the 19th century. His height was recorded - 220 cm. Weight - 1520 kg. Year of birth - 1846. His homeland is the English town of Toddington Mills (Bedfordshire).
Samson's owner was someone Thomas Cleaver. He received the status of the largest and most powerful horse in 4 years. And not only in England, but throughout the world. For the enormous size they decided to call him Mammoth. Samson's record has not yet been broken, and you can estimate the size of the champion by the few photos that have survived to this day.
Morocco - Percheron, who was once the largest horse. There is little information about Morocco. It is known that his height was 215 cm, the horse weighed about 1300 kg. You can judge the dimensions of Morocco from photographs that have survived to this day.
Copy of newspaper clippings (Morocco horse with his master pictured)
Dr. Le Gers
This magnificent percheron was born back in 1902. The stallion fluttered to a height of 2 m 13 cm. Its weight is comparable to the weight of the car - 1400 kg. This is the largest horse in the history of French horse breeding. None of the Perchersons was able to come close to the record of Dr. Le Gers.
This illustration was issued in the form of wall posters and postcards.
The functions of horses have been changing from century to century, but they have always remained excellent companions for humans. Today, heavy trucks are not only faithful helpers and friends of a person, but also a real decoration of the world around them, requiring care and attention.