Toulouse geese are very popular among farmers around the world. Such a demand is explained by the high taste properties of meat and liver, as well as undemanding to the conditions of detention and ease of care.
History of breed origin
Toulouse geese spread all over the world from France - there they originated. With special efforts, breeders were able to bring out a miracle bird, which has excellent productivity. At the same time, they also exceed almost all the rest of their kind birds, in saving money on maintenance.
For many years, French scientists crossed different types of geese in the hope of creating the one that will surpass all other breeds and enjoy the demand and attention of shepherds.
Years later, they were still able to breed such a breed, and named it Toulouse. It was obtained from two breeds of geese, one of which was ordinary - gray. After some time, the Toulouse geese began to spread in Europe, Asia and America. As a result, the Toulouse geese appeared in Russia, quickly winning first place in popularity among farmers.
Description and characteristics of the Toulouse geese
Let's get to know this breed more closely to understand how they differ from the rest, and why they enjoy increased attention and love.
Appearance and physique
These birds are endowed with vivid qualities with the help of which they are not easy to confuse with another breed. Tall, heavy geese have a bright (young) and dark gray (adult) color. It is also difficult not to notice a wide head that ends in a yellow-orange beak. The head seems to be flat. Massive and wide body. Strong limbs, and medium sized, long neck.
Coloring may vary. It is not uncommon, at the end of the limbs from gray, the color turns into black. This can be seen on the neck and wings. It happens that brown individuals appear - a very rare species. They were even given a separate name, Buff Toulouse. There are not many examples registered by Russian farmers.
Geese are distinguished by physique. With these parameters, they are divided into four groups:
- Large fat folds on the body, stomach, and a purse on the neck near the head.
- With a "wallet", but without fat folds.
- Without a "wallet", but with a large fat fold in the abdomen.
- Without a "wallet", and without a fat fold.
The first and second group of geese stand out less. They are inactive, poorly prolific.
They are currently one of the most massive birds. That's because, people specifically selected only the most powerful representatives of the species. Those who remained now. On average, gander is heavier than geese. They gain up to 9-11 kg, and an adult weighs about 12 kg. The geese are smaller - in weight they are 2 or 4 kg behind, and gain 7-9 kg.
Geese grow at an extraordinary rate, which many farmers have come to love. More meat, fat, and fat itself, accumulates well, because the breed is inactive. Farmers use it, and specifically fatten them.
The egg production of the breed pleases. It depends on the age of the goose. In the first year, she can drop up to 18-19 eggs. In the second - 25 eggs. In the third year, the goose can lose more than 40 eggs. The eggs themselves are strong, massive, with a white shell. Their weight can be 200-250 g.
The mother's instinct for geese of this breed is almost not developed, and she is not able to protect her eggs. Therefore, when she drops eggs, it is necessary to lay them under the geese of other breeds so that they carry them. Or, if there are no other breeds, leave the egg in the incubator. Fertility is low; when breeding young geese, about half are fertilized eggs. Survival is not high, on average, a little more than half.
Features of maintenance and cultivation
Warmth and dryness - the main thing in their content, because geese can not stand cold temperatures at all, surviving only when creating favorable conditions.
What should be the room?
Geese are extremely thermophilic and chilling indoors will be a huge problem. Get rid of all drafts, crevices, and holes in the walls that will let the cold. The normal temperature to their content is 20 degrees. The humidity level should not be too high, which also will not affect them positively - no more than 70%.
Geese have not too good immunity, and to strengthen it, it is necessary to carry out daily cleaning in the room, to remove droppings. The floor can be covered with a layer of straw or peat. The second option will be better, because it absorbs almost all the moisture from the floor, but should always be dry.
In winter and in the cold, the layer should be high - from 25 cm. Before laying it, make sure that there will not be an accelerated reproduction of bacteria and pests. Use the necessary remedies to prevent the spread of bacteria (slaked lime). If the spread of the infection has already occurred, use a decoction of chamomile, a string and other herbs. Once every two weeks, bathe geese in it.
A small area is not welcome, and according to calculations, 1.5 square meters are allocated per livestock. m square. Allocate another half square meter to the room. m, as geese grow very quickly and need free space. It is advisable that in the place where you keep them, there are several rooms. In one room should be no more than 5-6 adults.
In the cold season there is a high probability of getting sick. In geese, diseases are much more complicated than in humans, so nutrition should be saturated with vitamins and nutrients, organic and minerals.
The litter should be denser and warmer. No moisture in the room, as well as in the warm season. Observe the temperature in the room where the geese are kept. Do not forget about the sanitary rules, clean the room from dirt and litter once a day.
Walking should also be present in the life of birds, but not as long as in summer and spring. Take the geese into the street for an hour or two - maximum. Before you bring them out, sweep all the snow clean, otherwise they will face frostbite and illness. Watch them carefully during the walk, as the breed's immunity is weak.
Walking and water procedures
In order for geese to develop correctly, as well as to strengthen the immune system, a daily walk is necessary. Better if several times a day. Access to the sun and clean air must be mandatory, and it is desirable that there are ponds near this territory.
Geese of this breed should take water procedures 3 times a week. There are cases when geese did not need a pond at all, but in most cases, water positively affects the state of the body, although not significantly.
During the oviposition period, the goose leads little vital activity. The period begins in early March (late February), and once a day the goose hatches a new egg, usually in the morning. In total, about 40 eggs will be released per year.
The maternal instinct is completely absent in the geese of the Toulouse breed. They cannot guard the egg, watch over it, care for it, and hatch. For breeding, she does absolutely nothing. In this case, two methods help: either you can put an egg under a goose of another breed, or use an incubator.
The method with an incubator is more popular, because with it the eggs hatch faster, and in some cases, this even increases the percentage of egg fertility. You can put eggs under a goose of another breed. If this is not faster, it will increase the number of geese much more efficiently.
For breeding geese of this breed, you should adhere to the following tips:
- Be sure to observe the thermal regime necessary for the geese to live.
- Constant tracking of geese, you must look after them, and immediately attach the eggs that appear to the right place - an incubator or another goose. You can use another bird for this, for example, chickens will do.
- Do not disturb the course of the incubation period, leaving alone the eggs and the goose.
- Good lighting in the room, incubator.
- Balanced bait for geese.
- A special feed for new chicks.
The weight of the chicks increases very quickly. Compared with their adult life, they gain more weight in the form of chicks. By 9 months, the weight will be 4 kg.
After birth, you will need to feed them often - 7 times a day. As food, only moist food should be given. Perfectly chopped greens. This will continue for a month and a half. Then 3-4 meals a day will go, and smoothly proceeds to the nutrition of adults.
From a week's age, you can start to take chicks out, but only in warm weather, and not for long - 30 minutes. The time spent on the street will increase with the age of goslings. After the lapse of the month, you can allow the chicks to the pond, but only in warm water - at least 17 degrees.
How to feed geese
Nutrition should be varied and complete, properly composed, taking into account the age of the birds. Add vitamin and high-quality foods to the diet, because they will affect the general signs of the goose.
Eating geese is divided into two times: morning and evening. In the morning, individuals eat much less than in the evening. Many of them prefer to feed on the pasture in the morning.
Cereals are most suitable for nutrition. Among them, one can distinguish corn, wheat and others. Also, birds will be happy to appreciate vegetables, especially boiled ones.
The amount of food is not as important as its mineral wealth, vitamin saturation. Pay attention to these indicators of food, because it affects the health of the goose, and the future taste of its meat.
Clean water should always be available for geese. The same important condition is the correct drinking bowl, which must be selected taking into account the characteristics of this species. It is desirable that it be oblong (rectangular) in shape.
At first, after birth and the following weeks, you need to feed goslings 7 to 8 times a day. Food should be rich in vitamins and consist of specially prepared feed for goslings. With each new week, reduce food by 3-4 times.
Until one month of age, you can feed wet cereals, wheat bran and boiled vegetables. Young animals will not refuse boiled eggs mixed with greens. After 40-50 days from birth, whole grains (corn, wheat) can be smoothly added to food.
Daily, use greens in the diet - fresh or dried.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Toulouse breed
Most farmers love the breed for its many positive qualities. These include such as:
- high growth rate;
- weight gain;
- quality of down and feathers;
- fat stores;
- delicacy in the form of a liver;
- precocity, especially geese with "wallets";
- egg production - 40 eggs per year.
The described breed has the following disadvantages:
- low survival rate of young birds;
- high demands on temperatures;
- high demands on food;
- low egg fertilization rate.
See the video below for an overview of the Toulouse geese breed:
Olga, 54 years old, farmer, Minsk.
Geese is just a miracle. Not so long ago I saw them, and thought that I could not help but take a few. Then we, along with my Italian friends, went to France, after contacting them. I was not mistaken with the choice, I understood this when I found out more about the breed. As for fertility, it’s true - 50%. But this is nothing, since a goose drops up to 60 eggs a year and it turns out that it will hatch somewhere around 30-35. I also found out that geese are fed to get a foie gras dish. Emotions are positive.
Konstantin, 31 years old, economist, Kiev.
Breed of geese from France. There are lungs, and heavier. Gander reach 12 kg, and geese 9 kg. Geese do not hatch eggs, but the opposite also occurs, despite the fact that the conditions of detention are close to natural.
Toulouse geese are an excellent choice for any farmer who is more or less experienced in these matters. The content of Toulouse does not require special financial investments or too much attention.