Among cows of high-milk breeds, such a pathology as ketosis is quite often diagnosed. It manifests itself in the form of a violation of the protein-carbohydrate metabolism in the animal’s body, hyperketonemia, malfunctioning of various organs and systems. Ketosis leads to a decrease in milk production, weight loss and the birth of weak offspring.
Causes of the disease
This disease develops, most often, after prolonged feeding to cows of products in which protein predominates and a low content of carbohydrates (glucose, starch) is noted. Such a diet does not meet the energy needs of cattle and leads to the development of primary ketosis.
Ketone substances, which are formed in an abnormally large amount in this disease, formed the basis of its name.
Also, the uniform feeding of silos and bagasse serves as a “provocateur” (due to the presence of a large percentage of butyric and acetic acids in this feed). Their accumulation in the body occurs due to incomplete oxidation (the norm for complete oxidation is 1-6% of the acid content in the diet).
Primarily ketone bodies accumulate in various organs. Then they are found in the blood (ketonemia), which subsequently leads to ketonuria and ketonolactia (the presence of ketone bodies in urine and milk).
The causes leading to secondary ketosis include the following conditions:
- endocrine diseases;
- diseases of the genitourinary system;
- lack of exercise, and as a result obesity;
- lack of ultraviolet and mineral substances.
The disease has no seasonality, the mechanism of its development is rather complicated, since it affects a number of reasons. Most often diagnosed in 4-7 year old dairy well-fed cows during pregnancy, either a couple of months before calving, or in the first weeks / months after it.
The symptomatology of ketosis directly depends on the degree of neglect and on the nature of the course of the disease. With the development of the disease, many organs are involved in the pathological process, deviations in the biochemical parameters of blood are observed.
Symptoms may be subclinical (absence or nonspecific symptoms) and clinical.
With the flow, 3 forms of the disease are distinguished.
The clinical picture of the acute form of the disease includes the following syndromes, which we will describe below.
Gastroenteric - pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract are observed:
- violation of the rhythm of chewing periods;
- pancreatic hypotension;
- belching retardation;
- catarrh of the intestine;
- alternating constipation and diarrhea.
- signs of cardiovascular failure are observed;
- perverse appetite or lack thereof;
- enlarged liver with pain;
- yellowness of visible mucous membranes.
Neurotic - usually manifests itself on the first day after calving, the symptoms relate to the acute stage of the disease:
- increased nervous irritability;
- hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity) of the skin in the neck, chest, lower back;
- possibly soporous (deeply depressed) or coma;
- tremor of various muscles, tonic cramps;
- gnashing of teeth.
Acetonemic syndrome refers to the subclinical course and is manifested by the following symptoms:
- decreased appetite and productivity;
- lethargy, apathy;
- polypnoea (rapid surface breathing);
- dull hair;
- ventricular hypotension;
- dystrophic changes in organs (heart, kidneys, liver);
- quantitative increase in ketone bodies in the blood.
Symptoms of the subacute stage are manifested by hepatotoxic and gastroenteric syndromes. There is also the smell of acetone in the exhaled cow air (the smell can be observed in milk and urine), milk yield drops significantly, or disappears completely.
In the chronic course, disturbances in the digestive and reproductive systems, dystrophic changes in the heart and liver are observed.
Also, with a severely neglected disease, pathological changes reach the reproductive organs. With an increase in the blood of ketone bodies in cows, cystic formations in the ovaries are noted, the sexual cycle disorder born during the progression of this disease, the calves are weak. Possible intrauterine death of the fetus during a long gestation period.
If ketosis is suspected, the veterinarian performs the necessary laboratory procedures (determining the level of acetone bodies in the blood or urine using a special reagent).
Further, the diagnosis is confirmed by analyzing the clinical signs, analysis data, and collecting information on the nature of feeding and content.
Then treatment is prescribed, and the owner receives the necessary recommendations.
The treatment regimen for ketosis varies, depending on the symptoms. An integrated approach allows you to get favorable results in a short time. But it is of utmost importance to exclude the cause and normalize nutrition (diet therapy). For this, a diet is compiled, which includes the necessary elements in the correct percentage, taking into account the energy needs of the animal:
- reduce the amount of foods high in protein;
- feed fresh high-quality hay and green grass;
- vegetables are added - sugar beets, carrots, potatoes, fodder turnips;
- top dressing - finished mineral supplements that cover the daily need for trace elements;
- vitamins D and A;
- table salt.
Sugar-protein ratio in feed should be 1: 1, for this you can introduce molasses into the diet - up to 2 kg per head.
Favorably restore the body:
- long exercise;
- massaging the skin to improve skin respiration and sweating.
Drug treatment is primarily aimed at normalizing blood sugar levels and restoring enzymatic processes in the rumen. To ensure metabolic and energy processes, glucose is used.
In clinical practice, the best result is the intraperitoneal deposition of drugs according to the method of Sharabrin and Shaykhamanov (a Janet syringe is injected into the region of the right hungry fossa) with a mixture of A and B:
- mixture A - used for a mild disease, it is required to introduce up to 2 liters of solution intraperitoneally;
- mixture B - is used in severe cases, if necessary, the procedure is repeated up to 4 times in a volume of 8 liters.
The composition of the mixtures is as follows:
- distilled water (1000/1000 g);
- sodium chloride (9/9 g);
- sodium bicarbonate (13/113 g);
- calcium chloride (0.4 / 0.5 g);
- potassium chloride (0.4 / 0.5 g);
- glucose (100/140 g);
- caffeine sodium benzoate (0.5 / 0.5);
- streptomycin (50.0 / 50.0 g).
The treatment regimen and dosage is prescribed by a veterinarian to each animal individually, depending on the degree of development of the disease and the condition of the body at the time of examination. Also, these procedures are not carried out independently. It is necessary to call a veterinarian at home to carry out the above medical procedures.
- 100-300 ml of a 20-40% glucose solution is prescribed intravenously. Repeat after 2 hours. Also 0.25% solution of novocaine with glucose in a dose prescribed by a doctor;
- calcium gluconate - 20 g subcutaneously;
- hormonal drugs - insulin, cortisone, hydrocotrizone in the form of intramuscular injections;
- to resume the work of the gastrointestinal tract, the animal is soldered with hellebore;
- for cardiac activity, a solution of caffeine sodium benzoate is used subcutaneously;
- for neurological symptoms, a chlorpromazine solution is used (1 ml per 1 kg of mass).
To normalize the microflora of the scar, the animal is injected with an extract of the contents of the scar obtained from healthy cattle.
The main preventive measures to prevent ketosis are a variety of high-grade feeding. The diet of the animal is selected taking into account its energy costs. Each owner must carefully inspect the livestock, monitor the quality of the fed products and cure any diseases in a timely manner. Proper walking and cleanliness also affects livestock health.
Ketosis is a fairly common disease. In cows prone to ketosis, body weight decreases, difficulties during calving are noted, milk yield is reduced or completely stopped - all this causes significant economic damage to farms. Therefore, it is very important to take care of the herd's health and follow the recommendations of a veterinarian.