Czech goats have a special grace and calm. This meat and dairy breed has become a favorite and promising for many goats breeders. The animals are unpretentious in care, give healthy milk, dietary meat, and are highly valued in wool and skin. In the territory of the Russian Federation, Czech goats have been bred for several years, especially in agriculture in the Pskov, Voronezh and Sverdlovsk regions, in the Altai and Primorsky Territories, in Khakassia.
History of breed origin
Czech goats are known as Brown Shorthaired Goat, Czech Shorthair or Brown. Animals first appeared in the second half of the twentieth century. Alpine and German brown goats are considered their ancestors. In the modern world, there are about 400,000 heads that are raised on private or commercial farms, have become the main source of income for many goats breeders.
Breed Standards and Appearance
The goat is short-haired, has a thick undercoat and a strong physique. The color of the skin depends on the region of cultivation and genetics - from milk chocolate to dark brown. A dark strip runs along the ridge line, so this breed is definitely not to be confused. Czech goats have small, spread ears, a triangular and elongated muzzle, a short tail. Only black males have a beard. A distinctive feature of Czeches from other breeds is dark triangles behind the ears.
Most individuals are hornless (without horns). Outwardly, they resemble dogs, the behavior of the same smart, quick-witted and friendly. There are Czech goats with horns, but no more than 20% of them. If we continue the comparison with dogs, these pets also remember their nicknames, react when they are pronounced, know simple commands and execute them.
The weight of an adult goat reaches 75-80 kg, females - no more than 55 kg. At the withers, the male is up to 85 cm, the chest circumference is 90-110 cm. The height of the adult goat does not exceed 75 cm, the chest circumference is up to 100 cm. Outwardly, the male and the female can be easily distinguished: he is larger, has a more muscular body. The filled udder of a goat resembles a soft bag; when emptied, it wrinkles into a crease.
Productivity of Czech goats
It is beneficial to keep animals in large and small-scale agriculture. For most of the year, goats provide nutritious milk , dietary meat, valuable hide and litter, which is used as a rich fertilizer. Breeders do not spend much on keeping Czechs, so the direction is promising.
Czech goats have lean meat, which is actively used in dietetics. When the kid is slaughtered for 6 months, the output is 20 kg of fresh meat, and the one-year-old is up to 45 kg. As the animal grows older, these figures increase.
Breeders often slaughter goats at the age of 1.5 years, due to high meat productivity.
The taste of Czech goat meat resembles veal, but the color is slightly darker. The layer of white fat is insignificant. The meat is tender and soft, but fibrous. To increase the performance of meat productivity, the animal is well fed before slaughter. Goat meat has a peculiar smell, which many do not like. To get rid of him, males are neutered. Before cooking, the meat is steeped for several hours in spices and marinade.
The lactation period in females lasts 280-300 days a year. Such indicators of milk yield increase the popularity and demand for Czech goats in agriculture. For a year, you can get 1,000 kg of milk with a fat content of 3.5%. With good care, this figure increases to 2,000 kg. The composition of milk contains 3% protein, 5% lactose. The daily milk yield of an adult goat varies from 4 to 6 liters.
Czech goat milk has a rich creamy taste, pleasant aroma. From it you can make sour cream, cheese, butter, cheese. Dairy products are well absorbed in the body, do not cause allergies, and do not upset digestion. This hypoallergenic product is part of baby food, useful for the immunity of the child.
This organic fertilizer is rich in nitrogen, widely used in agriculture. For 1 year the Czech goat gives 500 kg of litter (for free grazing), 1000 kg (for living in a stall).
Fresh manure can not be used in concentrated form, otherwise you can ruin the crop (burn the roots of plants).
To make fertilizers suitable for agriculture, the litter must be 6 months in a compost pit. Organic waste is added there. Ready fertilizer is used in spring - before plowing.
Advantages and disadvantages
When choosing goats for breeding, breeders take into account the advantages and disadvantages of each breed. Czech goats are especially in demand, and here are some criteria:
- unpretentiousness in food;
- stable immunity with proper care and feeding;
- high milk production rate;
- rapid growth (at 7 months weight up to 25 kg);
- lack of a stable smell in males (appears only during mating);
- long lactation;
- high fecundity;
- affordable price.
The breed of Czech goats has its drawbacks, but they are in the minority:
- poor tolerance to low temperatures;
- the risk of attack by bloodsucking insects due to short hair;
- heat intolerance;
- reduced milk yield in the summer.
Features of maintenance and cultivation
Czech goats are hardy and prolific, if properly fed and maintained. There are several features of care:
- Living conditions . Take care that each animal has a separate elevator bed or underfloor heating in the barn. Keep males and females separately, otherwise the offspring will be unplanned. Clean the room regularly, as there is a risk of microbial reproduction.
- Feeding. Since animals are unpretentious in food, in the winter feed them with prepared hay, and in the summer with green grass. To increase milk yield in the winter, enrich the Czech goat's daily ration with compound feed, food waste, and fresh vegetables. In the summer, graze animals regularly, because from the green grass they get the maximum amount of vitamins and valuable trace elements for stable immunity.
Goat House Equipment
In order for the animal to give good milk and offspring, to bring income to the breeder, it is necessary to equip the goat house by all the rules. Observe the following prerequisites:
- Prepare a bright and airy room for the goats (4 sq. M per animal).
- Make a shed of wood and cover with straw, insulate with mineral wool on the outside.
- Make the floors concrete to make it easier to clean off the litter. To maintain heat, cover them with straw.
- Take the windows to the south, set at 1.5 meters from the floor.
- Eliminate dampness and drafts, otherwise the animal will be sick, and milk yield will decrease.
- Install a ventilation system in the barn so that fresh air circulates in the room.
- Think of a lighting system, for example, for a room of 20 square meters. m enough light bulbs 120-150 watts.
- Set the cups. A goat should always have access to clean water. Lock the cup in one position so that the animal does not turn it around.
- Build a wooden platform, because goats like to relax in their stalls on a hill.
- Partition the room into separate pens to isolate males and females.
- Equip the walking yard from the south side, clean well after each grazing of Czechs.
Czech goats are heat-loving animals, but they cannot tolerate extreme heat, dampness, and are sick from drafts and low ambient temperatures. The permissible moisture content in the barn is not more than 75%. The optimum temperature is 15-16 degrees Celsius in the summer and at least 5 degrees in the winter.
If there is no place to set up a walking yard, a goat can graze on the front lawn. To do this, stock up with a metal peg and a rope (chain) 3-5 m long. When the animal has eaten all the grass in one place, transfer it to another. Also drive the stake into the ground and leave the Czech for grazing.
Coarse foods include hay, straw, thin branches, young shoots, dry leaves. In the daily diet of the Czech goat you need from 1 to 3 kg of such ingredients. Concentrated feeds include barley, oats, bran, corn. Adults are given up to 1 kg of such additives per day, young growth is enough for 500 g. In order not to disturb the digestion of the goat, crush the grain before feeding, dilute the concentrate with water, grind the cake.
When feeding goats, do not spill grain on the floor. In the barn you need to install special feeders, otherwise dangerous microbes enter the body with food. The same goes for feeding Czech women on the street. Do not sprinkle grain on the ground; there must be a portable feeder made of wood, hard plastic or metal. Wash it after each feeding.
Feeding the animal depends on the time of year, gender and the ultimate goals of the goat breeder in relation to a particular individual. The following types of feed should be present in the daily diet:
- Dry . More suitable for a winter diet . This is hay from field grass and legumes, which the goat should eat from 1 to 2.5 kg per day. Each time, give a fresh serving, because stagnant food smells unpleasant, loses its appetizing appearance. Dry food also includes barley straw and oats.
- Green More suitable for the summer period, it is economically beneficial for goats growers. Choose pastures where ryegrass, fescue, timothy grow. In the daily diet of the goat, there should also be legumes, for example, peas, alfalfa, lupine.
- Dietary, mineral . Supplements and mineral mixtures give the goats year-round. Beans and cereals, wheat bran, beet pulp, and mineral mixtures are especially useful.
- Succulent . More suitable for lactation, promotes milk production. These are vegetables with a high moisture content. In moderate portions, give the Czechs stems of bushes, as well as boiled potatoes and fodder beets.
After birth, the kids get on their feet for 2 days. Up to 12 weeks, the litter feeds on milk 4 times a day. As they grow older (by 4-5 months), hay is introduced into the daily menu. Mandatory presence of 4-6 g of salt per day. By the age of 7-8 months, the goats are allowed to feed, boiled oatmeal, chalk, chopped vegetables. A teenager for 8 months per day should eat 1 kg of succulent feed, 1.5 kg of hay and 200 g of animal feed. From early childhood, kids graze with adult animals, for the first time in warm weather.
Read more about how and what to feed the kids in this article on our website.
When choosing a diet for Czech goat, remember about the dangerous ingredients:
- Hay with mold. Dry food spoils if storage and storage technology for the winter is violated. The goat develops colic, digestion is disturbed, and a veterinarian needs emergency care.
- Harmful plants. Among them are representatives of the Rhododendron family. These are edible plants, but after a meal, the goat opens up vomiting and diarrhea. If you don’t provide the animal with timely help, it may die. Therefore, make sure that there are no such plants in the grazing areas of Czech goats.
Basic rules of drinking
Czech goats feed 3-4 times a day at the same time intervals. Responsibly not only to feed the animals, but also to drink them. The quality and quantity of milk yield, the health of Czechs depends on these indicators. Valuable recommendations from experienced goats breeders:
- In hot weather, the shed should always have clean water in the drinkers. Goats drink it in unlimited quantities.
- The number of cups should correspond to the number of goals in the barn.
- In winter, goats drink in the morning and in the evening, a portion of water is not limited (until the animal gets drunk). On average, each Czech woman needs from 5 to 8 liters of fluid per day.
- The optimum temperature of the water varies from 6 to 10 degrees, this indicator should not be violated.
- In winter, water for goats is slightly salted; in summer, special salt is next to the drinker. In the absence of this component, animals become lethargic, eat poorly, and milk less.
- After watering, the remaining liquid is poured out of the cups. It is advisable to change the water up to 2-3 times a day.
- It is necessary to carefully clean the green algae on the walls of the drinking bowl.
Czech goats are a short-haired breed that also needs careful grooming. Comb animals daily. To remove dirt, dust and excess hair, use special rubber brushes, as for horse care. During washing, the water should be warm.
For the treatment and prophylaxis of parasites, treat the animal’s hair with special means (the range in veterinary pharmacies is extensive). If the Czech goat has fleas, additionally treat the shed with copper sulfate. In this case, use antiparasitic drugs daily until the bloodsuckers have completely disappeared.
After each grazing, remove dirt from the sole of the animal, otherwise sensitive skin becomes inflamed. Trim the hooves twice a year.
- Soak the animal's hooves in a solution of copper sulfate.
- Clean them from accumulated dirt.
- Cut the hooves from toe to heel.
- Make sure the cut is the same.
- Perform similar manipulations with the rest of the hooves.
Czech goats are considered sexually mature by 4-6 months, goats - at the age of one and a half years. At 7-8 months, females can bring the first offspring, but the weight of the kids is much less than that of one-year-old Czech women. Breeders have sexually mature individuals at 2 years of age with a weight of 40-45 kg. The offspring are strong and hardy.
The case of Czech goats is seasonal in nature, most often in the period August-December. It is recommended that animals be bred no more than 1 time per year. Females breed from 21 to 23 weeks. To ensure that the offspring is healthy, in addition to grains and compound feed, up to 2.5 kg of fresh vegetables are added to the diet once a week. It is better not to feed large-sized wheat grains of pregnant goats, but you can include coniferous branches, compound feed, and oats in the diet.
Offspring appear in the spring. More often in the litter there are 1-2 little goats, who get on their feet 1 hour after birth and actively run around their mother.
Crossbreeding with other breeds
A purebred Czech goat when crossed increases the quality of the offspring of outbred females. Such experiments have their consequences. Mestizo milk in all respects is worse than purebred individuals, the layer of fat is thicker. If the goal of the goat breeder is high income, then a good profit is obtained from the offspring of “pure blood”.
In agriculture, goats of different breeds are often crossed. For example, in the case of Czech and Zaanensky breeds, the offspring is strong, frost-resistant, and gives high milk production rates. Animals are short-haired with a thick undercoat, have a cream shade, for one litter they bring up to 3 kids.
Experienced goats breeders argue that you should not cross Czech with purebred goats. Practice shows that in the second and third generations of such mestizos, the quality and quantity of milk is significantly reduced. Better to bet on the mating of purebred individuals.
Goats rarely get sick, but if you violate the rules of care and feeding, you may still need emergency care by a veterinarian. Below are the most common goat diseases :
- Sharp tympany . The reason is feeding the goat a large amount of foods that cause fermentation. Symptoms - swollen stomach, lack of chewing gum and appetite. If treatment is not started on time, the goat may die.
- Gastroenteritis The reason is a sharp change in the diet of young animals. Symptoms - constipation, followed by diarrhea, lack of appetite, high fever, impaired breathing. In addition to correcting goat nutrition, antibiotics are prescribed.
- Pneumonia The reasons are suffering stress, overheating or hypothermia, errors in the daily diet. Symptoms - high fever, wheezing in the lungs, impaired pulse, lack of appetite. Treatment is with injectable antibiotics.
- Vitamin deficiency . Causes - lack of vitamins A, B, C, E. in the body. Symptoms - growth retardation, impaired coordination of movements, lack of appetite. Medication is not required if you balance the daily intake of Czech goats.
- Mastitis . The reasons are a violation of milking technology, trauma of the udder, poor animal care. Symptoms - pus and cereal in milk, hardening of the mammary glands. Without antibiotics, the condition of the goat worsens.
To avoid diseases of Czech goats, take care of effective preventive measures in a timely manner:
- Maintain dry and clean sheds, monitor proper nutrition of domestic goats .
- When choosing feed and mineral supplements, consider the age of the goats, especially the life span.
- Timely carry out preventive vaccinations of young animals, go to the veterinarian for an examination for tuberculosis, brecellosis.
- Regularly clean and trim the hooves, otherwise it is very likely to cause a dangerous infection.
- At the first symptoms of the disease, do not self-medicate, urgently call a veterinarian at home.
Marina, 47 years old, farmer, Kaliningrad region.
Czech goats are my favorite. Animals are unpretentious in food, give tasty milk and a lot - 5 liters per day. They all understand, quickly remember their nicknames and even respond to them. The behavior is meek, they do not conflict in the barnyard. I don’t even tie them to the pasture; they come home on their own. I haven’t cut a single goat yet, but they say that their meat is tasty, tender.
Svetlana, 42 years old, farmer, Black Sea region, Crimea.
I have purebred Czechs and mestizos in my household. There are differences. Milk is tastier and richer with purebreds, while I like meat more with mestizos. In any case, the goats are meek and obedient, they do not cause any problems in their care. They rarely get sick, the main thing is that there are no drafts in the shed. I have so one Czech was very ill, but got out.
Ivan, 51 years old, farmer, Rostov-on-Don.
I am pleased with my Czechs. They give a lot of milk, the granddaughter loves him very much. They also tried meat for the wedding, tender, reminded me of rabbit meat. Czech goats themselves are flexible, not picky in food, unpretentious in care. Twice already there was a litter, there were no problems with the kids either. This is my favorite dairy breed.
Czech goats have become not only a source of profit, but also reliable helpers in agriculture. The complaisant character and quick wit made the animals darlings in the barnyard.