Not so long ago, our gardeners began to grow bunch cucumbers that differ from the usual location and number of ovaries. We will find out why these cucumbers got the name, how to grow them, and what varieties are popular with domestic vegetable growers.
What are beam cucumbers?
Cucumbers of this type have two names - bunch and bunch. When a plant blooms, then in one sinus not one flower is formed, as in ordinary cucumbers, but several - a whole "bouquet" blooms. When the fruits ripen, they come from one node, representing a "bunch" of cucumbers.
Bunch cucumbers ripen in the hands almost simultaneously - on the stalks of the cucumber bush there are many "clusters" of small green leaves hanging. Most bunch varieties have small fruits of the gherkin type. In addition to the bundle, super bunch cucumbers are distinguished, which are distinguished by a particularly large number of ovaries in the bunch - 8-10 and even more.
There are several types of bunch cucumbers. To make it easier for gardeners and vegetable growers to choose suitable varieties that meet specific requirements, bouquet hybrids are conditionally classified.
Parthenocarpic varieties are not self-pollinated, they do not need pollination at all. Their ripe fruits do not contain seeds.
Classification of parthenocarpic bouquet varieties of the gherkin type:
- Actively branching hybrids. Lateral shoots grow from almost every node on the main stem. Lateral shoots when grown in greenhouses, need pinching. Intensive branching provides long fruiting. Such varieties tolerate overheating well. These include, for example, such hybrids as Dragonfly, Focus, Petrel, Matryoshka.
- Moderately and limitedly branching. They give many short shoots with shortened internodes. Differ in long fruiting and simpler formation of bushes. For example, these are such hybrids as First Class, Grasshopper, Ant.
- Weakly branching. These include ultra precocious hybrids. Most of the crop is harvested from them in the first month. These are hybrids Bouquet, Alphabet, Artel.
- Balcony Fashionable to grow on balconies and verandas . The main stem is strong-growing, and the branching can be different - from weak to strong. These hybrids differ from all existing varieties and hybrids:
- Many active ovaries - more than other bundle hybrids.
- The internodes are very short.
- The leaves are small.
- The fruits are pikkulny or gherkin, smooth, beautiful, regular shape.
Actively branching hybrid of cucumbers "Dragonfly"
Actively branching hybrid of cucumbers "Focus"
Actively branching hybrid of cucumbers "Petrel"
Actively branching hybrid of Matryoshka cucumbers
Moderately and limitedly branching hybrid of cucumbers "First Class"
Moderately and limitedly branching hybrid of cucumbers "Grasshopper"
Moderately and limitedly branching hybrid of cucumbers "Ant"
Weakly branching hybrid of cucumbers "Bouquet"
Weakly branched hybrid of cucumbers "Alphabet"
Weakly branching hybrid of "Artel" cucumbers
Balcony grade cucumbers
Today, the market offers dozens of varieties of bunch cucumbers that differ in biological and economic characteristics. Consider the most successful and popular hybrids:
- Boy with thumb F1. Self-pollinated early hybrid. Matures 38-39 days after germination. 10-13 kg are collected from the bush. In the brush - 3-6 fruits. The length of the cucumbers is 6-10 cm.
- Blizzard F1. Ultra early hybrid. The flowers are female. Does not need pollination. In a bunch - up to 5 fruits. Weight of cucumbers - 60-70 g. Color - dark green, there are white stripes. In appearance, the plant is unpresentable - due to poor development of lateral shoots. In fact, this is a very productive hybrid with immunity to powdery mildew. From the bush collect up to 16 kg. The fruits are small - up to 7-8 cm, the taste is excellent, suitable for preservation. In a temperate climate, grown in seedlings.
- Balcony F1. For growing on balconies, terraces, verandas, etc. Weaves poorly, pollination is not required. In a bunch - 2-8 ovaries. Pimply cucumbers with white spikes. Length - 6-10 cm.
- Yamal F1. For cultivation in the northern regions. Ripens in 45-50 days. Unpretentious, does not require pollination, branching is average, frost-resistant, resistant to diseases of cucumbers. Productivity - 10-13 kg. In a bunch no more than two fruits. Suitable for pickles and preservation. The length of the fruit is 8-10 cm.
- The king of the beds F1. An early hybrid of parthenocarpic type. Cucumbers salad and canning direction. The plant is medium-sized, the branching is weak, the flowers are female. In the sinuses there are about 5 ovaries. Fruit weight - 100-120 g. Harvest - 10 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
- Champion F1. Parthenocarpic hybrid with long fruiting and early ripening. The plant weaves weakly. In a bunch - 2-4 ovaries. High productivity - 25 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. Length - 10-12 cm. Surface with large tubercles, with excellent marketable and taste qualities. Ideal for sale.
- Russian style F1. Mid-season hybrid of parthenocarpic type. Ripening period is 45-48 days. In handles 3-4 ovaries - on the main stem, on the lateral - 5-8. The fruit length - 10-12 cm. Cucumbers with small tubercles, dark green in color, have light stripes. Resistant to powdery mildew.
- Robin Hood F1. Early ripe hybrid with a slight branching. Plant height is small. In a bunch - 3-4 ovaries. The length of the cucumbers is 5-6 cm. The fruits are green, pimply, with black spikes and white stripes. Fruits are crisp, with dense pulp.
- Style F1. Gherkin self-pollinated hybrid. Plants are medium-sized. Ripening of fruits - in 45-50 days. Fruits for a long time. Fruit weight - 55-70 g, length - 10-11 cm. From 1 square. m collect 4-5 kg.
- Okhotny Ryad F1. Early hybrid. Female type flowers. Branching is limited. The fruits are tuberous, with white spikes, length -8-11 cm. In launches - 2-6 ovaries. The hybrid is resistant to cucumber mosaic and powdery mildew. Ripening - in 40 days.
- Prestige F1. An early hybrid of parthenocarpic type. Bushes are medium-tall, medium-high, flowers are female. In bundles - 3-4 ovaries. Cucumbers are short - up to 10 cm, dark green in color, with large tubercles and short stripes. Fruit weight - 65-90 g. Great taste and presentation. With 1 sq. m collected, with greenhouse cultivation, up to 24 kg.
- Mother-in-law F1. Early ripening parthenocarpic hybrid. Ripening period is 45-48 days. The length of the fruit is 11-12 cm, they are tuberous, with brown spikes. In a bunch - 3-4 ovaries. The purpose is universal. Harvest - 5.5-6.5 kg per bush. Stable and prolonged fruiting.
- Sail F1. Mid-early hybrid. It ripens in 45 days. The length of the fruit is 8-10 cm, they are dull, with rare tubercles, the thorns are black, the stripes are light. Powerful plants, in bundles - 2-6 ovaries. The purpose is universal - cucumbers are delicious fresh, in salads, in salted and pickled form. One bush gives 5-6 kg of cucumbers.
- Avalanche F1. Ultra early hybrid. Matures in 38-42 days. The fruit is 8 cm long, with large tubercles and black spikes. At the node - 4-5 ovaries. There is no bitterness in the taste. Delicious fresh and pickled. Commodity yield of fruits - 99%.
- Our Masha F1. Gherkin self-pollinated variety. Ripening in 40-45 days. The fruits are dense, beautiful, richly green. Fruit length - 8-10 cm, pubescence - brown. In a bunch of 2-3 ovaries. With 1 sq. m collect about 16 kg of cucumbers.
- Piccolo F1. This parthenocarpic hybrid matures in 38-44 days. In one node - 7-8 cucumbers. The color of the fruit is dark green, the length is 8-10 cm. The surface of the fruit is coarse-humped. The taste is pleasant, delicate, without bitterness. High immunity to diseases. Suitable for canning, tasty fresh.
- Lisette F1. Another parthenocarpic hybrid of ultra early maturation. Matures in 38-42 days. In one node from 3 to 8 fruits. The plants are medium-sized, the plaiting is medium, the flowers are female. Fruits are coarse, green, with small seed chambers. The length of the fruit is 6-8 cm.
- Buyan F1. Early ripening parthenocarpic gherkin hybrid. In the node - from 2 to 7 fruits. Cucumbers are tuberous, with white spikes, 8-11 cm long. It is resistant to olive blotch, mosaic and powdery mildew. Fruiting is plentiful.
- Dwarf F1. Matures in 45 days. Parthenocarpic hybrid for any soil. The flowers are mostly female. The plant is of medium growth, the fruits are short, dark green, on the surface - stripes. The length of the fruit is 6-8 cm. Weight is 80-90 g. From 1 square. m collect 10-12 kg of cucumbers. Recommended for salting and preservation. Resistant to powdery mildew, stress. It has high commercial qualities, is well transported.
Cucumbers Boy with thumb F1
Blizzard Cucumbers F1
Grade Cucumbers F1
Cucumbers Yamal F1
Variety of cucumbers King of the garden F1
Cucumbers Champion F1
Cucumbers Russian style F1
Variety of cucumbers Robin Hood F1
Cucumbers Style F1
Cucumber bush Okhotny Ryad F1
Cucumbers Prestige F1
F1 Mother-in-law cucumbers
Variety Cucumbers Sail F1
Variety of cucumbers Avalanche F1
Cucumbers Nasha Masha F1
Piccolo Cucumbers F1
Lisette F1 cucumbers
Variety of cucumbers Buyan F1
Variety Cucumbers F1
Advantages and disadvantages of beam cucumbers
Advantages of bouquet varieties:
- Stably high yields. One bush, depending on the variety, is able to produce 10-20 kg of cucumbers. A feature of bunch varieties is the sequence of opening flowers in inflorescences. 1-2 flowers are revealed per day. The plant maintains a high yield potential and stably bears fruit. The bush has “spare” ovaries in case of death of some of the ovaries due to unfavorable conditions - some ovaries will die, others will rush into growth, and the gardener will not be left without a crop.
- Fruits are not prone to overgrowing. Due to the high competition for food, fruits growing within a single node do not outgrow, in contrast to cucumbers growing individually.
- At one time, a large number of fruits ripen. At the peak of productivity, one plant can have up to 12-15 bunches with cucumbers suitable for harvesting. Just perfect for stocks or sales.
- Small fruits. The maximum length of the fruit should not exceed 15 cm. Too long cucumbers collected in one node can be bent. Small fruits are convenient to use for pickles and canning. Beam cucumbers are suitable for those who like pickled cucumbers.
- Resistance to temperature extremes. In the seasonal period.
- Early ripening. The first fruits appear approximately 35-40 days after germination.
- Good taste. Cucumbers have universal application.
The more cucumbers in one node, the slower their growth - this is very convenient for summer residents, who appear at the cottage only on weekends.
There are no obvious flaws in bouquet varieties. Only summer residents who visit the site from time to time can encounter difficulties - beam cucumbers are demanding to care for, without it you can’t count on the benefits of such varieties.
Cultivation features: ovaries and fruiting
Tufted varieties in open ground are grown in much the same way as ordinary varieties. But still growing features are present. In weak plants, the ovaries dry and fall. Weakened bushes cannot provide nutrition to all formed ovaries. To prevent this situation, take the following measures:
- Before planting - about a week, compost (10-15 kg per 1 sq. M) and mineral fertilizers (30-40 g per 1 sq. M) are brought into the beds for digging.
- The day before planting, the beds are watered. Landing is carried out at a soil temperature of + 10 ° C. Depth of landing - 10 cm.
- Wells in which seedlings are planted are disinfected with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Seedlings are planted with an interval of 40-50 cm - bunch varieties do not tolerate crowding. The soil is mulched . The most suitable mulch is humus.
- Set trellis, it is advisable to stretch the grid for cucumbers . The bush is formed by pinching the side shoots. Thanks to trellis, a higher yield of bunch cucumbers is achieved.
- In the sinuses of the four lower leaves, all flowers and stepsons are removed. Two lateral shoots with ovaries can be left after pinching. The task is to form a bush so that the main stem gives the maximum yield.
- For irrigation use only warm water. The soil must not be allowed to dry out. Soon after moistening, the soil is loosened - to provide the roots with oxygen.
- The roots of bunch cucumbers do not perceive a large concentration of salts, so fertilizers are applied in small quantities, but with a high frequency. So, complex fertilizers are applied every week at 15 g per 1 square. m. Organics make every two weeks in the form of a solution of manure or bird droppings.
- In order for the plants to bloom better and form many ovaries, from time to time they are fed under the root.
- To get maximum yield, the fruits are harvested daily. Scourges that stop bearing fruit are cut off.
The video below will tell you about the features of caring for beam cucumbers when growing them:
Why is the number of ovaries reduced and how to prevent this?
For intensive formation of ovaries, it is necessary to provide competent care. The following moments negatively affect the formation of ovaries:
- a lot of nitrogen in the soil;
- irregular watering;
- lack or excess of sun.
The number of ovaries depends on the growing conditions. The largest "bouquets" are formed on trellises and well-lit shoots.
"Resorption of beams" is observed when:
- Intensive growth of the central stem. In the lower part of the plant, the nodes often have more ovaries than in the middle tier - this phenomenon is observed at high temperatures. In favorable conditions, when the bush grows at a moderate pace, the number of ovaries gradually increases from the lower sinuses to the upper, and from the central shoot to the lateral.
If top dressing is not applied to the soil for a long time, or it is not enough for normal fruiting, the largest tufts grow in the middle of the plant.
- Shadowing. Depending on the incidence of sunlight, the number of ovaries in bundles varies. In some nodes there may be 2-3 fruits, in others - 8-10 or more.
To prevent a decrease in the number of ovaries, the following rules must be followed:
- The temperature should be maintained at a level of +21 to + 24 ° C.
- Avoid overheating of the air, especially at night.
- Do not overload the soil with nitrogen fertilizers.
- Maintain uniform illumination of plants.
The plant is not able to “feed” all the formed ovaries - it simply does not have enough strength, so a certain part of the ovaries dries and dies, even under the most favorable conditions. And nevertheless, the principle applies - the more correct the agricultural technology, the higher the yield.
The secrets of growing bunch cucumbers
Growing bunch cucumbers has a number of secrets that help to get the most out of crop hybrids.
Bunchy varieties love light, but there are also those that can bear fruit in light shading. Lighting favorably affects the number of ovaries formed, therefore, it is recommended to place cucumber beds in sunny areas, and when growing cucumbers in greenhouses , use, if necessary, artificial lighting.
If when growing in open ground the site is in partial shade, it is necessary to choose shade-tolerant hybrids.
Bunch cucumbers get sick if stagnation of water is observed in the soil. To prevent it, it is necessary to equip the beds with effective drainage.
The optimal soils for bouquet varieties are loose, nutritious soils, with a structure that provides easy air to the root system.
Most garden plants react negatively to drafts. Beam cucumbers are no exception. Cucumber beds are organized in areas protected from drafts and blowing winds, due to which plants become sick, weaken and lose productivity.
Planting cucumbers can be made in the open ground or in the closed, seeds or seedlings. In any case, the seeds germinate.
Unlike ordinary varieties, the seeds of bundle hybrids are not treated in stimulants and disinfecting solutions, but only germinated.
- Immersion of seeds in warm water. Temperature - from + 30 to + 35 ° C.
- When the seeds swell, they are transferred to a damp cloth. Germinate seeds at temperatures up to + 20 ° C.
- When the seeds appear sprouts, they are planted in separate glasses. This is done in order to avoid picking, and immediately plant seedlings in the ground or in the greenhouse. If you pick, the plants then get sick for a long time, lag behind in development.
The soil for growing seedlings is bought in agro shops or prepared from semi-decomposed sawdust, peat and humus. The mixture is poured into glasses and poured with water. Then sprouted seeds are planted, deepening from about 2 cm.
Soil - on site or in a greenhouse, should be loose and light. When planting, the recommended interval for a particular variety is observed - tightness negatively affects yield.
Features of planting cucumbers in open ground:
- The soil is planted in the fall.
- Wells are made on the beds, in which potassium permanganate solution is poured - to disinfect the soil .
- Planting seedlings in open areas begins after the soil warms up to + 10 ° C. The optimal depth is 10 cm. The interval between plants is 40 cm.
- In open ground, seeds are planted when it warms up to + 10 ° C. The width of the beds is 70 cm. Furrows are made on them, in which seeds are sown with an interval of 40-50 cm. Three seeds are put in one hole. The depth is the same as when planting on seedlings - 2 cm. Planted seeds are watered, a film is placed on top. When shoots appear, the film is removed and thinned out, leaving the strongest sprout of the three emerged.
- The best way to grow is vertical. A rope is drawn from each plant to a twine stretched at a distance of 2 m from the garden.
- During cultivation, bunch varieties are sprayed with formulations that promote the formation of ovaries. For spraying, Zircon or Epin is used.
- The optimal time for sowing seeds for seedlings is the last of April. Seedlings are planted in the soil at the end of May - the first two true leaves should appear on the seedlings.
- When planting seedlings in open ground, per 1 square. 3-4 plants are planted, no more.
Greenhouse cultivation creates the most favorable conditions for culture - humidity 90-95%, temperature during planting - + 23 ° C, during flowering and the formation of ovaries - + 27 ° C.
Care for beam cucumbers involves regular watering , spraying, fertilizing , cultivating, and also forming bushes. If the cultivation is carried out in a greenhouse, you have to control the temperature and humidity, timely ventilate the room.
When fruiting begins, cucumbers need a lot of nutrition - they need minerals. The roots of this culture do not tolerate high salt concentrations in the soil, so they feed small doses of cucumbers.
The frequency of top dressing is once a week or even more often. Complex fertilizers are applied little by little - 10-20 g per 1 sq. Km. m. If cucumbers are grown in a greenhouse, it is recommended that you install a container in it with roaming grass or slurry. Thanks to the carbon dioxide released during fermentation, cucumbers ripen faster.
For irrigation of cucumber beds, warm, settled water is used. Until the fruit has formed, cucumbers are watered every 6 days. During harvesting, the frequency of irrigation is tripled - the beds are moistened every 2 days. Cucumbers are watered only at the root, the optimal method of irrigation is drip.
So that the plant can give 15-20 kg of cucumbers, it must be prepared for this. Cucumber bush should have a powerful root system, a strong stem and healthy leaves - only such plants are able to give numerous ovaries, from which the fruits will develop.
If there is no greenhouse on the site - after all, its construction requires certain costs, you can limit yourself to a temporary film shelter. At the beginning of the growing season, cucumbers are kept under film tunnels so that the plants do not freeze during possible night frosts. In addition, under the film, plants will grow and develop faster, since under it there will not be a significant decrease in temperature, which is observed at night on open ground.
Hybrids with a bunch arrangement of ovaries form in one stem - so as not to spray the plant's forces on the side shoots. This approach increases productivity. The best way to grow bouquet varieties is on trellises.
The principles of the formation of bushes:
- Lateral shoots are removed almost to the trellis.
- Near the trellis, you can leave a couple of shoots with ovaries, pinching them over the 2nd sheet.
- In the sinuses of the 4 lower leaves, all the ovaries and shoots are torn off. Ovary is left on the stem from each node with one leaf.
We offer you to watch a video in which it is clearly shown how to properly form a bush of cucumbers with a bunch and super-bunch ovary:
Diseases and Pests
One of the important advantages of beam cucumbers is their resistance to diseases and pests. But not a single variety is safe from them. Under adverse conditions, damage by powdery mildew and other cucumber diseases is possible.
Diseases and pests of bunch cucumbers and measures to combat them:
|Diseases / Pests||Signs of defeat||How to fight?|
|Powdery mildew||White spots cover the leaves. Plants look as if sprinkled with flour.||Sick leaves are cut off and placed in a solution of copper sulfate - it is necessary to destroy the spores of the fungus. Plants are sprayed with colloidal sulfur (30 g per bucket). After 10 days - re-processing.|
|Downy mildew||First, yellow spots appear on old leaves, then on young ones. Leaves turn brown and dry.||Spray with Oxychoma (40 g per bucket of water) or Bordeaux liquid (100 g per bucket). For 10 square meters. m - 1 liter of solution. The treatment is repeated after 10 days, but no later than 20 days before harvesting.|
|White rot||Affected fruits are soft and slippery, in white plaque.||If growing in a greenhouse - ventilation and reduction of air humidity are recommended. The affected parts of the plants are cut, the slices are sprinkled with sifted ash.|
Plants are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate and urea (2 tsp and 1 tsp per 10 l of water, respectively).
|Greenhouse Whitefly||Butterfly lays larvae on the wrong side of leaves. The larvae suck the juices from the leaves and secrete a sugar composition on which the fungus settles, causing the leaves to turn black.||As soon as butterflies appear, plants are sprayed with verticillin (250 g per bucket of water). They process plantings 3 times at weekly intervals.|
You can also set glue traps. Whiteflies love the smell of tobacco; tobacco bushes can be planted near cucumbers. When many butterflies gather on them, the plants are sprayed with an insecticide, for example Intavir.
Watch a video about the biological diseases of cucumbers and how to prevent them:
Harvesting fruit is recommended every day. Or at least every two days. Often removing cucumbers, lighten the stem and create favorable conditions for the formation of new ovaries.
On the issue of harvesting, beam cucumbers are universal. Frequent harvesting contributes to yield, but harvesting once a week is not catastrophic - just new fruits will form more slowly. This is especially important for gardeners who deal with gardening only on weekends.
Valentin R., amateur gardener, Moscow Region.
Bundle varieties take up little space. In the garden planted only 6 bushes, and the harvest was huge. I had never seen cucumbers growing in clusters before. At the beginning of the growing season I cover the seedlings with a film, so I clean it.
Irina L., summer resident, Belgorod region
Already planted several varieties of bunch cucumbers. Rather, hybrids, so every time you have to buy seeds. Cucumbers grow small, tasty, eat fresh and make many preparations. I roll up in jars and salt in tubs. The smallest variety of those that I grew up - Peanut, also liked the Boy with a finger.
Tufted cucumbers undoubtedly deserve the attention of gardeners. Their productivity and unique fruiting features, supported by high immunity, attract both summer residents and gardeners who grow cucumbers for sale.