Pigs are susceptible to various diseases. They can be contagious or non-contagious. The first group is divided into infectious and parasitic diseases. Each pathology differs in its features, therefore, the methods of treatment and prevention may differ.
Such diseases are also called contagious, as infected animals can transmit them to healthy individuals. The causative agent may be a microbe, virus, mycoplasma. An ill animal receives immunity.
This disease is viral. The virus enters the bloodstream of an animal, penetrates all tissues and organs. It is characterized by high infectivity and relative resistance to chemical and physical factors.
The virus can infect a pig of any breed and at any age. Its source is a sick animal. The virus hides in urine, feces, secretion. The incubation period usually takes no more than a week. The disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- temperature increase up to 42 degrees;
- loss of appetite;
- the appearance of thirst;
- shaky gait;
- staying mostly lying down.
By the end of the week, the clinical picture is supplemented by spot hemorrhages on the ears and abdomen. After 1-1.5 weeks, the animal usually dies.
Anti-inflammatory and antiviral agents are used to treat the plague, but these cases are rare. Usually sick animals are waiting for a sanitary slaughter, since it is expensive to treat them.
In order to prevent the farm, they enclose, arrange sanitary checkpoints and disinfection barriers. Disinfection, disinfestation, disinfection of premises is carried out regularly. When a disease is detected, quarantine is provided. After the sanitary slaughterhouse, technical disposal is carried out.
Read more about African swine fever (ASF) - read here .
This disease is also called erysipeloid, creeping erythema, rubella naturalists, erythema of Breaker. The causative agent is an erysipelatous bacterium. Diseases are usually affected by pigs aged 3-12 months.
The source of infection is sick animals and carriers. It can be transmitted through feed. The incubation period takes 3-4 days. The acute course of the disease manifests itself:
- raising the temperature to 42 degrees;
- depressed state;
- weakness in the hind limbs;
- congestion in the lungs;
- cyanosis of the skin.
The subacute course of the disease is expressed by cutaneous exanthema, and chronic - by emaciation, endocarditis, arthritis, skin necrosis.
For treatment, anti-porous serum and antibiotics (usually penicillins) are used. Active immunization with live and inactivated vaccines is the prevention.
A disease can affect a person, therefore veterinary and sanitary control is important. If the internal organs and blood of the animal are affected, then its disposal is necessary.
The causative agent is anaerobic spirochete, which is transmitted by sick and recovering animals.
The incubation period can last 2-28 days. The course of the disease can be acute, subacute and chronic.
First, there is a depressed state, loss of appetite, fever. On day 3-7, the main symptom is manifested - diarrhea, after which there comes a temporary constipation. The stool may be reddish brown or dark chestnut in color. They can detect blood clots, purulent exudate.
For treatment, antibiotic therapy is carried out, they resort to sulfonamides, Trichopolum, Tilan, Nifulin, Osarsol. Similar measures are used for prevention.
If there are degenerative changes in the muscles, then the carcass with internal organs must be disposed of.
Edema of piglets
This phenomenon is also called colienterotoxemia, colitoximia, Escherichia, paralytic toxicosis. The causative agent is called hemolytic E. coli.
The disease is characterized by an acute course. The clinical picture is expressed by the following symptoms:
- increased irritability;
- short-term cramps at the initial stage;
- paresis and paralysis with the development of the disease;
- hyperemia and swelling of the eyelids;
- lost appetite;
- short-term diarrhea;
- periodic vomiting;
- increased heart rate;
- cyanosis of the ears, patch, skin on the abdomen and distal parts of the limbs;
- labored breathing;
- hoarse, barking voice.
The treatment is carried out with antibiotics, diphenhydramine (intramuscularly), the introduction of a solution of calcium chloride and calcium gluconate with novocaine. After antibiotic therapy, they resort to acidophilic drugs.
For the prevention of piglets, they are gradually weaned from the uterus and given vitamin and mineral nutrition. Slaughter products need to be investigated, as modified organs require disposal.
This pathology is called pseudorabies, infectious meningoencephalitis, infectious bulbar palsy. The causative agent is herpes virus, the source of which is carriers and sick animals. It is transmitted alimentarily. The cause of the spread of the disease is often rodents.
The incubation period can last about 3 weeks. In piglets, specific signs are not observed, death occurs within 12 hours. In adults, the disease manifests itself with profuse foamy salivation and a temperature of up to 42 degrees.
The epileptic form of the pathology is expressed by sudden arousal, convulsions, a sitting dog pose, inadequate response to light, paralysis of muscles, ears, eyes. The oglome-like form is manifested by oppression, immobility for hours, a shaky gait, a bent neck, an increased pulse, and pulmonary edema. Death can occur in 1-2 days or after 2 weeks.
There are no specific drug treatments. Protein therapy is used to strengthen the body's overall reactivity. To reduce the risk of complications, penicillin, streptomycin, biomycin, a vitamin-mineral complex are used.
Provide monthly quarantine, vaccinate animals. Sick pigs are fed for subsequent slaughter.
The causative agent of the disease is enterovirus. It is carried by sick, ill and latently infected animals. Piglet suckers are characterized by an incubation period of 1-2 days, gilts - up to 6 days.
The disease is acute. Usually it is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- lack of appetite;
- alternating profuse diarrhea and constipation.
The stools are characterized by a watery consistency, yellow or greenish-yellow color. Possible impurity of blood. In some cases, coordination of movements is disturbed, muscle cramps are observed.
There is no specific treatment for the disease. They carry out symptomatic therapy, provide easily digestible food. They also resort to antibiotics to exclude a second infection.
In the body of pigs, several types of pathogens often parasitize simultaneously. This is detrimental to animals, therefore it is necessary to correctly and timely take preventive measures.
The causative agent is a trematode parasitizing in the small intestine. More often young animals are affected at the age of six months to a year. Pigs are usually infected in estuaries when the water drops. The source of helminths are fish.
The disease is manifested by vomiting, weight loss, growth retardation, curvature of the spine, enlarged lymph nodes, intermittent fever.
There is no specific treatment. Prevention consists in refusing to graze on estuaries and checking fish for this pathogen before feeding it to pigs.
The causative agent is a nematode that parasitizes in the small intestine. Sick animals are a source of infection, and earthworms act as carriers of invasion.
Ascaridosis often affects weaners and gilts up to 4 months. With early weaning and poor feeding, there is a risk of mass infection.
Migration of larvae is accompanied by bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, pneumonia in animals. This condition is expressed in the following symptoms:
- difficulty breathing
- unsteady gait;
- loss of appetite;
- developmental lag.
When mature roundworm parasitizes in the intestines, clinical signs are usually not observed. With high-intensity invasion, there is a risk of blockage of the intestine and rupture of its walls.
The treatment is deworming with piperazine. It is carried out a month before farrowing, and if infection is detected again after 1.5 weeks. Deworming of piglets is carried out in 2.5-3 months, with a repeated procedure after 1.5 weeks for infected individuals.
Prevention consists in the proper organization of premises for animals, cleaning pigsties and paddles in spring and autumn, disinvasion, biothermal disposal of manure. Preventive deworming of piglets is mandatory - during the first 4 months it is carried out three times.
The causative agent is a nematode that parasitizes in the gastric mucosa. Its source is sick animals, and the carrier is dung beetles. Insects swallow nematode eggs along with infected feces. In the process of invasion, the larvae fall into water and food.
The development scheme of nematodes Trichocephalus suis
The disease has no specific symptoms. Animal exhaustion is observed, the digestive process is upset.
There is no effective treatment. For prevention, deworming is necessary. Spend it three times with an interval of a month.
The causative agent is a nematode parasitic in the stomach. The source is sick animals with vomiting, in which the nematodes or larvae themselves are located.
The disease spreads everywhere and affects piglets from a month old. There are no symptoms.
As a treatment and prevention, deworming is carried out. For this, Nilverm and Fenbendazole are used. Deworming is carried out in several stages: first before mating, then a month before farrowing. Piglets are treated at the age of one month, then repeated after 1-2 months.
If sows have low fatness and frequent vomiting, then they are subject to culling. If an infected animal is detected, then the entire batch is not allowed on the complexes.
The causative agent is nematodes, parasitic mainly in the cecum. Infection occurs through food, water, sucking a dirty udder. Diseases are more susceptible to young piglets and gilts.
Trichocephalosis is expressed by progressive weight loss of animals. The acute course of the disease is often manifested by convulsions, diarrhea with an admixture of blood. Chronic disease is expressed by an appetite disorder, exhaustion, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
As a treatment, deworming is carried out with Fenbendazole, Febantel, Morantel Tantrat is used.
Prevention consists of deworming before moving to a summer camp and stall maintenance. It is necessary to keep the room in proper veterinary and sanitary condition and to process it every month with boiling water or ash liquor.
This group of diseases is also called non-contagious. Their reason usually lies in the improper maintenance and feeding of animals.
This disease is expressed in excess accumulation of adipose tissue by the body when body weight is exceeded by at least 20%. More common alimentary obesity that occurs against the background of prolonged excessive feeding. A risk factor is often a genetic predisposition to such a pathology, non-walking content, lack of exercise.
Hypothalamic-pituitary obesity is observed against organ damage, and secondary symptomatic endocrine disease is a consequence of hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, hypercorticism.
With obesity, the physiological form of the animal changes, the stomach increases. Sexual activity and response to external stimuli are reduced, motor functions are slowed down. Possible cardiopulmonary failure, obesity of the pericardium.
As a treatment and prevention, proper feeding and walking of animals is necessary. Drug therapy is carried out, focusing on the condition of the animals. More often resort to sugar-lowering drugs, cardiac glycosides, hepatoprotectors.
In this case, stones form in the gallbladder and hepatic ducts, which interfere with the outflow of bile into the intestine. The cause of the disease is metabolic disorders, altered motor function of the organ, mechanical factors, infections and infestations.
If the outflow of bile is not disturbed, then there are no symptoms of the disease. If the outflow of secret is impaired, then the condition of the animal is characterized by:
- loss of appetite;
- flatulence of the intestines and scar;
- anemicity of visible mucous membranes, followed by yellowness;
- fever during an attack;
- organ soreness.
In treatment, they resort to painkillers, vasodilators, laxatives. Use sulfonamides and urotropin. Prevention is hygiene and feeding.
The disease can be serous, fibrinous, hemorrhagic, purulent, catarrhal, putrefactive or mixed. The variety is determined by the nature of the exudate. The pathological process is localized in different ways, therefore, alveolitis, acinous, lobular, drain, segmental, lobar and total pneumonia are distinguished.
All animal species are susceptible to catarrhal pneumonia. It is characterized by an acute course accompanied by:
- mild fever;
- temperatures up to 41 degrees;
- depressed state;
- decreased appetite;
- weak shortness of breath.
Sick individuals need to be well fed and properly maintained. Drug treatment is carried out with antimicrobial agents. It is necessary to eliminate intoxication and oxygen deficiency, normalize the acid-base and water-salt balance.
For prevention, it is necessary to create optimal feeding and keeping conditions for animals.
This disease is characterized by increased aggressiveness. Pigs bite neighbors on the machine or themselves. The reasons lie in the wrong conditions of feeding and keeping.
The disease is manifested by increased excitability. Biting of ears and tail is observed, sows can eat piglets.
Treatment consists in isolating sick animals. For prevention, it is important to observe the conditions of feeding and maintenance. The diet periodically includes regulators of the processes of excitation and inhibition.
This disease is an inflammation of the bladder. The reason usually lies in infection, less often in trauma and microbial contamination.
Cystitis is characterized by frequent urination, tenderness of a palpable bladder, turbid urine with protein, mucus.
As a treatment, irritating foods should be eliminated and plenty of water should be provided. Of the medicines, they resort to urotropin, salol, sulfanilamides, antibiotics. If a purulent process begins, then the bladder is washed.
There are other non-contagious diseases of pigs. Most of them are subject to people. For alarming symptoms, you need to contact a specialist to identify and solve the problem.
The main cause of most pig diseases is improper care and feeding. Properly organized keeping of animals helps to avoid many problems. One of the important conditions is periodic deworming, especially during periods of increased risk of infection.