Dutch breed - without crossbreeds and the most common around the world. It was bred in the 17th century and since then many people have kept it for milk and meat. At the beginning of the 18th century, cows from Friesland were brought to Russia. Milk productivity is high, and with high fat content.
Description and features of the Dutch cow
This breed of cows is famous for milk, because the duration of the lactation period is 300 days or more. During this period, 6000 liters of milk with a fat content of 4.1% can be milked. In addition to high milk yield, these cows can also get a small amount of meat, 58% of the body weight of meat comes from one carcass.
The intensive development of the Dutch took place over the past 160 years. At first, the cows had weak muscles, not a strong skeleton, and skin was thin. To date, cows have grown stronger, bones have become strong, and muscles are strong. This had a positive effect on both their health and the taste of meat.
The suit of the Dutch cow is black and white, mottled, the body is elongated. The head is long, the forehead is narrowed. This type of cow is hornless. Signs of meat breed:
- not long legs;
- the back is straight;
- the sides are wide.
Sciatic tubercles and shoulder blades protrude above the body, the lower back is wide. The udder is large, where the vessels protrude well.
The height of the Dutch cow reaches 132 centimeters, the weight of one animal is at least 600 kilograms, the bulls reach 1 ton. Beef calves are born with a high weight - 40-42 kilograms of live weight.
The breed belongs to precocious animals, calves quickly gain weight and develop well. Already in half a year, a heifer weighs almost 200 kilograms, and bulls about 300 kilograms. In a year and a half, the chick is ready to bear the first calf. It should be taken for mating, but if this is not possible, then artificial insemination is carried out. Bulls are a little earlier ready to insect a heifer, they have it happens in 1 year and 3 months.
These cows are very shy, they are scared of extraneous noise, veterinary examinations and vaccinations. If the Dutchman is very frightened, then for some time milk production and appetite may be reduced.
Animals are whimsical in content, they cannot be kept on a leash, so they are stressed. Cows love freedom, so you need to keep them in a spacious stall.
How to care for the Dutch?
Cattle will not require any special attention and care, it is only important to follow the basic rules:
- cleanliness: twice a day, cleaning the stall, replacing the litter, washing the feeders and water containers;
- diet: feed the cows three times a day, preferably at the same time;
- if milking takes place at the same time, more milk production can be obtained;
- should be fed vegetables, clean hay;
- water should not be cold, its temperature can reach +16 degrees;
- the total temperature of the barn should be +10 degrees Celsius;
- so that there are no unpleasant odors in the room, it must be systematically ventilated.
Before milking a cow, it is necessary to carefully examine the udder for mastitis, since the Dutch are very susceptible to this disease. It is also useful for cows of this breed to be vaccinated against mastitis.
Before acquiring a cow of a certain breed, consider the important point to which climate they are adapted. As for the Dutch, they love the temperate climate. Since livestock have a large scar, they can process large quantities of lush green grass.
At 1 year and 3 months, the bulls are sent for fattening, which lasts three months, it is during this period that they reach a weight of 300 kilograms. When the bull reaches 750 kilograms, they are led to slaughter.
To keep the milk yield high, animals should be kept without a leash, where each animal has a box. That is, the room should be equipped with boxes where the animal can rest at will. Cows are divided into several groups:
- not milked;
- dead wood.
In each group there are from 20 to 40 cows. If there is free space, then the cows in the last stage of pregnancy are kept separately. Calves should also be kept separate from everyone. At first, animals can conflict until they find a common language.
Feeding the Dutch
In summer, the Dutch can graze all day in the pasture until the evening, it is recommended to give spring straw and hay as roughage. If this is not done, then they may disrupt the work of the gastrointestinal tract and failures in the functioning of the scar.
An approximate ration of the day for the Dutch, which is designed for 113 feed units, should look like this:
- silage from corn and alfalfa in the amount of 30 kilograms;
- vegetables (carrots, beets) 5 kilograms, and in a day you can give potatoes, pumpkin and zucchini;
- cereal or bean hay in the amount of 6 kilograms;
- sunflower meal in the amount of 1.5 kilograms;
- bran dry or steamed 700 grams, this portion must be divided into three times;
- barley flour 1 kilogram, which should be poured into vegetables or meal.
No less important is the drinking regime. In summer, a cow can drink about 70 liters of water per day, in winter 50 liters. Be sure to have salt, chalk and phosphate supplements in the animals.
High milk productivity arose thanks to the long-term efforts of the Dutch. They did not pay much attention to the productivity of meat; it was important for them to create such cows that would have high milk yield.
Cows of this breed are among the most dairy, because it is capable of producing a lot of milk, about 5 thousand kilograms, even more, which contains a large amount of protein and fat. There are also champions who gave 11,000 kilograms of dairy products with a fat content of 4.16%.
Advantages and disadvantages of Dutch cows
Undoubtedly, Dutch cows have many advantages, but they also have some disadvantages. As for the positive qualities:
- quick set of live weight;
- good milk production;
- this breed can be crossed with others to get a new good breed of cows;
- these cows can be kept anywhere in the world;
- good meat productivity;
- quick addiction to climate change.
Now let's talk about the shortcomings:
- Dutch people are susceptible to infectious diseases;
- this breed often has mastitis;
- very shy;
- the Dutch are clean, so they need to constantly change the bedding, clean, ventilate the room, etc .;
- they should be fed only with high-quality feed and at a certain time, if this is not done, the quality and quantity of milk may decrease;
- demanding about keeping and feeding.
The Dutch breed is the dairy cow of all, but it needs proper care. Experts say that the Dutch should be kept in specialized farms, because at home the owner is unlikely to be able to create ideal conditions for the life of a cow. In order to get this breed, the Dutch worked for many years, from thin and weak animals turned strong and beautiful cows.