Trout is one of the most delicious and expensive varieties of fish. Having organized the right conditions, you can breed it yourself. But not all types of trout are kept at home. Therefore, in order to engage in such a business, it is necessary to study in detail the technology and features of trout farming.
What is required to breed trout?
The equipment requirements for trout are the same as for other types of fish. From a person who is going to engage in such an economy, you will need to buy or equip:
- pond or pool;
- Ultrasound (for home use);
- control equipment.
After the necessary conditions are organized, fry are acquired. Their number depends on the dimensions of the container in which they will be contained. Feeding the fry will require feed mixtures and additives.
Breeding and marketing of trout is not an expensive business. But for its opening, it will be necessary to prepare seed capital in advance. Practical knowledge of growing fish at home is also needed. The survival of trout depends on the quality of water, temperature, feeding, and a set of other conditions. Without experience in this field, the probability of successful implementation of an idea is minimized.
What trout to breed?
There are about 20 species of trout. But at home, you can grow a smaller part of them. The content of trout is hampered by the fact that it belongs to predatory types of fish. Therefore, before breeding it at home, you need to make sure that there is enough finance for feeding.
Each type of trout has its own content preferences. It is necessary to determine in advance which of them will be divorced in order to organize suitable conditions.
The best types (breeds) of trout
Only 2 types of trout can be bred at home :
- pestle, also known as "brook" trout;
- rainbow (make-up).
The second type of trout includes several subspecies. The highest productivity indicator was recorded in the deep-sea Canadian camloops and Donaldson trout. They grow twice as fast and give offspring 30% more in comparison with their relatives.
The joint content of rainbow and brook trout is allowed.
Rainbow trout native to North America. It is accustomed to cold temperatures, but grows better in warm conditions. Rainbow trout is recommended to be kept at a temperature of 16 to 18 degrees Celsius above zero. This view has several advantages:
- fry weigh no more than 30 grams, making them easier to keep at a young age;
- in just a year, the fish can grow up to 125 grams;
- young females can bring up to 800 eggs.
The disadvantage of rainbow trout is that puberty in representatives of this species occurs at the age of about three years. For this reason, in the early years it is impossible to breed trout.
Males can be identified by a wide rainbow strip. It appears during puberty. For breeding trout, it is recommended to keep the females until they become adults. At this age, they are able to produce up to 3 thousand eggs. The birth of fry occurs in the spring.
Brook trout grows slower than rainbow trout and produces fewer offspring. In the first year, young fish reach a weight of only 25 grams. To trout weighed 500 grams, she must be at least 3 years old.
The benefits of brook trout include:
- adult fish reaches a weight of 12 kilograms;
- the female is capable of producing up to 1,500 eggs;
- the diameter of one egg is only 7 millimeters, so that they do not need a lot of space to store them.
Brook trout puberty occurs at the age of 3 years. By increasing the temperature to +8 degrees Celsius, the incubation period can be reduced to 65 days. If the eggs are stored in water with a temperature of +2 degrees Celsius, the incubation period will take about two hundred days. Young fish are born in autumn.
The acquisition of fry is made at specialized fish farms involved in trout farming. The cost of fry depends on their weight. For trout, the price indicator varies from 250 to 400 rubles per kilogram. The smaller the small one has, the more expensive it will cost.
According to statistics, a tenth of the young trout does not survive, no matter how comfortable the conditions were.
A cheaper way to breed trout is to buy caviar. But it will be difficult for people who do not have experience in this field to grow fish from it. In this case, it is safer to buy adults weighing 200 grams, which after a certain time can spawn and grow fry themselves.
Choosing a place to grow trout
The choice of place for growing trout depends on its age. The most common ways of keeping representatives of this species are:
Saddles are better for young and adult fish. It is recommended to keep caviar separately. To increase growth, you can use combined methods of detention. Differences also exist in the maximum permissible volume of the structure. For cages and a pond, this figure is 100 cubic meters, and for ultrasonic testing - only 60.
Saddles are considered the most beneficial way to keep trout. It involves the use of a special reservoir. Stakes are placed around its perimeter, on which a metal or kapron mesh is stretched. Externally, the design resembles a butterfly net.
Gardens are set up in an open pond, where the fish are provided with natural living conditions. The maximum diameter of this design is 20 meters, and a depth of 6 meters or more. The depth of the cages depends on the depth of the pond in which they are equipped. From the cage to the bottom, a distance of at least 1 meter should be maintained. An anchor is allowed for fastening the structure.
Cages are classified by the type of water in which they are equipped. If warm water is used, there is a lack of flow. Typically, such designs are automated.
Cold water baths are:
Northern lakes are used to install such structures. Saltwater can be pontoon or automated. This option is best for trout breeding.
For the maintenance of trout, ponds of two types are used: natural and manual origin. The first option for trout breeding is less suitable, since it is quite difficult to create the conditions necessary for this type of fish in it.
An additional danger is posed by poachers, protection against which can only be ensured if the pond is located in a private area. The advantage of a natural reservoir is that there is no need to feed.
The main conditions that a pond created by yourself should have are the presence of a current and a suitable temperature. The current contributes to the saturation of the reservoir with oxygen, and the elimination of waste. The required temperature promotes faster growth of trout. Feeding fish in such a reservoir is a prerequisite.
The main disadvantage of a home-made pond is that it is sometimes necessary to fertilize eggs on their own.
You can learn more about the features of choosing females for collecting eggs for the purpose of breeding fry by watching this video:
Closed water installations
Setting up a closed water supply is a popular but expensive way to keep trout. UZV includes a set of equipment necessary to ensure the conditions for fish farming in the pool .
The installation consists of:
- water filters;
- pumping equipment;
- cleaning and disinfection systems;
- gas exchange device;
- heating appliances.
Thanks to the ultrasound, the water in the pool is purified and filled with oxygen. In order for the equipment to work properly, specially purchased food is used, not natural food. The main advantage is the feeding process and the state of water is under human control. The temperature in the pool can be adjusted independently. The risk of external pollution is minimized.
You can learn more about how the trout farm looks and functions at home by watching this video:
Providing conditions suitable for growing trout at home can be done with:
- a gas generator filling the water with oxygen and ozone;
- pumps for water circulation;
- cleaning filters;
- automatic feeding systems;
- apparatus for determining the level of acidity and chlorine in a pond.
If you plan to grow fish from caviar and fry, incubation equipment is additionally bought. Also, buckets and nets are needed to catch and move trout.
When using an ultrasound system, most of the equipment does not have to be bought separately.
Growth cycle and technology
Growing trout takes a lot of time. In order for the fry to grow to the size of an adult fish within a few years, it is necessary to create suitable conditions. The equipment used to grow trout is also suitable for other types of fish. The difference is in unique conditions. To do this, it is recommended that you first study the features of the natural environment in which trout lives.
Chemical composition of water
A suitable chemical composition of water for trout contains the following standards:
- oxygen level - from 7 to 11 milligrams per liter (aeration column will provide the necessary indicator);
- the hydrogen indicator is not lower than 6.5 and not higher than 8 (if it falls below the permissible norm, the fish stops reproducing, rises above - the trout can die);
- nitrate concentration - up to 100 milligrams per liter (above this value represents a risk to fish);
- ammonia level - 0.1 milligrams per liter;
- stiffness indicator - from 8 to 12;
- carbon dioxide content - up to 35 milligrams per liter;
- chlorine level - up to 0.01 milligrams per liter.
To check the chemical indicators, special devices are used, which you can buy in hardware stores.
Feeding fry and adult fish
It depends on proper feeding for how long the fry will grow to the size of an adult, and how tasty the fish will be. There are two types of feed for trout: organic and dry. Fish tastes better if the first type is used.
To give fish meat a red color, canthaxanthin should be added to the feed.
Feeding fry and adult fish is different. Start feeding trout should be from the moment when it is born. The diet for fry consists of:
- zooplankton (the addition of egg yolk is allowed);
- meat and fish meal;
- fish oil.
You can cook a mash, combining different options for food. The optimal number of feedings per day should not exceed 9 times. Thousands of individuals require about 90 grams of feed. There is a special floating and sinking type feed for sale that simplifies feeding.
Adults can be given dry and lively food. The ratio of these species is divided approximately equally with a shift in favor of the living. The diet for adult fish consists of:
- crushed animal meat;
- fish waste;
- water snails;
Fiber is also used to feed fish. It does not give trout any benefit, but loosens other types of food, so that they are better absorbed.
It is difficult to control the temperature in a reservoir of natural origin. Therefore, trout is recommended to be kept in a UZV. Depending on the age, the following indicators are suitable for this type of fish:
- from +6 to +12 degrees Celsius - for ripening caviar;
- from +10 to +14 degrees Celsius - for fry;
- from +14 to +16 degrees Celsius - for adult fish.
The temperature rises gradually as the trout grows.
Care and growing standards
In order for the trout to develop well, it is necessary to adhere to a number of tips. Water should have a suitable temperature and a sufficient amount of oxygen. It is necessary to check the health of the filters - water pollution can harm the fish.
It is recommended to separate small and large fish by placing them in separate containers. Thanks to this method, weaker individuals will get more feed, and they will grow faster. During the spawning period, the best individuals for procreation should be identified.
With normal development, the weight of rainbow trout is:
- 30 grams - at the age of fry;
- 125 grams - year-old individuals;
- 200 grams - fish from the age of two years.
Brook trout develops more slowly, therefore, for her, the indicated indicators are lower at the same age.
If one of the fish shows signs of the disease, it must be moved from the rest to a separate container, and monitor the health status. To reduce the risk of illness, you should use fresh food that does not contain cotton cake, periodically check the condition of the water, do not keep young and adult individuals together.
For infectious diseases, the characteristic signs are:
- discoloration of scales;
- slow motion;
- reduced need for feeding.
When buying fry or young fish, it is not recommended to release it to existing individuals. It is necessary to keep it in quarantine for some time to make sure that there are no diseases.
Common mistakes in trout farming
A list of the most common mistakes experienced by inexperienced fish farmers includes:
- lack of constant quality control of water in which trout is contained;
- purchase of cheap feed (there is a risk of halving the fish population);
- saving on the dimensions of the reservoir in which the trout is located (population density should not exceed the maximum allowable indicator);
- the use of low-quality or used equipment (the slightest malfunction can seriously harm the trout);
- acquisition of fry on unregistered farms.
Breeding trout should be carried out strictly according to the instructions. This will help to avoid most mistakes.
Cost and Profitability
Opening a trout breeding business will require from 1.5 to 3 million rubles, depending on which method will be used to keep the fish. About 400 thousand rubles will be required to purchase fry and feed for them. It is recommended to hire experienced workers. The total salary for them will be about 300 thousand rubles. The remaining funds will be spent on arranging a reservoir for trout.
The profitability of this business is from 9%. An average of 155 thousand rubles can be earned per ton of trout. Large farms have lower profitability than small farms.
Breeding trout at home is a profitable type of business. But its payback comes in 2-3 years. To engage in such activities, you will need not only knowledge in the field of fish farming, but also a large amount of free time. Otherwise, success in breeding trout is minimized.