To facilitate work on farms today, various automatic and mechanized devices are used. These mechanisms include food dispensers. Thanks to them, caring for animals becomes easier, their nutritional conditions improve, and business profitability increases.
Appointment of the mechanism and principle of action
A food distributor for animals is a special mechanism that receives, transports and distributes a predetermined amount of feed or mixtures to livestock feeders. These devices can distribute coarse, green and vegetable feed, as well as various mixtures.
Similar mechanisms should:
- observe the indicated doses with an acceptable slight deviation;
- provide timely, uniform and accurate feed;
- be safe for people and animals;
- keep the feed in its pure form, without pollution;
- Avoid stratification of feed ingredients in mixtures.
The advantages of using technology
There is no point in buying expensive equipment to keep one goat or a cow, but it will be difficult to cope with a large livestock manually. Let's look at all the clear benefits of farm automation:
- the presence of dispensers that make it possible to control the amount of food supplied to animals;
- reduction of time and labor spent on feeding livestock;
- grinding and, if necessary, processing the feed before feeding it;
- transportation of feed to the place of feeding;
- monitoring the cooking process;
- temperature control of feed and mixtures;
- reduction in the cost of production.
All these advantages of automation help to control the consumption of feed products and greatly facilitate the process of feeding livestock. Using such devices, you can increase farm income and at the same time economically reduce its maintenance.
There are various models of feed distributors adapted to the specific content and needs of the animals. The main classification implies mechanisms that differ in the method of movement, distribution option and the ability to transport a certain weight of feed.
By the way of moving
The way of movement is the main feature by which the feeders are distinguished. Depending on whether the device can be moved, equipment for farms is selected.
Distributors can be:
- Stationary Such equipment is installed above or near the feeders and cannot be moved. The peculiarity of such mechanisms is that they deliver food in containers directly from the bins, where they are preparing for use of the mixture.
- Mobile . They look like carts with a feed tank. Such devices can take food for livestock in any designated place and transport it to the feeders, evenly distributing. This equipment is mainly intended for dry and green food. Moving is done using equipment - a car or a tractor.
- Partially mobile (dispensers-mixers). This is the type of mechanisms that transport feed in liquid or semi-liquid consistency. Their movement is carried out on special tracks located on the floor of the building, so the movement of the devices is limited. But their advantage is that they can mix the feed before serving, making the food uniform.
partially mobile (mixer dispenser)
The advantage of stationary devices in their simple device and ease of installation. They are used mainly on small farms. On the side of mobile mechanisms - the ability to deliver food anywhere and ease of use.
Stationary devices for cattle can be:
- tape - have in their device a special roller tape;
- platform - a conveyor is operating that delivers feed in doses;
- scraper - chain-scraper conveyors move along a gutter of concrete;
- cable-washer - the feed is delivered using a cable with fixed washers moving inside the pipe.
The movement of mobile dispensers takes place on tractor units or on the frame of a car, but there are also completely autonomous mechanisms powered by electricity. As for the dispensers-mixers, they work under the control of operators using levers and a remote control and also “feed” on electricity.
By type of distribution
The type of distribution of feed distributing mechanisms can also be different. There are devices that feed and mix only on one side and those that can do this on both sides of the tank where the animals eat.
Differences in load capacity show how much weight the distributor can bring. This classification is typical for mobile devices. This indicator depends on the number of axles of the tractors and the carrying capacity of the chassis of the vehicles on which the distributor is installed.
The average load ratings of feed distributing devices can be as follows:
- equipment with a single axis - 1.1-3.0 tons;
- for mechanisms with two axles - 3.5-4.0 tons.
Description and characteristics of the best feeders
When deciding which feed distributor is right for your farm, look carefully at the specifications of this equipment. The parameters of the distributing mechanisms can be general (for example, work speed, feed hopper volume, number of serviced heads) and individual, relating to a specific model.
For mobile equipment, the transported mass of the feed, the speed and the area of its movement during operation, and the dimensions are important. When purchasing a stationary model, look at its power and the speed with which the tape moves.
Stationary equipment is most often installed on farms with large livestock. This helps to facilitate and simplify the feeding of animals. However, on small farms, such distributors can also be seen (for example, if mobile devices are not suitable because of the dimensions of the feeders or the room itself).
The most famous models:
- TVK-80B. This is a belt model that is suitable for all dry and solid feeds. The device includes a tape in the form of a closed ring, a width of about 0.5 m. Power comes from an electric motor, which makes the tape move.
The feed from the hopper is distributed in equal parts along the feed tank, and then the device turns off. This distributor allows you to fully automate the process of feeding livestock.
- RK-50A. A distributor with a conveyor belt is located above the feeder and distributes small feed. The mechanism is as follows: inclined and transverse conveyor, 1 or 2 distributor-conveyor, control unit.
In addition, each conveyor has its own electric drive. The feed goes this way: an inclined conveyor, then a transverse one, directing food to the conveyor distributor, and a feeder.
- KRS-15. Type of animal feed scraper dispenser. It is most often used for succulent, dry food and various mixtures. The conveyor, consisting of two distribution channels, passes along the bottom of the feeder.
The device starts using an electric motor. The feed is fed into the fence, and then distributed by scrapers. As soon as the scraper finishes a full revolution, the drive shuts down.
Comparison table of technical characteristics of stationary feed dispensers:
|Model||Length of feeding area||Number of goals served||Engine power||Performance|
|TVK-80B||74 m||62||5.5 kW||38 t / h|
|RK-50A||75 m||100 or 200||9 kW||3-30 t / h|
|Cattle-15||40 m||180||5.5 kW||15 t / h|
Mobile distributors can be used on all farms, where the dimensions of the premises allow it. The advantage of such distributors is that they not only distribute food to animals, but also deliver food from a place of storage or preparation. And the mixer dispensers also mix the feed before putting it into use.
Common models of mobile feed dispensers:
- KTU-10 . It moves on a tractor trailer and is suitable for working with various medals of Belarus tractors. The device includes a transverse and unloading conveyor, several beaters.
The feed rate depends on the speed of the tractor. Food can be fed from two directions or from one. The minimum turning area of the distributor is at least 6.5 m, so it is not suitable for narrow rooms.
- AKM-9 . In fact, it is a feed workshop, as it is able to prepare and distribute feed mixtures from straw, haylage, food additives, silage. Sufficiently maneuverable and designed for livestock from 800 to 2,000 head of cattle. It can “work” with tractors of class 1.4 vehicles, including MTZ-80 and MTZ-82.
- RMM-5.0 . Small-sized mechanism, functions reminiscent of KTU-10. Only due to its small size, this distributor is able to work even in narrow rooms. It can interact with tractors "Belarus", T-25, DT-20.
- KS-1.5. It belongs to the category of distributor-mixers. It moves on rails. After mixing, the food is distributed through the feeders with screw devices. Power is supplied from the electric motor using a gearbox.
- KSP-0.8. Also a mixing model, without a wheeled trolley. By the principle of operation, it is in many respects similar to the KS-1,5 distributor. It is controlled by the operator from the platform, which drives certain levers.
- RS-5A. Another kind of mixing mechanism. Like the rest, it is driven by an electric motor. The trolley moves on special tracks in the floor. The control also has levers, and the operator is directly on the trolley, on the seat.
Mobile dispenser KTU-10
AKM-9 mobile dispenser
feed distributor RS-5A
Comparison table of technical characteristics of mobile feed dispensers:
|Feed hopper volume||10 m3||9 m3||5 m3||2||0.8 m3||0.8 m3|
|Carrying capacity||3.5 t||-||1.75 t||-||-||-|
|Engine power||12.5 h.p.||-||-||-||-||-|
|Feed preparation time||-||up to 25 minutes||-||-||-||-|
|Performance||50 t / h||5-10 t / h||3-38 t / h||4.8 t / h||1.6 t / h||1.8 t / h|
|Feed rate||3-25 kg / m||0.8-16 kg / m||0.8-16 kg / m||-||-||-|
|Track||1.6 m||-||1.6 m||-||-||-|
|Dimensions (L / W / H)||6.175 / 2.3 / 2.44 m||4.7 / 2.38 / 2.55 m||5.26 / 1.87 / 1.92 m||-||-||-|
The process of preparing mixed feed mixtures
Often, animal feed is not bought, but prepared independently. In this case, you need to know the rules of cooking and comply with some requirements. For example, cattle feed should be:
- wet within 65-80%;
- without the formation of mold and impurities;
- in compliance with the balance of biological additives, vitamins, stimulants.
The presence of its own workshop for the preparation of feeds makes it possible to reduce the cost of nutrition for animals. This is due to the use of their resources (various wastes, residues of plant materials - grass or branches).
Based on the needs of the cattle farm, you can safely choose the appropriate feed distributor. Consider the number of animals and the size of the farm itself. Being guided by these indicators, get the distributor suitable on speed, dimensions and capacity.