Chinese cucumbers are superior to ordinary in all respects. They are super long, never bitter, and most importantly - bear fruit to the very frosts. We learn how to plant and grow Chinese miracle cucumbers - more.
What is a Chinese cucumber?
In appearance, Chinese cucumbers are very similar to ordinary ones. It is difficult for an inexperienced gardener to distinguish between the usual garden culture and the miracle cucumber. Chinese cucumbers are not a variety, but a whole variety of cucumbers - a grassy annual from the Pumpkin family.
Chinese cucumbers differ from ordinary ones in size, taste, and biological characteristics. This culture is chosen by active gardeners-experimenters who are happy to grow unusual vegetables.
The homeland of Chinese cucumbers is China. In general, cucumbers, as a culture, have a history of more than 6,000 years. And this subspecies has appeared recently. It was bred in China, and very soon unusual cucumbers spread around the world.
Every year, breeders develop new varieties that differ from each other in biological nuances, but have common agrotechnical characteristics.
The main difference between Chinese cucumbers is long, prickly fruits, reaching a length of 80-90 cm. Other features of the culture:
- Bush. The plant has the appearance of a vine, 3-4 fruits are formed on each branch. Bushes are powerful, with thick stems and large leaves;
- Fruit. The diameter is not more than 7-8 cm, the average length is 50-80 cm, there are no voids inside the fruits. The skin color is dark green, the surface is pimply. Seeds are small, underdeveloped, soft, not coarse as the fruit grows;
- Flowers. Mostly women’s, gathered in bundles of several pieces. There are a lot of ovaries on the plant.
Experienced gardeners advise using the fruits of Chinese cucumbers with light spikes for salads, and with dark ones for preservation.
The plant is unpretentious, it grows on any soil, without requiring special growing conditions. It can grow both in the sun and in shading - illumination does not particularly affect yield. 3-4 plants are enough to provide seven fruits of Chinese cucumbers.
Main agrotechnical characteristics:
|Productivity||9-10 kg from one bush, maximum - 30-40 kg|
|Disease resistance||high (resistant to major diseases of cucumbers)|
|Drought tolerance||High (practically does not affect yield, can withstand temperatures up to + 40 ° C)|
|Growing method||in open ground and in greenhouses|
|Taste||sweetish (the peel does not taste bitterness; the pulp is dense, crunchy, does not rough, does not contain voids)|
|Scent||resembles a melon or watermelon|
|Maturation||early ripening culture (fruits appear 35-40 days after emergence)|
|Fruiting||long (the last fruits are removed before frosts)|
|Marketable condition||excellent (even overgrown fruits are dense and attractive, they do not turn yellow and do not have large, hard seeds, like ordinary ripe cucumbers)|
What are the varieties?
Almost all Chinese cucumbers are hybrids. Previously, seeds were imported from China. There were no domestic varieties, or they did not correspond to the general characteristics of the subspecies. Today, most of the varieties of Chinese cucumber on the market are still from China. Consider the most popular.
Mid-season hybrid. From seedlings to the first fruits - 48-54 days. The plants are branched, powerful, well leafy. Fruits to frost. It is well weaved on grids and lattices. Productivity - 15-20 kg per bush. Fruit weight - 100-120 g, length - 35-55 cm. Country of selection - Russia.
The fruit is cylindrical in shape, with large pimples. At the end - a thickening. The skin is thin, dark green in color, with short whitish stripes in the upper part of the fruit. The taste of the pulp is sweet, it is delicate, fragrant, crunchy.
Seeds are soft, underdeveloped. The hybrid is drought-resistant, withstands heat, bears fruit at high temperatures. Resistant to disease. Fruits are stored in the refrigerator for up to 7 days, they are eaten fresh or salted.
Hybrid with an average ripening period. Fruits appear 48-54 days after germination. The plant is powerful, climbing. Resistant and resilient to all environmental challenges. Productivity - up to 35 kg per bush. Weight - 250-300 g, length - 35-40 cm. Country of selection - China.
The fruits are smooth, dark green in color. Pulp with a delicate, sweet smell. The fruit tastes sweet, crunchy, bitterness and no voids. They eat fresh, canned and salted, cut into slices.
An overview of the Chinese farm cucumber grown in bags in the open field, see the video below:
When grown in greenhouses, the yield of Chinese cucumber increases significantly.
Early ripe hybrid. Matures in 42-45 days. The length of the stems reaches 3.5 m. Productivity - 25-30 kg per bush. Weight - 400-550 g, length –40-50 cm. Chinese selection. Resistant to diseases of cucumbers - powdery mildew, etc.
The fruits are long, dark green, with shiny skin. It tastes a little watery, the aroma is pleasant.
Variety of late ripening. Matures in 65-70 days. Fruits have much less fruit than other varieties. Pollination is cross, unlike most Chinese cucumbers, it needs the work of insects. Growing Climbing on open beds. Productivity - 20-25 kg per bush. Weight - 100-140 g, length –10-15 cm. Chinese selection.
The fruits are small, the skin has a wax coating, it is thin, sweetish. It features good transportability. It is steady against diseases, tolerates cold well. The purpose is universal.
This is an F1 hybrid of medium maturity. From the time of germination to the first fruits - 50-55 days. Plants are powerful, intensively growing. Universal - suitable for greenhouses, greenhouses and open ground. They require bandages on trellises.
Hardy to cold and drought, it practically does not suffer from powdery mildew, fusarium and peronosporosis. Productivity - 20-30 kg per bush. Fruit weight - 135-155 g, length - 55-65 cm. Country of selection - Russia.
The fruits are cylindrical, often curved, with hard pimples and a short neck. Length - 30-50 cm. The color of the fruit is dark green, thin, with shine and dense pubescence. The thorns are light. The pulp corresponds to all the characteristics of Chinese cucumbers - juicy, sweet, fragrant, bitterness is completely absent. You can eat fresh and salt.
If you are late for harvesting the ripened fruits, they will outgrow - the flesh will become tasteless.
A variety of early ripening. Does not need pollination. Productivity - 8-9 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. With good care - up to 30 kg per 1 sq. km. m. Weight - 350-400 g, length –50-80 cm. The maximum diameter is 7 cm. One cucumber is enough for a large salad bowl.
The fruits are juicy, with a thin skin. They grow very fast. You can preserve, salt, eat fresh. Resistant to powdery mildew and ordinary mosaic. It can grow in shading, easily tolerates high temperatures.
Late variety of Chinese breeding. Maturing term - 65-70 days. Productivity - 20-30 kg per bush. Weight - 500-650 g, length –40-65 cm.
Plant height - up to 4.5 m, fruiting to frost. The fruits are juicy, thick, skin peppy, not bitter. Eat fresh. You can preserve, but always on the day of harvest.
An overview of cucumbers of the variety "Chinese Miracle" see the video below:
An early ripe hybrid of F1 Chinese breeding. Ripening period is 45-50 days. Productivity - 14-16 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. Weight - 300 g, length –35–40 cm. Fruits in mid-autumn. Needs pollination by insects.
Bushes are vigorous, branches are tied to trellises. 6-8 fruits grow on one bush. Large-cucumber cucumbers - the skin is similar to alligator skin. Fruits are eaten fresh, used for harvesting.
Gene No. 1
Mid-late bee pollinated hybrid. Selection is Chinese. The fruit is 30-40 cm long. Dense cucumbers contain a lot of dry matter. The main advantage is increased resistance to fungal diseases.
Fruits are long, slightly ribbed, cylindrical. Grown by seeds and seedlings. The fruits are delicious fresh - in salads, and canned.
Comparison table with long-fruited varieties:
|Grade||Productivity, kg per 1 square. m||Fruit length, cm|
Where is it recommended to grow a crop?
Chinese cucumbers prefer vertical growth. Plants can plod along the supports, both in open ground and in greenhouses - the main thing is to create suitable conditions for them. To get an early harvest, it is recommended to use greenhouse cultivation. With vertical weaving, the fruits grow long and even.
Due to changes in weather conditions, rain, daytime heat and nightly cold, the yield decreases, as negative factors affect flowering, the formation of ovaries.
In the south, Chinese cucumbers can be grown in open field. If you tie them on the trellis, then long and even cucumbers will grow. This culture is strongly recommended to be tied up, if the lashes are on the ground, then the risk of diseases increases, and the fruits grow crooked - however, this does not affect the taste of Chinese cucumbers.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of Chinese cucumbers:
- high and stable productivity;
- prolonged fruiting;
- resistance to "cucumber" diseases and parasites;
- excellent product characteristics;
- the possibility of growing in shaded conditions;
- withstand frost without compromising yield;
- compact - takes up little space;
- poor preservation;
- only some varieties are suitable for salting;
- without garter, cucumbers grow uneven, hooked.
Chinese cucumbers planted with seeds or seedlings. In the south, seeds are allowed to be planted without a film; in all other regions, cultivation in greenhouses is advisable.
The site is chosen sheltered from the winds, flat or with a slight slope on the south side. A greenhouse or plot should be well lit by the sun. When grown outdoors, shading is acceptable. Wet and clay soils are not suitable for the culture.
How to prepare planting material?
Preparing the seeds:
- We are calibrating. Seeds are placed in water. After waiting for half an hour, the pop-up seeds are removed.
- We are etching. An infection often settles on the seeds. They are immersed for 0.5-1 hours in a dark purple solution of potassium permanganate.
- We process a stimulant. Seeds can additionally stand 10-12 hours in the stimulator. "Epin" will do. 4 drops of the drug are diluted in 100 ml. You can also immerse the seeds in sodium humate for 2-3 hours. For 1 liter - 0.5 g of humate.
- Sprouting. A moistened rag is placed on a plate, seeds are placed on it, and a second rag is placed on top.
Growth lasts 25-26 days. To plant cucumbers in early May, sow the seeds on April 15. Read more about how and when to plant cucumbers for seedlings, read here .
- Select containers of suitable size. A glass is filled with soil mixture:
- peat - 6 parts;
- sand - 1 part;
- sawdust of deciduous trees - 1 part;
- humus - 2 parts.
- Each glass has one seed. Termination - 0.5-1 cm. Sprouts appear on 3-5 days.
Under the autumn digging, humus is added, sawdust and black soil (1: 1: 2). The soil in the greenhouses is double-layer. At the bottom there is manure, straw and leaves, then humus. Recommended composition:
- turf soil - 2 parts;
- peat - 3 parts;
- compost or humus - 3 parts.
For 10 kg of soil mixture, 15 g of superphosphate and 250 g of ash are added. Nitrogen is not added at the preparation stage; it is enough in humus.
Seedlings are planted in a greenhouse or in open ground. In the latter case, disembarkation is made during a period when there is no danger in return frosts. A pick is carried out when the fourth leaf appears.
How to plant:
- Depending on the variety, row spacings are made from 50 to 90 cm. If the plant gives few lateral branches, the interval between adjacent bushes is 25-30 cm.
- Water the seedlings a day before planting - to make it easier to extract the soil lump.
- Prepare the holes on the beds, their size should be slightly larger than the glasses from under the seedlings.
- Pour a slightly warmed solution of potassium permanganate into the pits - to disinfect the soil, then pour ordinary water into the wells.
- Take out the plants, trying not to destroy the earthen lump - so as not to damage the root system.
- Position the plant so that its root neck is 1-2 cm above the soil level. Gently tamp the ground.
In open ground, seedlings are planted at a temperature of + 20 ° C. Although Chinese cucumbers and cold-resistant, but low temperatures adversely affect their growth and development.
Sowing seeds in the ground
Chinese cucumbers are easier to plant with seeds in open ground - this method is practiced in the south at + 13-15 ° C.
Subtleties of sowing:
- The interval between the pits is 5 cm. The row spacing is 50 cm. 3 seeds are placed in each hole.
- Planting depth - 3-4 cm, not more.
- When shoots appear, they break through. The distance between adjacent seedlings should be 10 cm.
- The second time the plants are thinned out, when several real leaves appear on them. Between adjacent bushes leave 25-30 cm.
Thinning seedlings, they must be cut or plucked, pulling out can damage the roots of plants left for growth.
Care for Chinese cucumbers is almost the same as for ordinary cucumbers. This crop has a very long stem, and there are few lateral shoots. Therefore, they plant them with a greater frequency than usual, and be sure to tie them up.
Caring for Chinese cucumbers involves:
- regular watering;
- shallow loosening;
- tying lashes;
- top dressing.
Watering and feeding
Indoor water cucumbers watered 2 times a week, in the open - taking into account precipitation. It is recommended to spray plants daily with warm water. The irrigation rate for young plants is 0.5 l, for adults - 1-1.5 l. Cucumbers are watered only with warm water.
In open ground, if fertilizers are applied in the fall, you will not have to feed cucumbers. In greenhouses, the culture is fed twice:
- 2 weeks after planting, when flowering begins;
- during fruiting.
To increase productivity, it is recommended to spray the plants with a urea solution. They also use a special mixture of fertilizers that have a beneficial effect on the development of the plant:
- Boric acid (1 g), potassium permanganate (1 g), iron sulfate (1 g), copper sulfate (3 g), urea (100 g) are taken.
- Urea is dissolved in water, acid is separately diluted, mixed, and then vitriol with potassium permanganate is added.
- Plantings are sprayed every half a month, cucumbers can be collected 2 days after spraying.
In the open ground, cucumbers are fed as follows:
- When the plant has 5 leaves - infusion of mullein, 1 liter is taken per 10 liters of water.
- After 2 weeks, make chicken droppings. On a bucket of water - 700 g of litter.
- During flowering, watered with a solution of ash - a glass of 10 liters of water.
- When the fruiting ends, watered again with chicken droppings. Or you can make complex fertilizer.
Loosening and mulching
The roots of cucumbers are located very close to the surface, so loosening should be shallow - up to 5 cm.To prevent the soil from cracking and the moisture to evaporate more slowly, a simple but effective agricultural technique is mulching .
The ground can be sprinkled with peat, ground herbal mixture, sawdust. Thanks to the mulch, oxygen penetrates the soil better, preventing it from compacting.
As the plant grows, the gardener establishes support for weaving in the open ground. It can be trellis, mesh or just taut ropes. In greenhouses, they are limited to a vertical support, to which the central stem is tied. Lateral shoots branch from the central stem. Having counted five branches from the root, cut them off.
Diseases and Pests
The culture is sprayed with fungicides as a preventive measure. The most common diseases are powdery mildew and anthracnose, pests - Putin tick and melon aphid.
Control measures for diseases and pests of Chinese cucumbers:
|Diseases / Pests||Signs of defeat||How to fight?|
|Powdery mildew||A whitish coating appears on the inside of the leaves. Then he goes to the outside. The leaves darken, the fruits grow crooked and tasteless.||In a bucket of water, 20 g of Oxychoma are diluted. Spray plants in the evenings every 2 weeks. Colloidal sulfur is also used.|
|Anthracnose||On the stems - elongated, depressed brown spots. The fruits go bad.||Spray with copper chloride or Oxychom - 20 g per 10 liters. Re-processing after 10 days.|
|Aphid||Small insects suck out juices from all the terrestrial parts of the plant. Fruiting ceases.||Spray with Fitoverm - 4-6 ml per bucket of water. Repeated spraying - after 2 weeks.|
Measures for the prevention of diseases and pests:
- Maintaining the minimum distance between plants.
- Prevention of stagnation of water in the soil.
- Sprinkling with mulch - this prevents the appearance of weeds.
- Sick whips are immediately removed and destroyed. And if the disease is incurable - for example, a mosaic, then they tear out the whole plant.
- Cucumbers are treated with garlic infusion and onion husks.
Tamara O., 57 years old, amateur gardener, Krasnodar Territory.
Chinese cucumbers advised in the store - promised that they would like it. Oddly enough, they did not lie. Landed them in July, after a week 80% of the crops had sprouted. We have very hot summers - up to 40 degrees in the shade, so the heat resistance of the variety is very handy. Ordinary cucumbers disappear, wither and dry, and Chinese at least that. Cucumbers grow to 45 cm, few seeds.
Veniamin I., 66 years old, summer resident, Vladimir region
I plant Chinese cucumbers seedlings. Seeds in the soil do not germinate well. I pinch the scourges when they grow to trellises. The variety almost does not branch to the sides, so they can be planted tightly. The palatability is excellent and they are never bitter, even if it is very hot outside.
Chinese cucumbers are actively crowding out traditional vegetables. Their unpretentiousness, endurance and productivity, combined with excellent taste, do not leave indifferent our gardeners. This culture is useful and beneficial, occupying only a few square meters, it can feed its owners to the very frost.