Today, pig farming is considered one of the most popular and valuable livestock industries. Thanks to the work of breeders in the world there are about 100 breeds of pigs, which are divided into three main types by productivity:
- meat (bacon);
Further in the article we will describe the most popular breeds of pigs to date.
Bacon or meat productivity pigs are bred for meat. Animals of this direction are distinguished by productivity, feeding qualities. The layer of fat is small, and the live weight of meat is large. The average performance level. One individual can produce up to 80% of the meat product and from 20 to 32% of fat.
Representatives have distinctive external features:
- elongated torso;
- deep sternum;
- chest width insignificant compared to body length;
- massive hams;
- the front of the body is noticeably smaller than the back.
Breed of pigs, bred in the 20th century in Russia, the city of Urzhum, Kirov region. Approved in 1957. They got it through a long cross-breeding of local long-eared pigs and boars of large white breed. Bred for the central regions, the Urzhum pig feels great throughout the European part of the country. Features of the breed - a strong constitution, high productivity and vitality.
Appearance. White suit with a massive rough bone. Animals have a narrow, long body, the middle part of which is slightly stretched, and the front part is elongated. The length of the males reaches 180 cm, the females - 170 cm. The head is medium in size, the ears are large and heavy, slightly inclined forward. The back and sacrum are straight. The bristles are long and thick, white.
Productivity High. For one farrow, the sow brings from 11 to 13 piglets, by half a year the weight of each reaches 100 kg (with an average daily gain of about 720 g). The live weight of an adult boar is 315-350 kg, females - 250 kg.
Growing and caring . The breed was bred as productive, unpretentious in content and food, with high reproduction. With proper care, piglets gain weight quickly. The simplicity of keeping animals attracts farmers. But, like many meat breeds, this one requires a special diet.
Merits . Urzhum pigs are unpretentious, tolerate the conditions of the northern regions. Adapted to keeping on pastures, easily adaptable. Sows have excellently developed maternal qualities, they are very calm. Breed with high quality pork and bacon.
Disadvantages . Cons only exterior - drooping sacrum, a small thickness of subcutaneous fat, arch-shaped back.
Landras is an elite breed that appeared in Denmark as a result of crossing large white British and local Danish pigs. It is also popular in Russia. These animals are characterized by tasty lean meat with a thin layer of fat and early maturity.
Appearance. Light-colored pigs with a small round head, a torpedo-shaped body, and long, drooping ears. The chest is not wide, the back is even, the bristles are soft and sparse, the skin is pink. The body length of the boars reaches 2 m, females - 1.6 m.
Productivity At one time, the uterus gives birth to 10 piglets, rarely more (11-13). Young growth is fast growing, and in 2 months it is already gaining 20 kg. This is a large breed: the weight of adult boars reaches 300 kg, pigs - 210-250 kg.
Growing and caring . Landrace breeding does not achieve high results without taking into account some nuances. In summer, pigs need to be released onto green meadows, and in winter they must be provided with a warm pigsty, then they will gain weight, and not waste energy on heating. Pigs need a balanced diet, which includes greens and grain, vegetables, animal feed, bone meal and more.
Merits . One of the best breeds in its category. Pigs contain 2-5% more meat and a small amount of fat. Of the obvious advantages are called fertility, rapid growth, and peacefulness.
Disadvantages . Fancy in food and content. They have a weak structure of the hind limbs. They are susceptible to stress.
After crossing the Berkshire pig and the red Guinean one in the late 19th century, Duroc boars appeared. The breed was registered in the USA. Its representatives are distinguished by their bright color: brown with a red tint. Animals are quite hardy, large in size. Successful breeding of this breed is to create comfortable conditions.
Appearance. They have a strong physique, high legs, an arched back. The body is long - up to 2 m. The ham is thick. The head is average. Ears are long, almost close their eyes. Adult animals - females and males - do not differ much in size.
Productivity They are inferior in fertility to other breeds: at one time, a sow brings 9-11 piglets. Newborns weigh 1-1.5 kg, and by six months they are gaining weight up to 175 kg. By maturity, the weight can reach 300-360 kg.
Growing and caring . Duros are used to living in comfort; they are extremely demanding on good food, warmth, and a spacious aviary. If there is a lack of protein food, the quality of the meat deteriorates. Mumps are mobile and completely non-aggressive.
Merits . Young growth quickly gaining weight. The taste of meat products is excellent. You can breed pigs en masse and keep on pastures.
Disadvantages. Capricious in leaving, thermophilic, require protein nutrition. The breed is poorly resistant to some diseases. Fertility is small.
More information about Duroc pigs can be found here .
The breed was bred for several decades in Belgium. Crossing several meat breeds with good productivity (including large white and Berkshire) produced Pietrain (Petren). Pigs are used as genetic material for breeding other breeds in order to increase their meatiness.
Appearance. Large animals with a wide body of a cylindrical shape. The muscles are developed (especially the loin), the sacrum is wide, and the hams are developed. A small head and ears standing upright. The color is light with dark spots.
Productivity The uterus is small milk and infertile. On average, gives birth to 8 piglets. In 200 days, the young grow up to 90 kg. The weight of adult animals can reach 270 kg (boars), 150-200 kg - of females.
Growing and caring . Due to the low grease, pigs of this breed do not tolerate low (less than 16 degrees) and high (more than 30) temperatures. They require a specially equipped room for both winter and summer time. Animals are picky due to their high metabolism.
Merits . Excellent meat yield (70%), low greasy. Resistance to certain viral diseases. Good appetite.
Disadvantages. Due to closely related crossbreeding in breeding selection, animals have a number of disadvantages. These include a small daily gain, whimsical content, poor quality meat (quickly oxidized), poor stress resistance.
A domestic breed recently bred in the 80s near Rostov-on-Don. Crossed from pietren and North Caucasian pigs. The size of the animals is average, some attribute them to the breeds of decorative pig farming.
Appearance. The physique is average, the body is massive and wide. The head is flat, small in size, with a straight profile. The limbs are short. Hams developed. The color of animals is mainly mottled, black.
Productivity Don sows are productive, for one farrow 10-11 babies are born. Litter safety is high - up to 98%. Piglets quickly gain weight; in 2 months they weigh about 20 kg. Weight of adult animals: 300-320 kg (boars) and 200-230 kg (females).
Growing and caring . Don pigs are acclimatized for cultivation in the lower Don, in the Kuban and the North Caucasus. In the content of the animals are undemanding, omnivorous. Females have developed maternal instinct.
Merits . Don pigs have a strong immune system, they are frost-resistant, not picky about food. Females are good mothers. Animals are characterized by rapid maturation, high meat yield.
Disadvantages. Compared to other breeds, Don piglets gain weight more slowly. The mass of adult animals can be considered average.
The first suit of bacon used in the USSR. It turned out as a result of breeding work with Landrace and white German pigs. The breed finally formed in the 60s of the 20th century. Outwardly, it resembles a large white pig, and although it is smaller in mass, it produces more meat at the exit.
Appearance. A tight constitution. Wide back, small head and straight legs. The shoulder blades are light, the ham is large. The muscles are well developed. The color is white, the skin is pink and is visible through the bristles.
Productivity The average weight of boars is 300 kg, sows - 200. One female gives birth to 12 piglets. Young growth is highly survivable. The average daily gain of piglets is 700 g.
Growing and caring . Estonian pigs do not require special feeds, they are omnivores and unpretentious. They find food themselves when kept in the pasture. Females bring healthy offspring.
Merits . Good taste of bacon. Simple care. Animals are strong and hardy, they are characterized by productivity.
Disadvantages. Exterior cons - overhang or friability of the sacrum. But this does not affect the quality of meat.
The breed, which appeared in Canada in the middle of the 20th century, where it is still popular. Pigs are bred in other countries, including Russia (from 60-70). Lacombs were bred as a result of multi-breed reproductive crosses (Landras, Berkshire pigs and others). The suit has good exterior performance and a strong constitution.
Appearance. Pigs of medium size, strong physique, meat constitution. The body is small but elongated. The head is average. Big ears hang over your eyes. Short but strong limbs.
Productivity Fertility indicators are above average. Sows are multiple, give birth to 10-11 piglets at a time. Young growth quickly gaining the necessary mass - an average of 150 days. Weight of adult animals: 220-280 kg (males and females, respectively).
Growing and caring . By temperament, these animals are phlegmatic and unpretentious. Including piglets - they are calm and obedient. They are bred in Canada, but in Russia, these pigs also take root. With proper feeding, young growth is good.
Merits . Mild disposition, resistance to stress and certain diseases (rhinitis). Productivity. The rapid growth of young animals. Good meat quality.
Disadvantages. There are no obvious minuses in the breed. Some people call the disadvantage of underweight pigs.
One of the most popular pig breeds in the world. Bred in the British province of Hampshire, but officially recognized in the United States. The meat breed is imported to European countries, where it is well acclimatized. But purebred animals are hard to find.
Appearance. The body is elongated, the back is wide and straight. The head is small. The legs are short. The color is black with a white belt in the upper body - it goes through the forelimbs and shoulder blades. Sizes of pigs are average. Ears are erect.
Productivity The maturity of young animals is average. Piglets grow slowly at first, but quickly gain weight up to 8 months. The weight of adult boars is 300-320 kg, females - 230-250. Sows are infertile, give birth to 6 to 11 piglets. But maternal instinct is well developed.
Growing and caring . Hampshires are used to breed hybrids with positive characteristics. Super profits cannot be achieved with them, but pigs of this breed are unpretentious and easily adapt to the conditions of detention.
Merits . Immunity to many diseases. Endurance. High weight gain. From pigs of this breed get a lot of meat with a small sebaceous layer.
Disadvantages. Animals are shy and subject to stress. Fertile. Growth in purebred livestock is low.
One of the oldest breeds in the world, bred in England. These pigs are adapted to severe climatic conditions, therefore they are bred in the northern countries (USA, Canada), as well as Australia and New Zealand, Great Britain.
Appearance. The constitution is strong, embossed. The skeletal system is well developed. Musculature is pronounced, the body is narrow and elongated. The length of the body reaches 100-150 cm. The ears are sharp, stand straight. The neck is long and wide. The legs are strong. The bristles are brilliant, the color varies from red to dark red and even brown.
Productivity On average, a female gives birth to 6 to 10 piglets at a time. Maternal responsibilities are excellent, and this affects the health of the cubs. By 30 weeks, young growth reaches a mass of 100 kg.
Growing and caring . These pigs are surprisingly hardy, not afraid of the cold, rain and wind. Very sociable and friendly, get along with other pets. Suitable for keeping on pastures and together with cows. Eat any feed, including those intended for livestock.
Merits . Unpretentiousness (to the conditions of detention and feed). Extra stamina and adaptability. Friendliness. High quality bacon.
Disadvantages. Median multiple pregnancy. Sometimes the bristles in animals are curly and thin.
The original suit of pigs, popular because of the high rates of meat and greasy products - it is considered a delicacy. Bred in Southeast Asia. It was first brought to Europe and Canada from Vietnam in 1985. But active work to improve the breed continues to this day. Breeders are trying to increase the percentage of muscle mass of animals.
Appearance. Medium-sized animals (average adult weight 140-150 kg). Addition bacon: have a wide trunk and chest. The head is small, pug-shaped. Wild boars grow fangs to puberty. The bristles form a “mohawk,” which heaves at the moment of emotional shock. The color is black, but can vary to a dark red color.
Productivity Animals are characterized by intense precocity. Already at 4 months, females reach puberty, wild boars - by six months. Sows are famous for their poise, high milk yield. For one farrow, up to 15 piglets are born. In addition, females are able to fertilize twice a year.
Growing and caring . Animals are docile, calm and surprisingly clean, breeding them is a pleasure. Adapted to hot humid climate and at the same time to severe winters. Pigs make good use of pasture. Vegetable feed is preferred for food (grass and hay - up to 85% of the diet).
Merits . Good immunity. Calm disposition. Multiplicity Ease of maintenance and fattening. Delicious meat.
Disadvantages. Tendency to obesity. It is necessary to monitor the nutrition of pigs, but even with increased nutrition, meat growth is not observed, only fat.
Read more about this breed of pigs here .
All the merits and purposes of these animals are defined in the name. The suit SM-1 was bred in the USSR on the basis of complex crosses of the best domestic and foreign breeds. 73 large collective farms took up the matter, and work continued even after the collapse of the Union. The precocious meat breed was approved in 1993.
Appearance. Strong constitution, wide and cigar-shaped body with a developed loin. The length of the males is 180-185 cm, the sows are 168-170 cm. Large hams. The bristles are white, the ears are a little hanging forward.
Productivity Initially, SM-1 was superior to other breeds in terms of growth rate, precocity, and adaptive properties. Animals quickly gain weight. Boars reach 300-320 kg, females - 240. Uterus give birth to 10-11 babies.
Growing and caring . It is easy and profitable to grow, as animals adapt well to any conditions and climate. Pigs grow and mature quickly, respectively, compared to others they require less feed.
Merits . High precocity and growth rate. Easily adapt to environmental conditions.
Disadvantages. To achieve high performance, animals need proper care.
Meat and greasy breeds
This group includes universal breeds of pigs, which are bred for meat and fat simultaneously. In Russia, this direction is very popular, as it allows you to fatten animals without restrictions. Only in adulthood, meat-bearing pigs begin to lay down fat. Young individuals go for meat and delicacies. Nutritional qualities are as high as taste.
Meat - a profitable direction of pig farming. Useful output from one carcass - 70% or more.
Pigs are mainly meat-fat lines of productivity. Bred in Lithuania in the middle of the 20th century as a result of crossing local females with males of several breeds: large and medium white, German white long-eared and short-eared. They are characterized by fertility and high weight.
Appearance. White suit strong constitution. The body is round and well developed, reaching 175-155 cm in length (females and males). The head and neck are medium, there is a bend of the profile. The sides are even, the skeleton is well developed, not rough. The abdomen is elastic and voluminous. The skin is dense, white bristles.
Productivity For one farrow, the female brings 10-12 piglets. Toddlers are growing fast. The weight of an adult boar exceeds 300 kg, sows - 200. The meat yield from the carcass is more than 50%, and the fat is 3.6%.
Growing and caring . The breed is profitable for maintenance and unpretentious. Piglets grow quickly and eat a little. To achieve maximum performance, it is important to correctly compose a diet and provide good living conditions.
Merits . The breed has a harmonious body structure. It is well combined when crossed with other varieties, for example, to improve the taste of meat. Of the pluses are also called the fecundity of pigs.
Disadvantages. Only exterior cons - often there are drooping tanks, interception behind the shoulder blades, insufficient overgrowth.
The most common breed in Russia that came from England. Passed several stages of selection, has repeatedly improved. Registered in 1851. Sometimes it is called Yorkshire. It is characterized by high reproductive abilities, indicators of development and growth.
Appearance. Animals of white color with a harmonious physique. The body is long, the back is straight, wide and deep chest. The belly is voluminous, but not hanging. Legs are strong, low. Muscled hams. Medium head, fleshy cheeks, broad forehead.
Productivity Adults can gain weight 300-380 kg. For farrowing, the uterus brings up to 12 babies. With intensive fattening, their daily increase can reach 850 g.
Growing and caring . The breed adapts well to different conditions, climate, although it does not tolerate extreme heat and cold. When arranging a pigsty, you need to think about a canopy - the sun's rays adversely affect the fair skin of pigs. Burns are possible.
Merits . Excellent productive qualities. Unpretentiousness of animals to the provided diet. High fecundity and good mass gain.
Disadvantages. Prone to obesity and overheating.
Ukrainian large white
Intrabreed type of pig in a large white breed. It was created in leading pedigree factories and 10 subsidiary farms. UKB-1 was approved in 1984.
Appearance. Large animal. Outwardly, it is no different from a large white pig.
Productivity The live weight of boars is 330 kg, and queens - 250 kg. Multiplicity - about 10-12 piglets. At 2 months of age, young growth reaches a mass of up to 20 kg.
Growing and caring . Pigs are unpretentious in the maintenance, easily transfer transportation from place to place. But a massive physique allows animals to demolish weak barriers, this must be taken into account when building enclosures.
Merits . Tasty, moderately fatty meat. Precocity. Fertility and good milkiness of queens.
Disadvantages. Poorly tolerate heat and low (-30 or less) temperatures.
Ukrainian steppe white
From the name it is clear that Ukraine is the birthplace of these pigs. One of the best breeds, it was bred specifically for the steppe part of the country - regions with an arid climate. Pigs are well adapted to the habitat provided to them, and are well acclimatized. The breed is used to breed new varieties, improve existing ones.
Appearance. Animals look like pigs of large white breed, but their heads are longer and narrower, the bristles are coarser. The skeleton is strong. The body is wide and deep, legs are strong, without folds. The color of the bristles in purebred individuals is white; dark gray spots are rarely possible.
Productivity It was bred as a breed with high reproduction. Sows give birth to an average of 12 piglets at a time. The average weight gain of young animals is 700-710 g per day. Adult individuals reach a mass of 210-340 kg.
Growing and caring . A universal breed that easily adapts to the troubles of the weather (wind, cold, heat) and is able to absorb low-calorie feed. The grazing period is large.
Merits . Endurance. The ability to adapt to various conditions. Fertility. Precocity.
Disadvantages. Exterior - in some individuals, the drooping sacrum.
Ukrainian steppe pockmarked
The basis for the creation of the breed was pockmarked pigs, which belonged to the lines of the Ukrainian steppe white breed. To consolidate the desired results, introductory crosses with Berkshire and Mangalitsky breeds were used. Approved in 1961.
Appearance. Small in size but strong constitution. The length of the trunk of the boars is 180 cm, females - 165 cm. The loin and back are wide, straight. Rounded hams are well developed. The color is motley, the shades are different: black, black and white, black and red, red, etc.
Productivity Sows are not very fertile, at a time give birth to 9-10 piglets. By 7 months young growth reaches a weight of 100 kg. The mass of boars reaches 320-325 kg, females - 240 kg.
Growing and caring . Animals tolerate heat well because of their color. At an early age they are suitable for fattening, both for meat and for bacon.
Merits . Animals easily adapt to the hot and arid climate. They are strong and hardy.
Disadvantages. As with the Ukrainian white breed, the sacrum is sometimes drooping.
The breed was obtained by crossing a Kuban pig with representatives of a large white, Berkshire and white short-eared. Today, in order to improve meat quality, North Caucasian pigs are crossed with Pietren. Animals are used for purebred breeding on an industrial scale.
Appearance. Strong animals with a wide head and chest. The trunk is barrel-shaped, the chest is deep. Hams are well made, legs are strong. The skeleton is thinner than that of pigs of similar stripes. Thick bristles in winter with soft undercoat. Color is motley.
Productivity The weight of adult boars reaches 350 kg, females - 230 kg. Differ in multiple fertility, give birth to an average of 10-11 piglets. By six months, babies reach a mass of 100-120 kg.
Growing and caring . North Caucasian pigs are adapted to sharply continental climate conditions. They can be kept in open-air pigsties all year round, and also make good use of pastures.
Merits . Precocity. Multiplicity and good maternal qualities. Calm disposition. The ability to be kept outdoors.
Disadvantages . Meat quality is not up to par. The backbone is thin.
Bred in Siberia, the breed is meat-bearing, adapted to the harsh conditions of the north. Kemerovo pigs are used for industrial crossbreeding with large whites, Landrace and Siberian. Animals are bred in Kazakhstan, in Siberia and the Far East.
Appearance. Large-sized animals with the correct body shape. The body length of females is 160-165 cm, boars - up to 170. The chest is wide, deep. Well-expressed hams. The ears are small, upright. The head is average. The color is black, with bright spots on the forehead, tail, limbs. The bristles are thick.
Productivity For one farrow, the female brings 10-12 piglets, the milk yield of the uterus is 60-65 kg. Kids gain 730-780 g per day. The weight of adult animals reaches 250-350 kg.
Growing and caring . Animals are hardy and viable. They can be grown in a difficult sharply continental climate. But with malnutrition, pigs feel unwell and sick.
Merits . Precocity. Good reproduction. Adaptation to the conditions of the northern regions. Calm nature.
Disadvantages. Demanding on the diet.
Combined type pig grown for meat and lard. The progenitors of the breed are large white, Berkshires and Landrases. Liven pigs were bred at the beginning of the 19th century, the breed was approved in 1949, by 1980, 60,000 individuals had been registered. These are strong, hardy animals with a calm disposition that have gained a good reputation due to quality meat.
Appearance. Large dimensions: the body is elongated (150-180 cm), chest girth 150-165 cm, high withers, strong build. The belly sags a little. The back is wide and straight. The head is short, profile snub. The ears are big. At the bottom of the neck are characteristic earrings. Color white with gray spots.
Productivity Pigs are characterized by good feeding properties. Adult individuals reach a weight of 250-330 kg (females and males, respectively). Sows are fertile, for one farrow they bring an average of 11 piglets.
Growing and caring . Animals are unpretentious and hardy, adapt to various conditions, remarkably tolerate pasture maintenance. They are not picky in food, they eat bulky feeds, rye, potatoes with pleasure.
Merits . Easy to care. Unpretentiousness in the choice of food. Developed maternal instinct and calm disposition.
Disadvantages . Friable constitution, large folds on the skin.
Universal breed, bred in the Murom district of the Vladimir region as a result of crossing a local breed and a Lithuanian white pig. Approved in 1957. The quality of the breed is still being improved.
Appearance. White suit. Animals of a strong constitution. They have a wide and harmonious body, the length of the boars reaches 185 cm, the females - 170 cm. The back is strong and straight. Legs are short, correctly set. The head is light, small. Ears are long and large, hanging down over the eyes. Skin without folds, elastic, bristles thick and light.
Productivity The uterus is fertile, giving birth to 10-12 piglets. Young growth quickly grows, gaining 100 kg by 6-7 months. Adults weigh 250 kg (females) and 330 kg (males).
Growing and caring . The breed is common in Central Russia, non-chernozem zone. Pigs adapt well to local feeds, are kept on pastures, and easily adapt to new conditions.
Merits . Calm disposition. Unpretentiousness in food. Precocity. Strong immunity.
Disadvantages. The external minus is the x-shaped setting of the legs.
These pigs were bred in the Yaroslavl region by breeding local animals with several breeds: Latvian fold and Polessk pigs, Danish Landrace, large and medium-sized white. In 1948, the breed was approved, and it massively spread throughout the country. Breit pigs are suitable for wet and cold climates, because they easily adapt to these conditions.
Appearance. Large animals with a proportional head and a slightly curved profile. Big ears hang over your eyes. The neck is pronounced, medium length. The body is muscular, legs are straight and strong, legs are pronounced. The skin is elastic, but with a large set of weights, wrinkles can form. The bristles are thick. The color is white, spotted individuals are rare.
Productivity High. For one farrow, the uterus brings 11-12, less often 13-14 babies. With proper nutrition, the daily weight gain is 680-750 g. Adult individuals reach a weight of 250-350 kg (depending on gender).
Growing and caring . Animals are hardy, adapt to different climatic conditions. They are bred not only in the central regions, but also in the Murmansk and Leningrad regions. Piglets and their mother require the main care - they must be kept dry and clean.
Merits . Breitovye pigs breed peaceable, caring for cubs. Picky in food. Adaptable to temperature changes. Meat of medium fat content.
Disadvantages. The breed needs to improve meat quality.
A popular universal breed, perfectly adapted to life in harsh climates. Bred in the Novosibirsk region by the method of reproductive crossing. The main indicator of all ancestors was the adaptability of animals to extreme weather conditions.
Appearance. On the exterior, they are similar to large white pigs - these are animals with a good physique. The chest circumference is 150-155 cm. A small head. Short but strong legs. Ears are standing. The bristles are light and long; there is a thick undercoat that helps to save from frost.
Productivity Females give birth to 10-13 cubs. Maternal instinct is developed, therefore young growth survives well until adulthood, gaining 700-750 g of weight daily. Adult animals weigh up to 360 kg (boars) and 250 kg (females).
Growing and caring . Ideal for breeding in extreme conditions (gained distribution in Siberia and Kazakhstan). Thick bristles protect from severe frosts in winter and midges in summer. But ideally, pigs should be kept in enclosed enclosures, protected from moisture and winds.
Merits . Hardy pigs with a calm character. They tolerate frosts perfectly. Multiple, good mothers.
Disadvantages. Exterior - arched limbs, hanging sacrum in some individuals.
In recent years, sebaceous breeds compete with the universal and meat. Their obvious advantage is the rapid weight gain of animals, the early accumulation of body fat under the skin. In just 8-10 months of fattening, you can get delicious fat and meat. They make up about 40-50% of the entire carcass of an animal.
Compared to the other two species, the reproducibility is lower.
Farmers opt for this type of pig for obvious advantages:
- multiple pregnancy persisting in descendants;
- short gestation period (from 112 to 116 days);
- massive body and meaty hams.
Early-breed, bred in the county of Great Britain with the same name in the middle of the 19th century. Their ancestors: English, Neapolitan, Siamese and Chinese breeds. In Russia, Berkshirov was approved in 1975. Their genes are still actively used by breeders. Many famous pig suits were brought out of them. Berkshirov is conditionally classified as a meat-bearing direction, but it all depends on fattening.
Appearance. Animals with a strong constitution, an elongated and voluminous body. The back is wide. The skeleton of the boars is well developed, in females it is tender. Legs are strong, short, hams are developed. The head is large, but light, ears sticking forward and up. The color is black, there are light spots on the tips of the tail, snout and legs. The skin is thin and without wrinkles, the bristles are long, thick.
Productivity The average weight of adult wild boars is 220-250 kg, females - from 180 to 220 kg. Weights of 100 kg of piglets reach by 197-200 days. The uterus is not very fertile, on average, give birth to 6-9 cubs.
Growing and caring . The breed is popular among farmers in different regions of Russia, as it is unpretentious, easily acclimatized. Piglets gain weight quickly. Pigs are famous for their unpretentiousness in the content, but require a special diet. Berkshires feel comfortable in open spaces, can be kept on pastures.
Merits . Good early maturity, high fattening qualities. Slaughter yield - 88%. Products with a good ratio of meat and fat. Unpretentiousness in the maintenance and to forage.
Disadvantages. Animals are prone to obesity. Females are infertile. Of the external imperfections, pug, carp-shaped back, and x-shaped limbs are distinguished.
A species of pig bred in England. Ancestors - Chinese and Neapolitan, as well as English long-eared. The breed is suitable for crossbreeding with other breeds, during which all its indicators are improved. Pigs are raised for meat, lard and breeding. This is one of the most popular lines in the world.
Appearance. The exterior is characteristic of sebaceous rocks: the body is large, the sternum is barrel-shaped, the back is wide. The big head has the right proportions. The ears are long, drooping. Legs are short, voluminous ham. The coat is thick and black, without markings. Due to the sagging of the sacrum, deep folds form on the body.
Productivity An adult wild boar can reach a mass of 380 kg. Smaller females - up to 255 kg. For their breed, animals are fertile, give birth to 11-15 piglets at a time. Young growth quickly gaining weight, by 10 months - up to 200 kg.
Growing and caring . Animals are not selective in food, adapt well to climatic conditions, tolerate both cold and heat. In summer they prefer pastures, and in winter they are kept indoors.
Merits . Precocity. Fertility. It has a strong physique.
Disadvantages. Saggy butt, folds on the skin.
The Mirgorod pig breed was bred in the 19th century, but finally approved in 1940. Homeland - Ukraine, Poltava region. They got it by crossing local pigs (short-eared colorful coat) and wild boars of Temvors, Berkshirs, medium and large white breeds. Mirgorodskaya is well known in Ukraine, the quality and thickness of its fat is considered the reference.
Appearance. They are characterized by a strong constitution, deep and wide, and chest, voluminous body of moderate length. The back is straight. The head is average. Legs are medium long, strong. Hams are rounded and massive. The skin is smooth. The color is black-motley in most cases, but sometimes pigs of red, black and black-red color are found.
Productivity For farrowing the uterus, 10 or more babies are born. From the first days of life, piglets are actively gaining weight. By three years, the mass of boars reaches 280-300 kg, females - 220-240 kg. In pedigree factories, performance is even higher.
Growing and caring . The animals are unpretentious in care, they are happy to eat a variety of feeds. In the southern regions, pigs spend most of their time on pasture, saving on grain feed. At the stall, you can replace them with bulk feed.
Merits . Good slaughter weight: 85% of fat mass, of which 30% is the weight of fat. Animals are characterized by calm disposition, unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention.
Disadvantages. A small proportion of lean meat in pork carcasses. Some do not like its taste.
One of the oldest breeds in the world, bred in 1833 in Hungary. Descended from wild pigs crossed with the Carpathian brazier. The breed appeared in Russia in 1945. Pigs were brought to the North Caucasus and the Moscow Region in large quantities.
Appearance. Outwardly, the Mangalitsky pig is difficult to confuse with any other because of its chic curly hair resembling a sheep. The color of animals can be different: red, black, white. In winter, the hair curls. At the edge of the ears there is a dark spot - a sign of breed. Sizes of pigs are average. Legs are powerful, with hard hooves.
Productivity Females bring few piglets - from 4 to 6 pieces, rarely more. At the age of one year, the average weight of females does not exceed 150 kg, and wild boars - 180 kg. By three years, reaches 300 kg.
Growing and caring . Mangalitsky pigs are not picky about keeping, perfectly adapted to pastures. They are ready to stay on a walk both in winter and in summer. If you keep animals in the open, their hair will be thick and warm. And if you translate into a warm room for winter time, it will become common.
Merits . Possibility of grazing all year round. Good immunity, practically do not need vaccinations. Mild disposition.
Disadvantages. Low fecundity. Tendency to obesity. Rare view.
When choosing which breed to breed, it is important to consider many factors: where it is supposed to breed animals (type of stall, climatic conditions), in what quantities, which direction of productivity to make the main. It is more profitable to stay on animals adapted to the conditions of keeping and feed of the area where they will be raised.