Under the same conditions of detention, some goats give 2 liters of milk per day, while others all 5. Why milk production of goats is so different, and whether a person can influence it - further in the article.
When do goats start giving milk?
The presence of an udder in a goat does not mean that it will be a continuous source of milk. To become dairy, the goat must first become pregnant and give birth to offspring. The first goat milk is given after the first lambing. The goat's body produces milk to feed a kid, but thoroughbred high-yield goats give so much milk that it is enough for personal consumption.
There are two options for raising offspring:
- Separated from the goat mother. The kids are given part of the milk, and the rest goes into business - for sale, the manufacture of dairy products, etc.
- Together with the goat. Milking a goat begins in 3-4 months - after the kids are transferred to normal feed. We also recommend reading an article on how to feed kids .
Before lambing - in a few days, the udder becomes fuller, acquires elasticity. Goats are milked after lambing; before that, the udder is only washed and lightly massaged to improve blood circulation. Having nodded, the goat is milked for 6-7 months, a maximum of 9. In recent months, milk has become less, it loses quality and fat content.
After 6-9 months, the goat finishes the milking season, and in order to again become a source of milk, she will again bring the offspring.
Down and meat goats give very little milk - it is barely enough for posterity, therefore they are not milked after lambing.
How many liters of milk does a goat produce per day?
The daily milk yield is determined by the breed and individual characteristics. Goat milk production is also affected by diet and conditions. To get a lot of milk from a goat, you need to choose a dairy breed. And how to contain dairy goats so that they give good milk yield - read here .
The most productive Swiss goats are considered - from Alpine, Saanen and Toggenburg breeds receive 6-8 liters of milk per day.
Approximate yields of ordinary average goats:
- Average milk yield per day - 2 liters of milk. At peak periods, when there are kids on the suction, the milk yield reaches 4 liters.
- The average weekly milk yield is 14 liters of milk.
- Monthly spring / summer milk yield - 55/80 l.
- Annual milk yield - 400 liters.
- The amount of milk received from a goat over its entire life is 4-5 tons. It all depends on how many years the animal will live, in what conditions it will be kept, and on many other factors.
These are very general, averaged numbers. There are breeds that produce 1000 liters of milk per year. For each breed and for each goat - its own indicators.
Goat's milk yield is not constant. Milking varies with age and with the number of lambing. First, productivity increases with each lamb, and then gradually decreases. On average, dairy goats live and milk for 15 years.
The number of yields per breed
The first place in the ranking of factors affecting the yield of a goat is a breed. The only drawback of highly milk dairy goats is their cost. Swiss goat prices start at 20,000 rubles.
The goat record was set by the goat of the Saanen breed - its annual milk yield amounted to 3,000 liters.
If the Swiss goat can not afford it, you can be content with a domestic breed - for example, Gorky or Russian, they give about 3 liters of milk per day - this is less than the Swiss, but more than ordinary goats.
Table 1 - average daily productivity for different breeds of goats.
|Day milk yield, l||Fat%||Lactation period, days||Milk productivity, l / year|
Adaptability to the Russian climate
The volume of milk depending on the age of the goat
The volume of milk depends on the age of the goat. Maximum milk yields begin after the 3rd lambing. Often goats who have reached 6 years of age are called "old", in fact, from this age animals enter the time of maximum productivity.
Milking by Goat Age:
- The original dairy goat gives up to 5 liters of milk.
- After 2-3 lambing - up to 9 liters.
The difference between the first and maximum milk yields is 40-50%.
Milk quantity and seasonality
Seasonality affects the volume of milk production through the diet, living conditions, and feeding. The greatest milk yields are in summer, during the period of succulent feed, the smallest ones are in winter. So that in the wintertime milk production does not fall catastrophically, the goat menu is enriched:
- vitamin and mineral complexes;
- root crops;
For more information on feeding goats in winter, see this article . Proper feeding of a goat will help to get not only a large amount of milk, but also strong offspring.
Goat lactation begins immediately after birth. It lasts about seven months. If lambing in spring, then the goat will be milked before winter. Then the goat is launched.
Milking for a period of 8 months or more depletes the body of the animal. In addition, milk yield after 7 months is very scarce, and milk is not fat.
How many times a day a goat is milked?
Goats are usually milked 2 times a day. After lambing - 5-6 times, and then gradually reduce the number of milking. When the goat has the maximum milk yield - the first 4-5 months of lactation, 3 times milking is practiced. When the volume of milk falls, they switch to a one-time milking - milk is dispensed in the morning.
Why do milk yield fall?
Common causes of falling milk yields:
- The goat keeping rules have been violated. If the stall is damp, dirty, stuffy, cold (the temperature has dropped below +6 ° C), then there will be little milk.
- Unexpected menu change.
- Feeding raw potatoes.
- The mode (quantity and time) of milking has been violated.
- Violation of the rules of hygiene.
- Trauma to the udder.
How to increase milk yield?
The amount of milk yield is influenced by a host of factors, including weather and human attitudes. To get the most milk, it is recommended:
- Give the animals more green food.
- Provide easy access to water. A goat drinks about 5 liters of water per day.
- Invite a veterinarian regularly for an examination.
- Walking goats even in winter.
- Adjust the duration of pregnancy. If the animal will be reared in the summer - when there is a lot of succulent food, the milk yield will be higher.
- Do not reduce the goat in the first year of life. The young organism is still developing, and the additional load of the goat will only hurt.
- Giving pumpkin, apples, turnip.
The productivity of goats is 70% dependent on maintenance, feeding and care, and 30% on the breed.
For milk yield to be large, goats need a complete and balanced diet. Features of feeding goats:
- Daily goat give 1-3 kg of roughage.
- The daily rate of hay from forest or meadow grass is 2.1-2.6 kg.
- Half the daily rate of hay can be replaced with branches. The nutritional value of branches is twice as high as hay.
- They give concentrates - 0.9-1 kg (oats, corn, bran, barley). The nutritional value of concentrates is 2.6 times higher than that of hay.
- They give finely divided grain and oilcake, bran soaked in water, concentrates in the composition of mixtures.
- During stalling, the diet is replenished with root crops, silage, and potatoes.
The breeder shares his experience in increasing milk yield in goats in the following video:
The recommended composition and norms of juicy foods are in table 3.
|chopped turnip, beets, carrots|
Do not interfere with goats and table waste. Milking is favorably affected by the consumption of food waste and potato peel - they are mixed with bran or crushed. Also, a goat should receive 10 g of salt daily, and in the second half of sucrose - chalk and bone meal in an amount of 20 g.
How to choose a high yield goat?
When buying an adult goat, it is important to find out how old she is and how many lamb she had. You should also pay attention to its appearance. In healthy and thoroughbred animals:
- good posture - the front and back of the back are on the same level;
- pear-shaped udder with nipples pointing in opposite directions and forward;
- the udder does not have a clear division into 2 halves;
- the udder has thin skin, without coat and hardening;
- 32 teeth - they begin to fall out after 4 years.
The goat belongs to animals whose productivity is extremely responsive to the conditions of detention. To take advantage of the dairy opportunities of highly productive goats, it is necessary to provide them with not only comfortable living and a full diet, but also a calm atmosphere, without stress and sudden changes in lifestyle.