The weight of cattle is an important indicator for the breeder. It is not only associated with the health of the bull or cow, but will also have an effect on productivity and on the growth of live weight in the future. Depending on the weight, the farmer develops a livestock diet and calculates the dose of vaccination.
What does weight depend on?
The weight of an individual depends on the following criteria:
- sex - bulls are usually larger than the cows by 350 kg;
In cattle breeding, several categories of cattle (cattle) are distinguished by weight category:
- perfect - a bull or a cow weighs more than 450 kg;
- first grade - the weight of the animal reaches 450 kg;
- second grade - the mass is in the limit of 400 kg;
- third grade - an animal weighing 300 kg.
An error of 30 kg is allowed for an adult. If the weight is very different from the average, then this indicates an unhealthy diet or the presence of diseases.
Also, the weight of the animal may depend on:
- conditions of detention;
If a person cannot influence the climate, then he can create favorable conditions for breadwinners.
The barn should have good lighting, a relaxed atmosphere and no noise. It is necessary to maintain a certain temperature regime - for adult cows, the thermometer columns in the stable should not fall below +10 ° C, and for calves - +15 ° C.
Cows must be able to walk in the fresh air, but there are nuances here. So, long pasture is contraindicated for meat cows. They begin to lose their weight, the optimal solution is to keep them in the stall for longer. Dairy representatives, on the contrary, need long walks in the pasture.
Nutrition should be balanced and quality. Be sure to feed the cattle:
- vegetable feed (these are succulent - silage, grass, fresh root crops; rough - hay, straw and concentrated feed - grain, bran, cake);
- animals - meat, fish and bone meal;
- compound feed and feed mixtures;
- vitamin-mineral supplements are added to food.
Average livestock weight
A bull is a heavyweight, whose weight can reach tons and even 1600 kg, if we consider meat breeds. On average, the arrow on the scales will indicate 700-800 kg.
The average cow weight reaches approximately 350 kg, two-year-old meat breeds will be larger - 700 kg or more.
The mass of the newborn calf is 10% of the mother's weight, on average it is 40 kg, but do not forget that it can vary depending on the breed of the parents. After a month, the calf weight should increase by at least 10 kg, but usually healthy calves double their weight. Young growth must be regularly weighed in order to notice a growth lag in time and identify the cause.
Weight of cattle, depending on breed
In animal husbandry, three types of breed are distinguished:
- dairy ;
- meat and dairy;
Dairy breeds produce more fat milk, but their meat is less nutritious. On average, cows weigh 500 kg and bulls 800 kg. The Holstein breed is the record holder for body weight. Cows have impressive dimensions with a mass of 800 kg, and the weight of the bulls exceeds one ton.
Representatives of meat breeds gain weight very quickly. They have better meat due to the special development of muscles. Burenki can boast a weight of 550-800 kg, and bulls from 800 kg or more, often their weight exceeds one ton.
Meat and dairy breeds are generalists providing the owner with milk and meat. Of course, they will give less milk than dairy representatives, and less meat compared to meat gobies. Cows weigh an average of 550 kg, and bulls about 900 kg.
How often to weigh cattle?
Young animals are weighed immediately after calving, then every 2 weeks, and then once every six months. For adults, this procedure is performed less frequently, but at least twice a year. It is recommended to weigh the animal before the morning meal.
How to find out the weight of the animal yourself?
Not every farmer has scales for weighing livestock, as well as time and money to carry livestock to this procedure. Therefore, other measurements are often used that help determine the approximate weight of a cow or a bull with an error of plus or minus 10 kg.
Popular types of weighing:
[tw_list no = "1 ″] Using weights [/ tw_list]
Scales greatly simplify the weighing procedure. The animal is brought to the platform, and the arrow of the scales stops at a figure that corresponds to the mass of the animal.
[tw_list no = "2 ″] Trukhanovsky’s method [/ tw_list]
For this method, you need to stock up with a measuring device - a centimeter and a rope in case the centimeter is not enough.
First, you need to find out two indicators:
- chest circumference a (cm) - measure the circumference of the chest immediately after the shoulder blades;
- the direct length of cattle (cm), we denote it - b is the distance from the base of the neck to the base of the tail. Measure with a stick.
Then the values are substituted into the formula: live weight (kg) = ((a * b) / 100) * k,
where k is the coefficient. For dairy categories k = 2, for meat breeds k = 2.5.
The error of the method is 5-7% of live weight, however, it has an advantage much more - the determination of weight can be carried out in any conditions, even in a farm with a large number of livestock.
[tw_list no = "3 ″] The Kluwer-Strauch Method [/ tw_list]
This method also requires measurement, but special tables are used to calculate mass. This is more convenient, since it is not necessary to make calculations.
Two indicators are measured:
- girth of the chest (cm), as in the previous case;
- oblique body length (cm) - measurement is made from the base of the humerus to the sciatic protrusion.
In the table, based on these two indicators, they look for the correspondence of the mass of the animal:
This method helps to find out the weight of adult livestock, as their skeleton is already formed. But, it does not take into account which category - meat or dairy animal belongs to.
[tw_list no = "4 ″] Indirect methods for calculating mass [/ tw_list]
In most cases, they have a huge flaw - this is a big error. It can reach 40-60 kg. For example, there is a table for calculating weight for only one indicator - full chest circumference. This method is suitable only for one breed of cows - Schwycki. For other cows this option is unacceptable, since the error will have a very high rate.
And also there is a specialized tape for measuring cattle, which deserves the attention of livestock breeders. Here it is also necessary to carry out only one measurement - this is the circumference of the chest, in the place where the ribs end. Then they look for the result in the table. When measuring, the animal should stand still, if it breaks out, then several measurements should be made and the average figure should be calculated. The tape should fit snugly to the skin of the animal.
The weight of young calves is calculated differently. To calculate the weight of calves from 6 months to 2 years of age, use the table where the chest circumference (cm) is correlated with the weight of the animal. So, with a chest girth of 59 cm, the heifers will weigh an average of 20 kg, and at 100 cm - 84 kg. Breeders should buy these tables so that they are always at hand.
There is another table for determining the weight of young animals, in which the girth of the chest behind the shoulder blades and the oblique length of the body are correlated:
|Chest circumference behind the shoulder blades, cm||Oblique body length|
The weight of cows, bulls and calves can be determined in different ways - direct and indirect. But do not forget that the increase in mass of each animal is different. It depends on the genetic predisposition, breed and orientation of livestock. When calculating the weight using tables and formulas, do not forget about the errors. More precisely, the weight of the burenka can be found only with the help of weights.