Cucumbers are very demanding on the qualitative composition of the soil, therefore they react with lightning speed to the presence or absence of the necessary micro and macro elements. In different phases of growth, a crop needs various specific fertilizer formulations. What top dressing to use and in what quantity will be considered in the article below.
What fertilizers do cucumbers feed?
In order to be able to choose from a variety of sources containing components that are different in type and composition, you need to know what top dressings are, their composition and advantages, the advisability of introducing cucumbers into different phases of growth.
The division of fertilizers into groups is determined by the difference in the method of production, in the chemical composition and form, as well as in the direction of action of the contained substances. Top dressings are:
Organic fertilizers are of natural origin, so their use is safe for humans and animals. They are obtained in the process of vital activity of animals and plants, therefore they are distinguished by low price or even free of charge.
After being introduced into the soil, it takes time for organics to release micro-substances and macronutrients in the process of decomposition. But the effect of such feeding is longer, not requiring the cost of additional nutrition. In addition, the decomposition process is associated with the vital activity of bacteria, which have a beneficial effect on the assimilation of nutrition by the root system of cucumbers
The use of organic matter makes the soil more structured: loose, light, able to pass air and water inside qualitatively.
The most common organics include:
- Compost is the rotted plant residues of crops and food waste. The components are laid out in a compost pit in layers, pouring them with peat, manure, and earth. It is advisable to spill a hole with water to activate the processes. The minimum time required for the compost to “ripen” is 6–7 months.
This type of fertilizer contains a large amount of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. In a half-burnt state, it can be used to mulch the soil .
Keep in mind that in this condition the compost contains an excess of nitrogen, but not enough magnesium and calcium. Therefore, it is better to use it on beds with cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage, and not radishes, beets and other nitrate accumulators.
The main disadvantage of using compost is the content of weed seeds, pathogens and the possible presence of pests, for example, a bear.
- Manure is the most common type of organics. Its use is possible only in the case of a well-rotted condition. This condition is important because fresh manure contains infections and pests, weed seeds. When decomposed, it releases a large amount of heat, a lot of gas and a huge amount of nitrogen. For plants, this is detrimental, although in a metered-optimal amount, these conditions are necessary.
Fertilize the soil with manure no more often than once every 5 years, during the autumn digging of the soil. The application rate of 4-5 kg per 1 square. m. plot. Cow manure acidifies the soil, so give preference to horse organics or liming.
When using manure as fertilizer for planting pits, make sure that the roots do not come into contact with it to avoid burns.
- Bird droppings are similar in composition to complex chemical fertilizer complexes. It contains nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and bacteriophages that destroy harmful bacteria in the soil. Due to the high concentration of uric acid, the use of bird droppings should be diluted in a 1: 2 ratio with peat, sawdust, compost. Otherwise, it is possible to burn plants.
In the form of basic nutrition, this type of organics is used during plowing. The application rate is 5 kg per 1 square. m, frequency of application - once every 3-4 years. As additional top dressing in spring and summer, dry and liquid application is possible. Dissolve 1 part of the litter in 20 parts of water and pour the furrows in the aisles, covering them with soil after the procedure, or distribute 0.2-0.4 kg of organics per 1 square meter during weeding and loosening. m. beds.
- Green fertilizer (green manure) is the most affordable form of organic fertilizing. This type of organic matter not only replenishes the soil composition of trace elements, but also makes it loose, prevents the formation of erosion and blowing of the upper layer by the wind, reduces the number of weeds, increases the number of worms in the soil.
The optimal use of green manure is not digging the soil together with them, but cutting off green manure plants in the phase of bud appearance and mulching the soil surface with them. So the remaining root system will become nutrition during decomposition, mulched stems will retain moisture in the soil, enriching it with trace elements in the process of gradual overheating.
The plants that make up this group include: cereals, mustard, clover, lupine, and legumes. About growing oats as siderate is described here .
- Bone meal is obtained by processing the skeleton of cattle. It contains a large amount of calcium and phosphorus, but there is no nitrogen in the composition, which explains the use of flour to reduce the acidity of the soil. Excellent nutrition is obtained by mixing bone meal and compost. The duration of release of the elements is quite long, therefore, one application in an amount of 200-300 g per 1 square. m is enough for the whole season.
- Wood ash is saturated with potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, boron, molybdenum, manganese and other elements. Used to reduce soil acidity. It is advisable to add wood ash in heavy soil in the fall, and in light soil in the spring.
The composition of wood ash is not identical, but varies depending on the source. When burning sunflower, stems of deciduous and coniferous trees, peat, straw, dung, ash will be rich in one or another microelement. Despite the fact that in this type of organics there is a clear advantage of calcium, it is considered a potash fertilizer.
Wood ash does not contain harmful chemical compounds. Nitrogen in its composition is also absent. When mixed with water, the mineral composition dissolves well, which positively affects the condition of plants when applied. But this quality is negative when storing ash - the containers must be airtight so that moisture does not make useless material out of fertilizer.
The use of ash is preferably not during digging up the soil, but spraying it on the surface of the row-spacing with subsequent loosening (200 g per 1 sq. M), or in the form of an ash solution (100 g per 10 l of water, with a flow rate of 0.5 l for each bush )
- Peat in its composition practically does not contain nutrients, but when mixed with other organics, it is an excellent tool for soil to acquire the properties of friability, breathability and moisture accumulation.
Peat should be used at a moisture level of at least 60%, otherwise it will take all the moisture from the soil.
Before introducing this type of organics, it should be left in the open for a month with great air access. This will help aluminum and other metals in its composition go into a safe form.
Mineral fertilizers are produced by chemical compounds and reactions. For the most part, they dissolve well in water, have a quick, but short-lived effect on plants. According to the prevalence of a certain element, they are divided into:
Complex mineral fertilizers include the main components (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus) in various proportions and enriched with additional elements. Obtaining such top dressings is possible by mixing one-component fertilizers with each other or using complex chemical reactions. Such mixtures strengthen plants, helping them grow and develop well.
The most widely used complex fertilizers include:
- Nitroammofoska contains nitrogen and phosphorus in equal amounts. Suitable for autumn application in heavy soils, and for spring - in light types of soils.
- Nitrofoska in the composition has all three main elements. Suitable for all crops and types of soil. Used from spring to fruiting. After such nutrition, cucumbers become able to withstand diseases and pests.
- Ammophos is often used not only in open ground, but also in shelters. Contains all the basic elements in combination with sulfur. Its advantage is the absence of chlorine and sodium in the composition.
When and how to apply fertilizer?
Not only the effectiveness of their application, but also the possible harm done depends on the time and amount of fertilizing. Therefore, the use of primary or secondary nutrition should be carried out taking into account the implementation of agricultural activities, time of year and consumption rates. Otherwise, an excess of mineral substances in the soil, as well as their lack, will lead to a negative inverse effect.
Autumn site preparation
When digging the soil in the autumn, the use of organic fertilizers is desirable, because for optimal release and accumulation of useful microcomponents, time, moisture and soil are needed. Thus, using manure, humus, chicken droppings, you can achieve the maximum effect of fertilizer when planting cucumbers in the spring. To reduce the acidity of the soil, ash and bone meal are currently used.
Potash mineral fertilizers in the fall are used in dry form at a flow rate of 30 g per 1 sq. Km. m, and phosphorus - 50 g per square. m
When planting seedlings of cucumbers , the method of fertilizing planting holes is used. A mixture of straw and rotted manure or humus is laid out at the bottom. A layer of soil spills out from above so that the root system does not have direct contact with organic matter.
It is possible for 10-15 days before planting cucumbers to apply liquid top dressing based on wood ash or mineral fertilizers. To do this, dilute a glass of ash in 10 l of water, or dissolve 20 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride in 10 l of water. Pour the solution into prepared wells of 0.5 l, or distribute evenly throughout the garden.
After planting cucumbers, organic fertilizers, if they were used in the preparation of the soil, are no longer used. After the appearance of the first 2-3 leaves, or after rooting and adaptation of seedlings, it is necessary to feed the plants with a solution of mineral nutrition. To do this, dissolve the following components in 10 l of water and, taking into account the rate of 0.5 l per 1 bush, pour seedlings:
- superphosphate - 20 g;
- urea - 10 g;
- potassium sulfate - 10 g.
Root dressing during flowering and fruiting
After 10 days from the first feeding of cucumbers, before or during flowering, carry out the next fertilizer application. For this, you can use ready-made complex mixtures and solutions or prepare them yourself. For example, mix:
- ammonium nitrate - 10 g;
- superphosphate - 10-15 g;
- potassium salt - 15 g;
- water - 10 l.
After 10 days, at the beginning of fruiting, feed the cucumbers again with the same composition.
It is worth stopping the introduction of organic matter and mineral nutrition 2 weeks before the harvest of cucumbers. Then their environmental friendliness and the absence of nitrates in the composition is guaranteed.
Foliar top dressing
Foliar top dressing of cucumbers is carried out in the form of spraying the culture with weakly concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers or organics. Most often this is necessary in cold, wet weather, when the root system is not functioning properly. Absorption of mineral compounds by leaves and stems gives a very quick effect.
Such top dressing should be carried out early in the morning or after sunset so that its rays do not burn greens. It is advisable to choose a day without precipitation. The nutrient solution is distributed over the surface of the cucumbers using a spray bottle.
In addition to mineral dressings and organics, there are folk ways of eating cucumbers, which are a source of additional nutrition and the prevention of diseases and pests.
Ash solution top dressing
During the flowering and fruiting period, cucumbers are deficient in potassium and phosphorus. Ash fertilizer will come to the rescue. Take 3 tbsp. l wood ash per liter, mix thoroughly and leave to infuse for 2 days. Such a tool can be used by the root (0.5 l under the bush) and foliar method. To spray, strain the solution.
Ash treatment is possible every 10 days. Such a fertilizer increases the immunity of cucumbers, improves their growth, increasing the number of ovaries and increasing the taste of fruits.
Feeding with yeast has its beneficial effect on cucumbers, due to the content of fungi. They kill pathogens, increase the number of beneficial bacteria. This makes the soil more loose, and the root system absorbs food more easily.
Take 100 g of fresh yeast and dissolve them in 1 liter of warm water. Then bring the volume to 10 liters and pour the cucumbers. Feed consumption - 1 liter per bush. Such a yeast solution cannot be stored. But, if you add to the composition before dilution a few tbsp. l of sugar, you should leave the solution for fermentation for a couple of days, and then dilute and feed the plants. The basis of breeding can be not only water, but also whey, sour milk.
To prepare top dressing from granulated yeast, pour them in an amount of 10 g in 5 l of water, add 2-3 tbsp. l sugar, mix well and make nutrition. During the season, 3-4 such fertilizer operations can be carried out with an interval of 3-4 weeks.
To increase the immunity of cucumbers to diseases and attract pollinating insects to them, you can spray plantings with a solution of honey. For this, for each liter of warm water, add 1 tbsp. l beekeeping product. After cooling, spray the composition over the green mass of cucumbers using a spray bottle.
It is advisable to choose an early morning for work in the weather without predicted precipitation. In case of rain, it is better to postpone the procedure, as there will be little sense from it.
Iodine affects cucumbers, protecting them from diseases and deterring pests. It creates and maintains healthy conditions for the growth of culture, increases the immunity of plants. There are several ways to use such a medicine:
- Dilute a few drops of an antiseptic in a bucket of water and water each cucumber bush.
- If root rot is present, dilute iodine with water in a 1: 1 ratio and treat it with the aerial part of the plant stem by 15 cm. Repeat the procedure 2 times a day, for 2-3 days.
- For foliar dressing, add 8 l of milk and 10 drops of iodine to 8 liters of water. Spray the composition over the leaves of the cucumbers.
Infusion of Onion Husk
An infusion made from onion husks not only makes planting with cucumbers easier, but also increases the immunity of plants, reduces the likelihood of infection and pest attacks.
In 1.5 l of water, throw a handful of husks, boil and leave to cool and insist. After that, dilute the infusion with water so that the total volume of the solution becomes about 5 liters. Pour cucumbers with such a composition, repeating the procedure once every 2-3 weeks.
How to feed cucumbers in special cases?
It happens that all agricultural technology is performed correctly, and cucumbers do not grow, the color of greens turns pale, plants fade. Often this is due to a lack or overabundance of trace elements in the soil. It is worth analyzing the total amount of substances introduced and, based on this, draw a conclusion and take the necessary measures.
To accelerate the growth of cucumbers, the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizing and boron is recommended. It can be either a single-component fertilizer or a complex one. In addition, an ash or yeast solution will be an excellent tool in this case.
If the leaves turn yellow
Yellowing of the leaves may be due to an excess of sun and sunburn or lack of nutrition in the soil. With such a problem, pour cucumbers with soda solution - add 1 tbsp. To a bucket of water. l with a slide of soda.
A solution of 1 liter of kefir in 10 liters of water will also help. Spray such a composition of the plant when using a sprayer. You can breed 1 tbsp. l complex fertilizer for 7 liters of water and water the crop.
Most often, such a defect causes a thickening of the landing, insufficient lighting and nitrogen starvation. If the fruit is pale in color, it is recommended to feed the cucumbers with Novalon Foliar at a rate of 1 g for each plant or urea - 1 tbsp. liters per 10 liters of water.
Right after the cold
Sudden changes in temperature negatively affect the growth and fruiting of cucumbers. To prevent disease, stop watering the plants and perform foliar treatment with milk serum - dilute 3 l of the product in 7 l of water, adding 5 g of copper sulfate.
How to prevent mistakes by fertilizing?
Errors in the application of fertilizing lead to serious problems instead of a positive effect. Therefore, when carrying out procedures, consider some rules:
- Avoid the simultaneous use of wood ash and nitrogen fertilizers. In this case, the death of cucumbers from the release of a large dose of ammonia is possible.
- All fertilizing after watering to protect the root system from burns and other negative effects.
- Work on root fertilizer in the evening, and foliar before or after sunset.
- Avoid acute deficiency or overabundance of nutrients in the soil.
- Do not use mineral compounds after the expiration date, or violations in storage.
To get a rich crop of cucumbers, it is important to correctly and timely introduce different types of fertilizing. Their diversity, affordability and various price categories provide an opportunity for a gardener to choose. And compliance with certain rules during the work will provide a positive and quick effect in the form of a healthy culture and a large number of ovaries.