When choosing a cow, it is important to determine the necessary variety. If cattle are needed for meat, then you should choose a suitable meat breed. Species of meat cows differ in the characteristics of both the animals themselves and the meat obtained from them. When choosing, it is important to consider several important factors.
Selection criteria for meat cows
When choosing a meat cow, it is important to pay attention to its health. To do this, you need to not only check the available information, but also examine the animal itself.
The general condition of the cow can be judged by its behavior. The animal should be alert and energetic, with clear eyes. They need to be considered for an inflammatory process.
A meat breed cow has a less elongated body than dairy animals. Muscular tissue and subcutaneous tissue should be well developed. Due to the developed musculature, the outlines of the animal become square, in contrast to the triangular shape of dairy breeds.
Any cow needs a healthy heart and lungs. A wide and deep chest will tell about the development of these organs. The back of the animal should be wide.
In a meat cow, the head should be massive and fleshy on a thick short neck. Such a breed is distinguished by a protruding chest and a highly developed breast.
It is important to pay attention to the limbs of the animal. In a meat breed, they should be short and wide apart.
You need to examine the udder of the cow. The breed is meat, therefore it does not need a developed udder, but at the same time it should be quite voluminous.
List of meat breeds of cows and their characteristics
Meat cows are developing rapidly, in conditions of good fattening, they mature quite early. When choosing a livestock breed, it is important to take into account its characteristics and the characteristics of the resulting meat.
This breed was brought up by the Scots at the beginning of the 19th century, perfecting the local black horned cattle. Such cows feel good in the Russian climate.
Angus cows are monochrome - black or red. Cattle have a light head on a short, invisible neck. Animals have a congenital corpuscle (there are no horns).
Cows are attractive with a thin skeleton that makes up no more than 18% of body weight. The body is short, the top is represented by a straight line. This breed is characterized by strong legs and hooves, full and voluminous hips.
Angus calves are born with a weight of 33 kg. In one-year-old heifers and gobies, it reaches half a ton. An adult cow can weigh up to 800 kg, and a manufacturing bull - up to 1200 kg.
Slaughter yield is 60%. High and milk yield, reaching 3000 kg of milk per year. The meat of this breed is in demand, as it is marble.
This variety is distinguished by a red suit of various shades, sometimes it is white and roan animals. The size of the cattle is small, and the constitution is tender and loose.
Shorthorn cows have a light and wide head of small size with a wide forehead and a short thick neck. The horns are short and bent inward.
Calves at birth weigh an average of 30 kg, reaching a year and a half 500-600 kg. An adult cow can weigh up to 750 kg, and a manufacturing bull - up to 950 kg.
The slaughter yield of the Shorthorn breed is up to 70%, while 80% is meat, and fat is only 8%. The meat of this breed is attractive marbling with fatty layers, juiciness and tenderness.
Shorthorn cows also show decent milk production, which can exceed 3000 kg with a fat content of up to 3.9%.
This variety was developed by the French in the 18th century. To do this, they selected and improved the local motley cattle. This breed came to Russia only at the end of the 20th century.
Charolese cows can be white, pale yellow or creamy white. There is a yellowish tint, there are no spots. The size of the cattle is quite large, the constitution is strong, and the physique is harmonious.
The Charolese breed is distinguished by a rough skeleton, a long and deep body, a straight and wide, but slightly sagging back. The head is short and wide, small in size with a short and fleshy neck. The horns are long and rounded.
Calves are born with a weight of up to 50 kg, and by one and a half years reach 400-450 kg. Adult cows can weigh up to a ton, and manufacturing bulls - up to 1400 kg. The breed is large-fruited. Often you can find calving twins.
The Charolese breed provides up to 70% of slaughter yield. The meat yield in this case is about 80%. The product attracts with high quality and low percentage of fat. The meat is lean and juicy, has a delicate texture.
The breed attracts with its endurance, calm character, good acclimatization. Animals can be used for a long time - up to one and a half decades.
This breed got its name thanks to the Texas farm where it was bred. It happened in the 20th century. The breed was quickly brought to Russia to grow in the steppe farms.
Santa Gertrude's cows are cherry red, sometimes with white markings underneath the belly. Cattle are large, wide torso, deep chest and long backside. The podgrudok is well developed, on the border with the withers there is a hump. Legs are strong and lean.
Cattle have thin and supple skin and folds on the neck. Cows are often distinguished by drooping ears, short and shiny hair.
The weight of newborn calves is usually 30 kg, and by one and a half years it rises to 400-500 kg. The mass of an adult cow can reach up to 600-700 kg, and a production bull - up to a ton.
With the breed Santa Gertrude reach a slaughter yield of 65-70%. The meat attracts with high taste. Santa Gertrude also shows good indicators of milk production, reaching 350 kg per year with a fat content of 4%.
The breed is attractive for its adaptation to dry and hot climates, as well as low temperatures. The advantages of Santa Gertrude are physical endurance, unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention, the rapid growth of young animals.
Among meat breeds, this variety takes one of the leading positions and the second largest in number. The British (County Hereford) took her out at the end of the 18th century.
The Hereford breed has a dark red color with a white head, a breast, withers, lower limbs and a tail brush. The breed is notable for its barrel-shaped, wide, squat and deep body;
Calves are born with a weight of 28 kg, reaching 400 kg at the age of one year. Adult cows weigh up to 650 kg, and manufacturing bulls weigh up to a ton.
Slaughter yield is 65-70% with a specific gravity of pulp up to 84%. The meat attracts marbling, tenderness and juiciness. The calorie content of the product is high.
This breed was bred by the French (province of Limousin) at the beginning of the XIX century. In the middle of the same century, it was brought to Russia. This breed is often crossed with dairy species, and new varieties of beef cattle are also created.
The Limousin breed has red, golden-red or red-brown color, the lower abdomen is lighter. Such cows are attractive with a harmonious body, a thin skeleton and well-developed muscles. The breed has a short head with a wide forehead and light horns. Limousine cows are distinguished by a deep chest, a wide sacrum.
Calves are born weighing 35-40 kg, reaching 300 kg by the age of six months. Adult cows weigh up to 600 kg, bulls - more than a ton.
Slaughter yield reaches 65%. One carcass contains up to 85 kg of meat. It is attractive due to its tenderness, low cholesterol content, excellent taste, fine fiber. The meat contains up to 6 kg of pulp per 1 kg of bone and not more than 10% fat. Marbling is expressed even at the age of one year.
The Limousin breed is attractive due to its unpretentiousness to feed and living conditions, fecundity, easy calving, and high life expectancy.
There are a lot of meat breeds of cows, but some varieties are especially attractive among them. In addition to meat, this cattle can provide decent milk production, even when it is not the main purpose of breeding animals. When choosing a cow, it is important to consider a number of criteria and study the characteristics of different breeds.