Fertilizing ponds can increase their natural fish productivity. There are several types of fertilizers that have certain characteristics. They must be entered correctly, taking into account factors affecting the effectiveness. Important points are the proper storage of fertilizers and compliance with safety measures.
Types of fertilizers for ponds
Fertilizers for ponds are similar to substances used for soil. Their origin may be mineral or organic. Each group includes several more species.
This species has a mineral origin. Nitrogen is needed to build proteins and other biochemical processes.
When this type of fertilizer is applied, plant mass actively develops, water is saturated with oxygen. As a result, the landing density of fry increases, the yield of yearlings rises at times. All this provides an increase in the efficiency of using the area of the fish pond.
Another positive aspect of the use of fertilizers of this type is the inhibition of the development of some algae.
Ammonium nitrate, which contains 35% nitrogen, is most often used as nitrogen fertilizer. An aqueous solution is prepared - 20-25 kg of fertilizer is required per hectare. Contribute it every year, spraying on the surface of the reservoir. This type of fertilizer in the right amount can be applied at a time.
High nitrogen concentrations cannot be tolerated. One liter of water should not contain more than 2 mg of the substance in its pure form. If this indicator rises to 5 mg, then toxicosis will begin in the fish. This will lead to imminent death.
In addition to ammonium nitrate for ponds, ammonium sulfate can also be used. The nitrogen concentration in it is 21%.
Phosphorus is one of the most important minerals. It allows various organisms and microorganisms to build cells. This element is especially important in the initial period of feeding, when organs are formed. The lack of phosphorus at this stage cannot be compensated further by even plentiful feeding.
Phosphorus fertilizers are especially important if the pond is based on the following types of soil:
- sandy loam;
Fertilizers of this type must be used in accordance with the norms - on average 25 kg of phosphoric acid is required per hectare. If you provide phosphorus on time and in the right amount, then the productivity of the reservoir can be increased by 1.5-2 times (at least 15%).
It is recommended to apply such fertilizers in batches. This should be done about once every 1.5-2 weeks. Calculate the serving so as to achieve a constant concentration of 4 mg per liter. Used by:
- superphosphate (simple, double);
- phosphorite flour;
- bone flour;
Effectively apply both phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. The number of the latter should be 4-8 times more.
A certain calcium content is extremely important, since this element is needed to build the skeleton of fish, various chemical and physiological reactions in the soil and water of the pond, and the regulation of bacterial processes. Fertilizer is also introduced to eliminate gill diseases, to precipitate organics, part of phytoplankton.
Calcium is provided by lime - slaked or quicklime. The fertilizer should be finely ground. Due to the reclamation properties, it is recommended to introduce the element into ponds, where there is an excess of organic substances and acidic soil. If the supply of calcium is large, then lime provides sterilization of water. The concentration of the element should be an average of 80 mg per liter.
The calcium content in water can be determined from some plants. The deficiency of the element is manifested by horsetails and peat mosses, the excess - by Elodea and Hara.
Watch the video on adding lime to the pond:
Such fertilizers are not always required, since potassium salts can be contained in sufficient quantities in the soil. Potassium ensures the full development of plants in a pond, and its lack is manifested by brown spots on the leaves.
As potash fertilizer is used:
- wood ash (10% potassium);
- sylvinite (17%);
- cainite (21%);
- potassium sulfate (42-53%);
- potassium chloride (54-57%).
Potash fertilizers contribute 30-100 kg per hectare. Recommends the use of phosphate fertilizers. Potassium is especially important if the soil is sandy or podzolic.
Timely fertilizer application can increase fish productivity by an average of 35%.
This type of fertilizer can be used when the fish pond is well supplied with oxygen. This condition is important, since in the decomposition of organics, oxygen is consumed in large quantities, and if it is deficient, the respiratory process may be disturbed in the fish.
An excess of organic fertilizers can also provoke gill rot.
As organics used:
- manure - horse, cattle, bird droppings;
- compost - manure, plants and land; such fertilizer must ripen at least six months;
- green fertilizers - vegetation of water or land origin.
The amount of organic fertilizer needed is calculated according to the type of soil. For one hectare you will need:
- 10-12 tons of organic matter in clay, sandy or sandy loamy soil;
- 6-10 tons if the bottom of the pond is muddy;
- 3-6 tons in fertile soil, which is rich in organic matter.
Organic fertilizers are applied in the spring or in the fall, until the pond is filled with water. When applying manure, it is necessary to distribute it over the soil surface, then plow it to a depth of 5 cm. If fertilizer is introduced into a pond filled with water, then it must be distributed in small portions over the shallow parts of the coastline.
As a green fertilizer, a water lily, an elodea, and pestles are often used. Their introduction is possible both separately and with manure. About 4-5 tons of green mass are consumed per hectare.
Factors Affecting Fertilizer Performance
The effectiveness of fertilizer application depends on several factors:
- aggregate water quality;
- temperature regime of water;
- ph level;
- oxygen regime and other indicators of the gas balance of the reservoir;
- soil features - refers primarily to its type, composition, structure;
- silt deposits - their density, degree of growth;
- movement of water masses;
- fish living in the pond, their ratio;
- age of hydrobionts, their physiological characteristics;
- density of filling the pond with fish;
- feeding features of hydrobionts - its intensity, type of feed used.
To assess the effectiveness of the fertilizer use a special coefficient. It shows how much fertilizer took to increase 1 kg of fish (only growth due to fertilizers is taken into account). When using complex fertilizers, this coefficient is calculated separately for each component, and then the obtained values are summed.
To determine the need of the pond for fertilizers, you can use the biological method, which is called the flask method. The procedure is based on the observation of phytoplankton, which releases oxygen and absorbs organic matter. Photosynthesis of phytoplankton increases, therefore, its development is also enhanced. Such a reaction to fertilizer means its need for a pond.
Rules for fertilizing the pond
In organizing this process, a lot of nuances should be taken into account. This applies not only to the substances required in a particular case and their quantity, but also to other features. When applying fertilizer, it is important to observe the following rules:
- Properly prepare the pond for fertilizing. If there are wetlands, you must first drain them. The acidified zones of the reservoir lime - such a measure can increase the fertility of the soil.
- Removing hard water plants. This applies to sedge, cattail, reeds, reeds.
- Thinning soft plants. They usually grow too much. Thin out them so that they occupy no more than a quarter of the total area of the reservoir.
- Neutral or slightly alkaline reaction of water and soil. The pH should be between 7-7.5. For leveling acidity often resort to lime.
- Fertilizing can be done in an empty pond or after filling it. The first option is used mainly for organics, the second - for mineral fertilizers.
- To fertilize a small pond, you can use a motor pump or irrigation system for irrigation. For a growing and feeding pond you need a boat and mounted mesh drums.
- To influence phytoplankton, fertilizers should be introduced into the water column, and for reproduction of benthic organisms - to the bottom of the pond.
- For the application of mineral fertilizers, a liquid form is preferable. Dry fertilizers can be applied if they are well soluble in water - phosphorus fertilizers are an exception.
- Fertilizing should begin when the water temperature is at least 15 degrees. It is in such conditions that the development of bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, zoobenthos begins. At temperatures below this mark, fertilizer application is stopped.
- Manure and compost must be introduced twice during the growing season - first before filling the pond, then in early July.
- When working with lime, use a respirator.
- When working with any mineral fertilizers, you need to use special clothing: a robe with a blank collar, gloves and boots. These measures are mandatory safety requirements.
Contact with eyes requires immediate rinsing with water and medical attention. If nitrate or ammonia water gets on the skin, then the affected area is washed with water and treated with petrolatum or zinc-stearin ointment.
Workers dealing with fertilizers are required to undergo coaching before starting work. In the future, such a measure is needed every six months.
Fertilizer storage rules
The effectiveness and safety of fertilizers used for ponds largely depends on compliance with the rules for their storage:
- a special storage room is required, which must always be dry;
- organization of a drainage channel around the warehouse;
- ensuring free space between the floor and the ground;
- storage of each type of fertilizer in separate sections - continuous partitions are organized for their separation;
- storage of ammonium nitrate in rooms with a wooden floor is prohibited;
- ammonium nitrate is stored in bags, which are stacked in 8 rows crosswise;
- when storing ammonium nitrate, a fireproof wall is required, which will separate the substance from other fertilizers;
- when storing ammonium nitrate, it is forbidden to smoke, use open flame, faulty electrical wiring, electrical appliances in this room;
- excludes the presence in the warehouse of any oil products, peat, feed;
- when storing ammonium nitrate on the storage wall outside, make the corresponding inscription - "flammable";
- collars are used for storage of loose fertilizers - a height of up to 3 m is allowed;
- for the storage of fertilizers packaged in containers, stacks are organized - 20 rows;
- each container or compartment should be marked with a label on which the name of the fertilizer must be indicated, the amount of active principle;
- the warehouse should be equipped with a washbasin;
- must have soap (preferably liquid), towels, first-aid kits for first aid;
- a fountain with drinking water should be organized in the warehouse.
Fertilizing ponds is organized to increase natural fish productivity. Various types of mineral and organic fertilizers are used, each of which must be applied according to certain rules. Be sure to observe storage conditions and ensure the safety of the work.