Breeding geese today is quite profitable, because these birds not only give a lot of juicy, nutritious meat, but are also able to bring large eggs to the family. The technology of raising animals is quite complicated, but if all the conditions are met, you can get a good profit from the sale of meat.
Before starting to grow birds, they are determined with the breed and choose the most suitable option. Which breeds of geese are the most popular:
- Large gray geese. Their weight reaches up to 6-7 kilograms. At the same time, the female brings 40-50 eggs each weighing 150-200 grams per year. This breed is distinguished by endurance.
- Chinese geese. The weight of these birds is 5 kilograms. Goose a year gives 50-60 eggs of low weight - 130-170 grams. A characteristic of geese is endurance, but at the same time they are quite aggressive.
- Lindovskaya breed. Adults dominate by an excellent weight to the slaughter period - 7-8 kilograms. Layers per year give 45-50 eggs weighing 120-140 grams.
- Kuban geese. This is a domestic breed, reaching up to 5.5 kilograms of live weight. Egg production of birds reaches 80-90 eggs weighing 120-150 grams.
- Kholmogorsk geese. A breed that has a high body mass but low egg production. With a weight of up to 10 kilograms, 30-40 eggs weighing more than 200 grams are brought annually. Birds are distinguished by a calm nature, not aggressive.
- Italian geese. The live weight of adults reaches 6-7 kilograms. In a year, the bird brings up to 50 eggs.
- Toulouse geese. This is a French breed, considered the largest - geese reach 10 or more kilograms. But they differ in low egg production - geese produce 30-40 eggs per year, but at the same time the weight of one egg often exceeds 200 grams. Despite the calm nature, lack of mobility, geese are famous for their rapid mass gain.
- Emden geese. The breed is characterized by a low rate of egg laying, but a decent weight gain, reaching 8-9 kilograms to the period when you can send animals to slaughter.
- Rhine geese. This is a German breed. The weight of adults reaches up to 9 kilograms. A goose produces about 40 eggs per year.
Large gray geese
Lindovskaya breed of geese
Geese are birds that do not accept cage content. This indicates the number of minimal livestock. It is possible to breed this bird if there is a free place for walking on the territory of the household - a pasture with a reservoir. Geese especially need space. They have to walk and move a lot. Since their muscles have more blood vessels, meat predominates in a darker shade than in chickens.
How to raise chicks with a brood hen?
It is believed that the removal of chicks from an egg with a brood is more correct and better than raising birds in an incubator. But if the farm has only one brood hen, it is able to bring a maximum of 13-14 heads due to the large size of the eggs. If you give preference to this particular method, for a start they are engaged in creating conditions.
What rules to adhere to:
- The room should have a temperature of 14-15 degrees.
- The house should be dry. It is important to ventilate the room, but monitor the absence of drafts. They equip a goose with a nest so that it is spacious. It is separated from other livestock and enclosed by partitions.
- Keep the brood hens separate from the rest of the geese, as the geese during the absence of a future mother can lay eggs in an already hatched clutch. Because of this, the period of receiving goslings will be significantly delayed, which may adversely affect the further development of chicks.
- The nest should be dry and clean. If an egg accidentally crashes, immediately remove it and wipe all the other survivors. The partitions between the nests are important - so the hens will not roll other people's eggs to themselves, because the geese have a strong maternal instinct. Due to the excess number of eggs in one goose’s nest, it’s just not possible to heat them all at once, there is also a risk that they can be damaged.
- When the hens return to the nests, each of them should take its place without confusing them.
- During incubation, they change the water daily in the drinking bowl of the expectant mother - this will prevent her from diarrhea. Geese are fed with selected grain. Next, the brood hen independently take care of all the processes when hatching.
The goose itself rolls eggs in the nest for uniform heating. If for some reason the bird itself does not return to the nest 20 minutes after eating, it is driven into the house.
The first chicks appear on day 28. After that, they are taken from the nests and placed in a separate box, illuminated with a lamp, creating the necessary temperature regime. After all the chicks appear, they are returned to the goose. In the first 48 hours, you can plant a goose mother with several chicks from eggs that were hatched. It’s better to do it in the evening.
Breeding chicks in an incubator
Breeding of chicks of geese in an incubator is a rather laborious process, because the eggs not only contain a lot of fat, but also have large sizes. If more than 70% of the chicks hatch from one bookmark, this is considered an excellent result. Features of the removal of birds from eggs in an incubator:
- Eggs are taken for 10 days, choosing only healthy eggs that have an ideal shape;
- preliminary, 3-4 hours before laying, you need to warm the incubator, setting the temperature to 39 degrees;
- eggs cannot be washed before laying, but it is allowed to disinfect them using a light solution of potassium permanganate;
- the first 4-5 hours after laying in the incubator, withstand the temperature to 38 degrees, then reduce to 37.8, and in the last few days set to 37.5 degrees;
- turn the eggs 6-8 times a day, preventing the shell from sticking to the net or shape, as well as for uniform heating of the product.
In order to avoid the accumulation of harmful gases in the incubator, after 15 days of laying it is necessary to periodically open it for 10 minutes to ventilate.
Care, raising and feeding of chicks
It is important to care for the chicks from the first days of their life, since in the first days the formation and strengthening of the body's immune system takes place. Chicks should eat balanced - this will allow to grow a large and healthy bird. For each period of growth and development, they make up their own diet. It is necessary to drink well the goslings just born.
Care for birds directly depends on their age, therefore, not only a beginner, but also an experienced breeder, you need to know all the requirements for keeping such animals.
First days of life
When caring for chicks during the first 5-7 days, feed the babies with boiled egg yolk. This product is perfectly absorbed by an immature organism. Greens are also introduced into the diet, it is better if it is a green onion, which is finely chopped and mixed with yolk. The first two days you need to feed the chicks at least 7 times a day. It depends on this whether it will be possible to grow healthy birds.
Drinking bowls are chosen such that the brood does not choke or drown in them. The house where the chicks are kept should be dry.
First weeks after birth
Gradually, with the growth of the chicks, they change the diet, including various herbs in it, adding them to the feed. In addition to green onions, it is recommended to feed the birds with clover, alfalfa. There should be clean water in the drinkers. Next, boiled potatoes and corn porridge are gradually introduced into the diet. All necessary nutrients and vitamins must be present in the food, therefore, cut vegetables and root vegetables are introduced into the menu. When cooking cereals, it is important to cook them, observing a more dense consistency. It is better if the animals receive more dry food.
When the chicks turn 21 days old, they are gradually transferred to pasture. It is advisable to give the geese the opportunity to graze in the pen in the open air. Together with grass, birds feed on feed and crushed grain. New food is introduced into the diet in small quantities, regularly increasing its dosage.
Drinking bowls must be replaced with more voluminous ones so that goslings have the opportunity to swim in them - they become small ponds. To do this, it is best to use bowls or basins, but in which low sides are provided - it will be convenient for birds to climb into them.
Care in the first months
At the moment when the goslings turn 1 month old, they begin to intensively feed them with compound feed, sunflower meal, grain and greens. Pour these products in an open small pond without a strong current. In addition to grass, geese feed on algae, which has a beneficial effect on the development of birds and gaining live weight. Be sure to give the birds more greenery - this will not only provide mass gain, but will also reduce maintenance costs.
The main condition for the size of the premises for birds is that it should not be crowded. It is unacceptable to keep geese in cages; they must move. Be sure to provide free access to water and food. During the growth of young animals, they let him out into specially enclosed pens in the open air. At night, the birds are in the house.
Depending on the number of livestock, choose the right room. In the early days, the chicks must be kept in cardboard boxes on the veranda or in the summer kitchen. Further, they will definitely be assigned a place in the house where good ventilation is provided. It is required to insulate the shed, saving it from drafts and protecting it from the penetration of predatory animals, including rats.
It is recommended to use straw or flooring as a litter. Change the litter every few days - it should be dry. This will protect weak chicks from hypothermia and various diseases. A prerequisite in the house is the presence of windows. Geese like to be indoors only during the period when they sleep.
After the birds are 40 days old, they are grazed near a pond. But until they get stronger in order to defend themselves, a person should be present nearby. As soon as the birds gain at least 2 kilograms of weight, they can be sent for grazing alone. Better to release them early in the morning. At this time, the grass is not only nutritious, but also very juicy.
Geese not only find food for themselves, but also are well oriented, because they will be able to independently find the way home. The wings are cut to the birds - so they will not fly away.
Temperature and proper lighting
In the first 7 days of life, goslings need to adhere to a temperature regime in the region of 28-30 degrees. If the natural ambient temperature is not enough, they heat it with heaters or lamps, which in addition to light heat the room. Temperature should be measured at bedding level.
Gradually, it is necessary to reduce the temperature to 22-24 degrees. And after the chicks turn three weeks old, transfer them to a mode of life in vivo (if weather permits). In general, adult geese are considered hardy birds, as they have a lot of fat, a lot of live weight and warm plumage. They can freely withstand temperatures up to -15 degrees. Indoor lighting should be sufficient to maintain normal conditions with increased daylight hours of more than 14 hours. It is important to use lamps for this.
If the chicks that have just been born have a weight of only 100 grams, then after 5 months their weight will reach 5-6 kilograms. On average, an animal gains more than 1 kilogram during a month. In order for the birds to be healthy and large, it is very important to carefully and carefully monitor their diet. Depending on the breed, the weight of adults varies between 4.5-10 and more kilograms.
If the main purpose of breeding is to obtain meat, then it is better to keep the birds until they are 2-3 months old. During this period, they gain 50% of the mass of an adult year-old bird. Then there is inhibition of weight gain.
So, breeding and keeping these birds is very beneficial, because they not only grow quickly, but are also able to produce large eggs, and you can also get high-quality fluff from them. But for the cultivation to be successful, it is necessary to create all the necessary conditions for the birds. They should feel free and full.