Tomato Sultan is a determinant hybrid, famous for its excellent taste and versatility of the crop. Long fruiting and high harvests of large fruits have attracted the attention of both amateurs and professionals for over 20 years. Read all about the conditions and secrets of growing in our article.
The tomato variety Sultan is a high-yielding
Tomato Seeds Sultan
The origin of unpretentious tomatoes Sultan
The Sultan is the fruit of the work of Dutch breeders. It was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russia in 2000 for the North Caucasus, Central Black Earth regions and the Lower Volga.
Characteristics of Tomatoes
The hybrid belongs to high-yielding varieties of early maturity.
The determinant plants of the Sultan are compact, with an average number of large dark green leaves and simple inflorescences. Each of them gives 5-6 tomatoes.
Flatish rounded fruits have light ribbing. Unripe tomatoes around the peduncle have a saturated green spot that disappears as they ripen.
Ready-to-eat tomatoes have a deep red color of a strong skin that protects from damage and cracking. The pulp is quite dense, tender, with 5-6 pockets, in which there are practically no seeds. Light acidity pleasantly sets off a sweet taste.
The sultan bears fruit throughout the season, the last tomatoes are removed in September. Large-fruited - up to 200 g - and a high ovary with careful care allow you to collect up to 560 kg / ha of crops, which is 700-100 kg / ha higher than regional standards.
Tomatoes are well tolerated transportation and long-term storage. The excellent taste is well suited for fresh salads or vegetable slices. Tomatoes in preservation and processing perfectly proved: juices, spins and sauces will please summer residents in the cold season and diversify the table.
Advantages and disadvantages
The most attractive advantages of the Sultan hybrid include:
- high rates of fees;
- quality and size of tomatoes;
- long crop safety;
- universality in application;
- resistance to common fusarium and verticillosis;
- compactness and stunting of bushes.
The disadvantage of the variety is the same for all hybrids - the inability of seeds collected from grown tomatoes to maintain parental qualities and yield a crop.
Like most tomatoes, the Sultan requires a seedling method of growing.
When choosing seedlings, be sure to consider the following points:
- Choose strong plants with a developed root system.
- Excessively bright greens may indicate an excess of nitrogen fertilizers.
- All plants must be healthy. Even if one is clearly infected, the rest can be in the incubation period without visible symptoms.
- Ideally, if the seedlings are not too high - up to 30 cm - and 6-7 real sheets.
- Buy plants no older than 50-60 days without ovary.
- The chances that the bush will take root are greater when transplanting along with nutrient soil;
- It is better to buy seedlings from well-known and trusted suppliers. Clarify the nuances of growing conditions to ensure that the seller is competent.
Soil and fertilizer
The sultan is not too picky about the soil, but a slightly acid sandy loam or loamy soil, fertilized with humus, is optimal. Do not forget about competent crop rotation.
The best precursors for tomato will be melons, legumes, cabbage and cucumbers, root crops. Do not plant them after solanaceous.
Tomatoes are very demanding on nutrients: during the period of rhizome development, the need for phosphorus increases, and during flowering and fruiting, in potassium. A lack of nitrogen will slow growth and affect crop quality and plant immunity. Therefore, soil preparation is best done in the fall: fertilizing, composting or manure. In spring, the soil can be supplemented with nitrogen-containing additives.
For clay soils, digging with the addition of peat, compost or sand will be useful. The need for 1 square. m:
- 5 kg of peat;
- 8 kg of sand;
- 5 compost or manure.
To reduce the acidity of the soil, use lime, wood ash or chalk. Carry out the alkalization procedure at least 2 weeks before planting.
Tomatoes are very thermophilic - choose open sunny areas without excess moisture. For adequate growth, the length of daylight should not be less than 12 hours, and a comfortable temperature range is 15-35 degrees Celsius. To moisture, tomatoes are not so finicky. The beds should be well ventilated and not have excessive thickening.
Growing seedlings at home
With the proper desire to grow seedlings on their own, there will be no difficulty.
Seeds of well-known major suppliers are usually processed before packing in packaging bags. They do not require soaking or disinfection.
If you bought raw seed, there are a few preparation points:
- To test germination, dip the seeds in a glass of water with the addition of 1 tsp. salt. Pop up throw away.
- For disinfection, hold for 20 minutes the seed in a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). To do this, dilute 1 g of the drug per liter of water.
- Treat your growth stimulant to enrich your seed with nutrients.
Some gardeners carry out the procedure of hardening seeds. To do this, rinse the prepared seeds, put in a bag and place in a cool place for 3 days, you can on the shelf of the refrigerator.
Content and location
As a place for seedlings, windows facing the south side are best suited. To maintain sufficient lighting, turn on the phytolamps. To compensate for the heating system, spray plants daily or use a humidifier.
The temperature in the daytime should be 18-25 degrees, and at night - 12-15 degrees Celsius.
Sowing is carried out 50-60 days before the estimated landing in the ground. Seedlings can be grown in 2 ways:
- with a pick;
- without diving.
In the first option, the sowing of seeds is carried out in a shallow container, and after the appearance of 1-3 true leaves, the plants are transplanted into separate forms before planting in the ground. In the second case, the seeds are immediately dispersed into pots or cups, in which the tomatoes will be until transplanted to the garden.
About how to dive tomato seedlings, read in the next article .
For sowing, use special purchased soil or prepare it yourself. Mix in equal parts land, peat and humus. You can add 0.5 l of ash for every 10 l of the resulting mixture and 40 g of superphosphate.
Disinfect the soil by calcining it in the oven, spilling it with boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate.
Fill the seedling containers with soil, pour warm water and plant the seeds to a depth of about 1 cm. Then cover the future seedlings with a film and leave it warm. The first shoots appear in 3-5 days.
Be sure to breathe the soil, periodically removing the covering material.
Seedling care includes watering, adequate lighting, top dressing and hardening:
- It is necessary to water the soil as the stagnant water dries. They must be warm.
- For the emergence of seedlings, maintain the temperature at the level of 25-28 degrees Celsius, after removing the film 20-24 will be optimal. On warm days, ventilate the room or take seedlings to the balcony. Closer to the transplant, harden the young tomatoes with open windows or on the street, increase the time spent gradually.
- Seedlings love light, young plants need it for 12-16 hours a day. In short daylight, add lamps.
- It is recommended to feed seedlings for the first time 2-3 weeks after germination. In general, during seedling growth, dressing is carried out 3-4 times. Organic or complex mineral fertilizers with phosphorus are best suited for these purposes.
We also recommend that you read the article about growing tomato seedlings from seeds .
Transplanting seedlings into the ground
Seedlings are planted at a permanent place after 2 months, when the plant has 6-7 true leaves. The average daily temperature should not fall below +12 degrees Celsius. In the southern regions this is the beginning of May, in the central ones near the end. Until warm weather sets in, cover the beds with film or other covering material for the night.
A transplant is best done in the evening or in cloudy weather, so that the tomatoes have time to adapt to the bright sun.
Make holes for plants according to the scheme of 40x50 cm. Put fertilizers on the bottom, place the plants, then sprinkle with earth and water the tomatoes.
Features of outdoor cultivation
When growing seeds in the open ground there are some nuances.
In the south of Russia, it is possible to grow the Sultan immediately in the open ground, but in cooler regions you will need a greenhouse. In warm areas under cover, tomatoes can be planted already in mid-April, and in the open ground by May.
Soil preparation and site selection is no different from the above when planting seedlings.
To protect against frosts, plantings are covered with a film or breathing materials, you can pull them on arcs. A warm bed is also perfect, where heat is generated during the debate.
When planting seeds in greenhouses:
- Before landing, check for leaks and disinfect.
- After this, be sure to ventilate it for 5 days.
- If necessary, renew the soil.
- The soil layer should warm up well, so keep the recommended height - no more than 25 cm.
- Form the beds at a distance of about 60 cm from each other and make holes in a checkerboard pattern.
The process of planting seeds in the ground
In mid-April, most often the land of southern Russia is already warm enough for sowing seeds in the ground.
In the prepared soil, make indentations with a diameter of 35-40 cm and pour them with a solution of potassium permanganate. You can sow both germinated and dry seeds. In the case of frost, the dry ones will not die, but simply rise later.
Thin plants sown in open ground regularly thinning:
- After the appearance of 2-3 real leaves, leave the strongest sprouts at a distance of 7-9 cm.
- Before the second (4-5 leaves), carefully water the wells, select the stronger plants again with a distance of about 15 cm. The rejected tomatoes are suitable for transplanting to areas with poor shoots.
- At the final thinning, several bushes will remain at a distance of 40 cm.
For a quality crop, planted plants need constant care.
Watering, loosening and weeding
Tomatoes prefer watering under the root with settling water with a temperature of at least 18 degrees Celsius. In cool spring weather, water can be warmed up to 25 degrees Celsius. Moisture on the bushes themselves destroys the flowers and prevents the ovaries.
The regularity of irrigation is determined by the weather: the top layer of the soil should not dry out. On open ground, this happens faster than in greenhouses. Excessive moisture can cause fungal diseases and rot.
After moistening, it is advisable to loosen the soil. Remove weeds in parallel. Loosening allows the roots to breathe and receive moisture. Such a procedure should be carried out at least 2 times a month to a depth of 5 cm.
When the plants grow up, together with loosening the soil, carry out the hilling to form additional roots.
Stepson and garter
When caring for tomatoes Sultan an important point for the quality of the crop will be pinching. In determinate plants, 2-3 main stems form, removing all stepsons. Toward the end of August, remove the top, flowers and small ovary for ripening and growth of larger fruits.
In a warm climate with long summers, tomatoes can not be stepson.
The short stature of the Sultan gives deceptive ideas about the need for a garter. Inexperienced summer residents may decide that this variety does not need additional support, although this is not so. Due to the high yield and large-fruited plants begin to slope to the ground and may break. To avoid injury to the bushes, use wooden pegs or trellises.
For the entire growing season, tomatoes are fed 3-4 times. It is recommended to alternate mineral fertilizers with organics. As organic additives, solutions of cow manure (1 to 10) or chicken droppings (1 to 15) at the rate of 1 liter per bush are perfect.
From minerals, choose complex ones containing phosphorus and potassium.
Fertilizing is carried out exclusively after watering.
Disease and Pest Prevention
The Hybrid Sultan is famous for its resistance to verticillosis, fusarium and other standard tomato plagues. But prevention will never be superfluous:
- disinfect seeds, soil, tools;
- follow the rules of watering and pinching;
- spray bushes with potassium permanganate or vitriol against diseases;
- against pests, use soapy water, tincture of wormwood or garlic;
- inspect plants regularly, remove damaged parts in a timely manner.
The main insects that can cause harm, and possible methods of dealing with them, we consider in the table.
- ash treatment;
- rubbing with a decoction of chamomile or tobacco;
- the use of drugs such as "Verticillin."
- spraying with a solution of laundry soap or infusion of bleached;
- preparations "Plant-Pin", "Actara", "Apollo".
- manual collection of beetles and larvae;
- irrigation of plants with infusion of wood ash and wormwood;
- processing means "Bankol", "Commander", "Bombardier".
- sprinkling soil with crushed eggshell;
- tobacco dust;
- ammonia spraying
- duct tape as bait;
- processing "Boverin."
Proper care of tomatoes in the open can prevent diseases.
Harvesting and storage
The ripening of the main crop lasts from mid-summer to the last decade of August. By the end of this period, plants begin to die, their immunity decreases, and the risk of diseases increases. To maintain the health and preservation of fruits, it is recommended to collect ripening fruits in early August to reduce the load on tomatoes.
When lowering the thermometer column below 8 degrees Celsius and the probability of precipitation, all fruits, including green ones, are subject to collection. After that, the bushes are removed from the site. If the end of summer pleases with warm weather, tomatoes will have time to ripen on plants.
Fresh ripe tomatoes lie no longer than 4-5 days, green can maintain a marketable appearance for several weeks. For long-term storage (up to 2 months):
- take solid and undamaged fruits;
- put them in wooden boxes covered with straw;
- cover with a lid without crushing tomatoes;
- Place in a dark and cool place with good air access.
Possible problems and recommendations
When growing tomatoes, you may encounter several problems:
- Thick leafy and low ovary indicate excess fertilizer. Reduce the amount of fertilizing.
- Deformed fruits indicate a violation of irrigation rules and temperature conditions. Also, pest infection can affect the shape of tomatoes.
- The cause of the curling of the sheets is often excessive zeal in pinching and high humidity.
I bought the seeds of the Gavrish company, on the package it is written that from the Bejo Zaden company. The characteristics of the variety and the general description are indicated on the packaging, seeds are processed, nothing more needs to be done with them. he attracted me to unpretentiousness and short stature. I like that it bears fruit for a long time and is not capricious to the weather.
Pioneer 2, Novoaleksandrovsk.
Germination of seeds pleased, planted seedlings. Garter doesn’t hurt, but I’ve grown so much. Large, very satisfied with the harvest. The description is not deceived.
Hybrid varieties of tomatoes have gathered the best qualities: excellent productivity, resistance to diseases, quality of fruits. Tomato Sultan is one of the brightest representatives of his kind. This storehouse of vitamins will always decorate your table and add brightness to every day. Be sure to try it!