Black-brown rabbits are very popular. The main value is not only obtaining dietary, tender and healthy meat, but also luxurious fur. The coat is so bright and unusual in color that it is not necessary to carry out special dyeing or resort to tinting the fur. In addition, rabbits are large, so they give a lot of meat.
History of selection and breeding species
Black-brown rabbit brought F.V. Nikitin. This became possible as a result of a complex and lengthy selection of Viennese blue, chinchilla, white giant, as well as the Flemish giant. The view was bred in the 1940s.
The purpose of the experiments was to obtain not just a new species, but a breed with high productivity, giving good offspring. Also, the individual had to have a strong physique, unpretentiousness, great weight. Another goal was to get high-quality meat and a beautiful skin. This helped the original species used for crossing, which were correctly selected.
An important point in the breeding process was played by the correct selection. The view was finalized and approved only in the 1948th year. But even after approval, work was carried out to further improve this type.
Appearance and main features of the breed
The main shade of wool of the described type is black. On the sides there are axial inclusions of a gray hue with black tips, and the edge has an interesting light blue hue. Already by 6-7 months there is a complete formation of fur. The animal has increased pubescence. The coat is very soft and silky to the touch.
Belongs to the number of medium-mature species that are not too fast, but not slowly gain weight. Due to this property, the average body weight can fluctuate in the region of 3-6 kg. There are real champions - rabbits weighing more than 7 kg.
Purebred representatives of the described breed should have the following characteristics:
- the head is large, powerful;
- a well developed dewlap may occur;
- ears are large - about 16 cm long;
- the body is very massive, strong - no more than 65 cm;
- strong chest - about 36 cm in girth;
- black is the dominant color; a silver-colored veil is rare.
If the animal has all these qualities, then this is a purebred representative of the species.
One female can lead 8-9 rabbits, but this indicator depends on the individual characteristics of the animal. There are cases when the rabbit brings only 4 rabbits, whose weight is within 80 g.
Subject to proper and proper nutrition, as well as compliance with all the rules of care and maintenance, by the age of 3 months the animal reaches a weight of about 3 kg. Females have a strong maternal instinct, so they always take care of their offspring on their own.
Black-brown rabbits can be planted with rabbits of other species that their mothers abandoned.
Due to the presence of axial hair with guiding hair, rabbit skins acquire a thick and very soft veil. To the touch, the skins resemble expensive high-quality fur. The back with the head, in most cases, is black in color, and the coat is black-brown on the sides.
The described species is very popular in fur manufacturing farms, it is a recognized champion in quality and density of wool. Among the valuable characteristics include high pubescence, reaching a density of 24 thousand hair / 100 square meters. mm
In various individuals, an amplitude in the range of 19.5-28 thousand hair can be found. Around one axial hair is approximately 55 downy. When the wool is inflated, a funnel of no more than 3 mm is formed.
Defects and defects of the species
There may be individuals with such defects:
- the stomach is slightly saggy;
- body less than 54 cm in length;
- chest circumference less than 27 cm;
- weight below 4.3 kg;
- the female leads 7 or less rabbits;
- defect of coloring - brownish veil, coat too dark, the veil is colored unevenly, separately located gray hairs are found on the back.
Representatives of the described breed may have some defects, which include:
- the skeleton is underdeveloped or very poorly developed;
- body length less than 49 cm;
- humpbacked back;
- the chest is very poorly developed, in girth less than 24 cm;
- paws are very thin or curved;
- weight less than 4 kg, 7-month-old young individuals weigh less than 3 kg;
- blemish - there are bunches of gray hairs, the veil is too rare and brownish, a large amount of gray hair or light hair.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Representatives of this species have a lot of positive qualities, thanks to which they have gained so wide popularity. Among the main advantages include:
- high survival rate;
- undemanding in the diet;
- there is no need to create certain conditions;
- animals are rapidly gaining weight;
- rabbits are highly fleshy;
- fur of excellent quality;
- adult rabbits have large body sizes.
The animals have practically no shortcomings, except that in one litter there can be only 5 rabbits.
Watch the breed overview in the video below:
Getting quality fur
Breeding rabbits of this species becomes a profitable and quite successful business, which anyone can engage in. This does not require any special equipment or large cash investments.
Animals allow you to get both tender dietary meat and skins with fur of excellent quality. To get valuable fur, be sure to create the right conditions for living and do not forget about caring for animals. First you need to competently select productive females.
There are two main rules that must be followed in order to obtain high-quality fur, especially if it is planned to take it for sale.
Rule number 1
It is required to choose the right age of the animal when it is possible to carry out slaughter. It is during this period that the full and proper formation of the skin occurs, a mature coat of wool appears, which can also be called "winter". It is important to exclude the time of seasonal or age shedding.
Rule number 2
It is required for animals to create high-quality conditions for keeping, you need to take an appropriate place, choose the right cage for keeping large animals. It is important to make a complete and varied diet, because the quality of the coat depends on the food.
If the individuals restrain themselves in inappropriate conditions, serious damage to the axial hair occurs, which includes stiff hair with a large length and increased fragility. During molting, the animals have an uneven cover, when on the skin there are areas with both very short and long fur.
Slaughter of representatives of the described breed, if it is planned to obtain a high-quality skin, is recommended not earlier than the animal reaches the age of 8-9 months. At the same time, seasonal molting must be excluded, which is typical for adult animals.
Young growth updates the fur, reaching the age of 1.5 months. Shedding takes place periodically until the animals reach the age of 3-4 months. There is a short break between the first two molts - about 11-17 days. In young animals, molting stops at about six months of age. First, the area of the withers and tail sheds, then the fur cover on the hips is renewed.
Periods and duration of molting of adult rabbits
Special technologies have been developed to synchronize molting. These methods are used exclusively in large meat-and-meat production. Provided that animals are properly selected and balanced nutrition is prepared, it is possible to reduce the duration of molting in adults, which will be no more than 10 days. This allows you to get high quality fur in the autumn and summer periods.
In private and small farms, you can select a diet individually for each individual. This applies to the regime of the day and the conditions in which the animals are kept. This allows you to get fur with characteristics not lower than 1 and 2 grades. Not only seasonal molting can occur, but also periodic age-related renewal of the fur.
Wool renewal takes place between March and April - it starts with the head and paws, then the tail, sides and hips. In females, this process is much faster; in males, molting takes almost 2-2.5 months.
The figure on the left shows which areas (symmetrically) affect age shedding and at what age it occurs. The figure on the right shows which grade the rabbit's skin belongs to if it is slaughtered for fur at a given age.
At the end of summer, autumn renewal of wool begins, which takes 2 months. If the animals are in adverse conditions, molting can take much longer. Therefore, the likelihood of slaughter of animals to obtain high-quality skins is reduced. During molting, attention must be paid to nutrition and the creation of suitable conditions in which animals are kept.
With the onset of molting, you should adhere to several recommendations:
- In the diet, introduce a special paste designed for cats, due to which wool is removed from the stomach, because the animals constantly lick themselves;
- make a complete diet, use high-value types of feed, thanks to which the process of updating the fur occurs in the shortest possible time, therefore, the molting time is also reduced;
- cut wool that is already damaged;
- comb the animal regularly.
How to keep the quality of rabbit fur before slaughter?
There are several reasons why the quality of the skins decreases:
- slaughter during molting;
- living animals in unsuitable conditions;
- improper and limited nutrition;
- the presence of bites on the body of animals;
- violation of the procedure for dressing and further storage of finished skins.
How to make a rabbit skin at home, read about it here .
Too active animals that like to arrange fights are required to be kept in different cages. Animals can be resettled if they become too large and crowded in one cage.
It is important to choose a balanced and nutritious diet, taking into account the region of residence. If possible, release the animals regularly for a walk. The hair of representatives of this species is quite fluffy, so they can easily tolerate subzero temperatures. Breeders with experience in keeping rabbits are advised to follow a few simple rules.
Rule number 1
Conduct a thorough inspection of the skin of all animals, gently inflating the fur. When molting, the skin begins to darken, so the animal can not be sent for slaughter for the sake of fur.
After 10-14 days, re-examine. If there is pigmentation in the chest area, on the neck, forelegs and near the base of the hind legs - the animals are discarded. Under such conditions, a change of fur occurs.
If the animal is kept in adverse conditions, it is likely that one edge will be superimposed on top of another. As a result, the skins will be classified as low-grade or defective.
Rule number 2
Set the specific type of molting that has begun. Perhaps diffuse or diffuse renewal of the coat, occurring zonally and throughout the body. Reactive or zonal shedding is characteristic in case of improper maintenance and with severe stress, improper nutrition, shock, friction or plucking. May occur during pregnancy in females.
Zone dropout is symmetrical. In case of asymmetrical hair loss, one should carefully monitor the health status of all animals. Be sure to prevent not only demodex, but also other types of diseases.
Rule number 3
In some cases, it may be acceptable to obtain skins and second grade. It is very important to determine the moment when the first molt ends (only pigmented spots are on the hips), and when the second begins (pigmentation appears on the tail and neck). If necessary, such individuals are sent for immediate slaughter.
During the selection of rabbits, it is worth taking care of the quality of each stage. Today, skins are divided into:
- first grade - no defects, uniform and dense undercoat;
- second grade - there are slight deviations, the undercoat is less thick;
- third grade - used for cutting and getting felt;
- fourth grade - is hat.
If you plan to grow rabbits on an industrial scale, you need to ensure proper care. It is also worth considering that during molting periods or when animals are sick, they must be kept in separate cages.
Features of care and maintenance
To get a good profit, you need to create optimal conditions of detention and proper care.
Lighting and temperature
It is recommended that representatives of the breed described be kept indoors, but in this case, proper lighting is required. This indicator allows you to make adjustments to the frequency of offspring, as well as improve the functioning of the farm.
For lighting, it is not necessary to use natural light. Experienced black and brown rabbit farmers recommend minimizing the number of windows in the room. Therefore, you need to add special lighting equipment. It is recommended to use feeding technology, in which various light modes are used.
Moderate temperature conditions are important. Of course, the temperature does not directly affect the seasonal and natural physiological processes, however, uncomfortable sensations during the heat lead to poor appetite in animals. If the animals do not eat enough food, this can adversely affect the quality of the skins.
Arrangement and cells
It is very important to choose the correct cages for animals, designed for individuals that can grow up to 70 cm. It is important that there is a wooden shelf inside that animals can rest on. Also, such a device allows you to maintain high quality fur on the sides.
Healthy individuals tolerate cold quite easily, while additional heating of the room is not required.
If the goal of breeding black-brown rabbits is to obtain both tasty meat and skins, special attention needs to be paid to caring for animals and hygiene. The lack of cleanliness of the cells and the frequent presence of animals in stressful situations instantly negatively affects the state of quality of the fur. There is a violation of the proper functioning of the sebaceous glands. As a result, the animals simply stop washing.
Diet for a black-brown rabbit
It is required for animals to provide proper, complete and varied nutrition. The basis of a balanced diet is compound feed, but also in the summer you can carry out your own preparations.
You can read more about how, when and how to feed rabbits in this article .
What can I feed?
In the diet of pets should be:
- greens - grass, foliage with tops;
- solid types of food - bark or tree branches;
The grass allows you to strengthen the immune system, because it contains a large amount of chlorophyll. This allows you to saturate the blood with the necessary amount of oxygen, significantly improve the metabolic process, maintain immunity.
If animals are kept free and live in open-air cages, they can independently look for food for themselves. The correct diet should contain greens, fruits with fresh vegetables, rough with concentrated feed.
Vitamins and Supplements
To ensure the replenishment of vitamins, in the summer it is worth giving fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as peel from them. Harvest green fodder, preferring cereals, meadows and legumes. It is possible to give tops in small quantities, but only if it has not undergone treatment with toxic chemicals.
The diet has a direct effect on the condition and functioning of the digestive system. In the case of an excess of legumes, flatulence begins. The best choice would be cereal feed based on nettle, alfalfa, clover, sorrel and dandelions. Give barley, oats and fresh corn leaves.
When the kids turn 3 weeks old, you can gradually introduce yellow with red carrots into the diet. This allows you to remove vitamin supplements from the menu. It is recommended to give as much food as possible containing vitamin K and fodder cabbage, containing a lot of useful elements.
The menu should not have too much cabbage, otherwise it will act as a laxative.
How is the reproduction of black-brown rabbits?
Immediately after the appearance of the offspring, it is required to begin the selection of individuals for subsequent breeding. This will allow you to properly form the brood stock. If the breeder does not have his own "mother liquor", it is worth stopping the choice of animals from the tribe, which were selected directly for breeding.
Puberty and recommended mating time
Rabbit puberty occurs at the age of 8-9 months. Males are ready for mating at the age of 4 months. After reaching puberty, you can start mating . Bunnies become wonderful mothers and are able to produce offspring throughout the year. The rabbits of this breed have high survival rates and excellent disease resistance.
Pregnancy and foster care
Like other rabbits, in females of this species, the gestation period is approximately 28-35 days. Okrol passes quickly enough and can take less than 60 minutes. The rabbit and offspring must be constantly watched. You can wean rabbits from a female at the age of 30 days, when they switch to adult food.
How to choose a rabbit and a manufacturer when buying?
During the purchase, it is worth choosing a breeding stock and purchasing individuals only from a professional breeder. This will allow you to get that the female will have high fertility, and the producer will have a calm disposition and provide an optimal offspring.
Today, more and more often, breeders begin to offer to purchase breeding rabbits, which are already fertilized.
It is worth listening to simple recommendations:
- optimal animal weight;
- the animal is active and is not afraid of man;
- only choose a purebred and large individual;
- pay attention to the state of six and check for molting;
- Do not purchase an animal that has been kept in adverse conditions.
An ideal choice would be a fairly large animal with beautiful fur. The animal must fully comply with breed standards. It is best to acquire rabbits in winter or summer, choosing periods between molts.
When buying animals for further production, you should search for a qualified breeder. It is very important that he has his own tribe of representatives of the species.
Before making a purchase, be sure to inspect the farm and do not forget to ask about all the features and subtleties of caring for animals. It is a quality livestock that will become the key to obtaining good offspring, which in the future will allow you to get a standard breeding offspring.
Valery, 35 years old, teacher, Ufa.
Recently I decided to breed rabbits, I chose the breed of black-brown. The animals conquered me with their beauty. And the main advantage was undemanding and easy care.
Oksana, 40 years old, beginner farmer, Voronezh.
Black-brown rabbits have a fur coat of incredible beauty. The meat is tasty and tender, no special conditions are required for the contents. Grow fast, friendly and active.
Black-brown rabbits are very popular among beginners and experienced farmers. They make it possible to get tasty and dietary meat, and of course, high-quality skins.