Soviet chinchilla is one of the most popular breeds of meat and animal direction. These rabbits are versatile and productive - in addition to high-quality fur resembling a real chinchilla, they give a lot of delicious meat. We will learn how to choose animals for the tribe, how to keep and breed them - further in the article.
History of subspecies
In 1927, American chinchilla rabbits were first brought to the USSR. They were distinguished by their small size and thick fur. After crossing with large breeds, long and purposeful selection, it was possible to increase the weight of chinchillas to 5 kg.
In the creation of the new breed, hybrids obtained from crossing rodents - small chinchillas and White Giant rabbits were involved. The new breed, the Soviet Chinchilla, was officially registered in 1963.
The authors of the breeds are rabbit breeders of two fur farms - “Cherepanovsky” (Novosibirsk region) and “Anisovsky” (Saratov region) and experts of the rabbit farm of the Research Institute of Rabbit Breeding (created in 1932).
Soviet chinchilla - belongs to the breeds of a large category. Chinchilla rabbits are easy to recognize by their large size and beautiful fur.
The main external signs:
- The body is massive, strong and slightly elongated. Length - 60-70 cm. The sternum is massive, round, in girth - 38-40 cm. The back is long, with a bend.
- Paws are large, strong, fleshy.
- The head, in comparison with a large body, is small, neat.
- Ears are erect, medium length.
An adult rabbit weighs from 4 to 8 kg. The average weight is 5-6 kg.
Fur and skin
Chinchilla fur is considered one of the most expensive in the world. Soviet chinchilla fur is soft and fluffy. Color - silver-bluish. On the belly and in the eye area there are separate inclusions of white color, on the top of the tail and on the ears - a black border. In the back of the head is a light wedge. The eyes are usually cherry brown, but there are also blue ones.
The fur of this breed is unique, it is not only dense and beautiful, but also has a unique color. Today there are enough scammers who give out the fur of these rabbits for expensive chinchilla fur. And this is not surprising, because both the one and the other fur are thick, shiny, and their color is almost the same.
A distinctive feature of the breed is heterogeneous color.
In the litter rabbits with pronounced defects are often found. Such animals are immediately rejected and separated from the herd, as they are not suitable for breeding.
The main defects of the breed include such signs:
- hanging croup;
- the presence of bald spots;
- uneven fur;
- the presence of red color in the color;
- back with a hump;
- large ears hanging and “breaking”.
With the character of the Soviet chinchilla, everything is fine, their behavior is no different from smaller rabbits. They are also kind, responsive and love affection. But due to the large size, keeping them at home is too problematic.
Soviet chinchillas are bred, both in small private farms and in large livestock farms. Rabbits quickly pay off, because the demand for bluish fur and dietary meat is always stable.
Economic characteristics of the breed:
- The average cost of a skin is 3,500 rubles.
- The age for slaughter is 3-4 months.
- Low-fat meat - suitable for baby and diet food. In meat, the minimum number of bones and tendons. Fat is low in calories.
- The cost of sexually mature individuals is 3-4 months old, about 1000 rubles.
Chinchilla skins are readily bought by felt and fur factories.
If you need advice on how to properly make a rabbit skin at home, then this article is here .
Large rabbits give not only valuable bluish fur, but also delicious dietary meat. The calves gain weight quickly, by six months they gain up to 90-95% of the mass. The main characteristics of productivity in table 1.
|Male weight, kg||6-7 kg, maximum - 8 kg|
|Weight, kg||5-6 kg|
|Number of cubs||7-8 pieces|
|Weight of 2-month-old bunny||1.9-2 kg|
|Meat yield at slaughter||58-60%|
Advantages and disadvantages
The breed was bred as universal, so it is slightly inferior to meat subspecies. But with good feeding, you can quickly feed weighty rabbits.
Advantages of the Soviet chinchilla:
- Quickly adapt to different weather and living conditions.
- High productivity in females.
- Due to their large size they give a lot of meat.
- Fur is highly valued - due to its high quality and unusual color. The density of the fur is twice as high as that of other breeds.
- Spacious cells are needed for maintenance.
- It takes a lot of grain and hay - for feeding.
- The farm is costly.
This breed is rarely bred for maintenance at home. This is too large a beast - its size is comparable to the size of a small dog. Such a pet needs a lot of space and food. The cage will occupy about a quarter of the living room. At home it is better to keep decorative and dwarf rabbits.
Soviet chinchilla, like other rabbits, can be bred using any of the methods of keeping - aviary, cell or pit. Let us consider in more detail all three options.
In the cages
The option is suitable for areas with a mild climate and warm winters. With enclosure, rabbits can be grazed. The problem with this method of keeping is the behavior of rabbits. They are burrowing animals, and can undermine.
Features of the organization of aviary content:
- Need a free piece of land overgrown with grass.
- An awning is pulled from above to protect it from the sun.
- Slate is dug around the entire perimeter of the enclosure - to protect it from undermining, or they cover the floor with a metal mesh.
- Install side feeders. You can’t sprinkle food on the floor, only in feeders so that animals do not catch an intestinal infection.
With enclosure, you don’t have to clean the cells every day. Minus - uncontrolled breeding and closely related crosses.
In the cells
Keeping in cages is the best option for breeding rabbits with valuable fur. Advantages of the method:
- Possibility of individual feeding and rational use of feed.
- Prevention of close ties and birth control.
- The ability to monitor animals and timely detection of sick animals.
In warm climates, rabbits can be kept in cages all winter. Where winters are harsh, animals are transferred to special insulated rabbits.
Features of the arrangement of cells:
- Cells are set up so that direct sunlight does not fall into them and cold winds do not blow.
- The length of the cells is approximately 3.5 m. Large animals need space. If the rabbits move little, their joints will hurt.
- Materials for cells - wood and mesh. In wooden cages they make slatted floors - so that the droppings fall down.
- At the edges of the cells, feeders and drinking bowls are attached. Learn about making drinkers with your own hands from this article .
- A queen cell is made in the cage for okrol. In this house, the rabbit arranges a nest for rabbits. The mother liquors are removable and stationary.
- Cells can be installed in sheds - in the cold season. They also make up in 2-3 tiers - under a canopy.
In the pits
This method is usually used when raising rabbits for meat. The main disadvantage is the deterioration of the quality of the fur. Features of the arrangement of pits:
- At the bottom of the pit is straw. Change it regularly. You can also install a mesh floor - so that the manure falls through.
- Walls are enclosed with hard materials that rabbits cannot gnaw at.
- Along the walls put feeders and drinking bowls.
- They dig a hole in one of the corners - the animals will subsequently increase its size. The entrance to the hole is blocked by a door, which subsequently facilitates the capture of animals.
- The pit is closed from above - from predatory animals and precipitation.
With pit content, rabbits are in a favorable microclimate - this is almost a natural habitat. But birth control is also not controlled, and there is no way to breed thoroughbred rabbits on a tribe.
Rabbits are herbivorous animals. In the diet of animals bred for fur and meat, must be present:
- grain and animal feed;
- green grasses (in summer);
- succulent feed;
- hay (in winter);
- boiled potatoes;
- milk whey;
- bone flour;
- vitamin and mineral supplements.
Features of feeding rabbits:
- When kept at home, the basis of feed is green feed and hay. You can not give branches of stone fruit trees - they have harmful substances.
- The animals are fed carrots, turnips, raw potato peelings (in small quantities), beets (they are trained gradually), kale, pumpkin, zucchini, Jerusalem artichoke, cucumbers, and lettuce.
- In order for the rabbits to grow well, they are given grain mixtures, which include corn, oats and barley. Or they give compound feed - in addition to grain, it contains meal, flour - fish or bone meal, various additives.
- Rabbits can be fed with vetch, alfalfa, melilot, red clover, fireweed. The grass is first dried up, otherwise digestion problems are possible. Oat, corn and rye sprouts are useful for animals.
- Feeding by wild meadow grasses is allowed - nettle, plantain, reeds, yarrow, dandelion, oregano and other edible species.
- Among the wild herbs are many poisonous. You can not feed rabbits hemlock, digitalis, celandine, dog parsley.
Read also one more of our article on when and how to feed rabbits .
Table 2 - feed standards for adult rabbits. The composition of the feed for adult rabbits is shown in table 3.
|Period||Cereals, g||Bran, g||Hay, g||Green food, g||Table salt, g||Root crops, g|
|Ingredients||The percentage of the weight of the rabbit,%|
|Crushed oats and wheat||thirty|
|Crushed barley and corn||45|
|Sunflower meal and cake||12|
|a piece of chalk||0.5|
In order for the rabbits' digestive system to work well, they must be given hay or greens. You can feed them one feed in one case - if it contains grass meal.
Soviet chinchilla has average fertility rates. Females become pregnant several times a year. Maturity occurs at 3.5 months, but to be sure of the offspring, a female of 5-6 months of age is taken for mating. For a year, a female can participate in mating up to 6 times.
Sexual hunting at the female - every 5-7 days, in the winter - every 8-9 days. During the hunt, the rabbit behaves uneasily. For mating, the female is planted in a cage to the male, but not vice versa. For the time of mating, the feeder and drinking bowl are cleaned. To check whether the female is covered, she is again placed in the cage to the male 5-6 days after mating. If she behaves aggressively, then fertilization has successfully occurred.
We recommend reading the article on the mating of rabbits, the rules and the features of their mating .
Okrol and care for rabbits
Succulence lasts 26-36 days. 2 weeks before the birthing, a place is prepared:
- the cell is disinfected;
- large sawdust or straw is strewed onto the floor;
- change water regularly - it should be fresh;
- for 10-12 days, the female lays a nest - stores down and straw, if she does not, the rabbit breeder will have to work hard.
For a pregnant rabbit, rabbits create favorable conditions - they do not make noise, drink and feed on time, check their health, do not allow light flashes, and do not disturb the rabbit for no reason.
Okrol usually passes easily and does not require human intervention. The rabbits of the Soviet chinchilla are good mothers, they easily feed up to a dozen cubs. Lactation is high - up to 200 ml per day.
There are cases when females behave aggressively, scatter cubs in the cage. Subsequently, such rabbits are not subjected to mating and discarded, since it is extremely difficult to feed rabbits on their own.
The reasons for the rabbit's aggressive behavior:
- no milk;
- regular sexual hunt;
- cold in the room;
- lack of nutrients during succulence.
Rabbits are born naked, blind and helpless. But even if many cubs are born, giving them to other rabbits is not recommended. Rabbits quickly grow up on breast milk. Survival is high. Their eyes open on the 10th day, and on the 15-20th they leave the nest.
At the age of one month, the rabbits are separated from the mother . By this time, they are able to eat ordinary rabbit food.
Crossing Soviet chinchilla with other species
To get a good livestock for fattening, the Soviet chinchilla is crossed with other breeds. A good result is obtained when the females of the Soviet chinchilla are crossed with the male of the White Giant or the New Zealand White.
The giant chinchilla is in many ways similar to the Soviet chinchilla, but the giant rabbits are even bigger and more powerful. This breed was bred by crossing a silver subspecies with flanders. They have an elongated rounded trunk and straight ears. Color - light blue. Around the eyes - snow-white blotches. The lower part of the body is snow-white.
Subspecies is beneficial for breeding. The weight of individuals is 6-7 kg. For maintenance, you need spacious cells, a lot of water and feed.
How to choose a rabbit?
When buying thoroughbred rabbits for a tribe, they must look at the documentation, evaluate the appearance, age and health of the animals.
Rules for choosing rabbits:
- If there is no document on the animal, it is extremely difficult to determine the reliability of the subspecies, especially for novice rabbit breeders. The characteristic color does not appear immediately; it is possible to determine the breed by coat only after the first molt.
- There should be a document on vaccinations and examinations by a veterinarian. About the health of rabbits can tell their appearance. The Soviet chinchilla should have a muscular, large body, as well as:
- fluffy hair;
- clean eyes;
- active behavior;
- fat body.
- Assess the structure and color of the fur - they must correspond to the characteristics characteristic of the breed.
- Carefully look - if there are any defects. Flaws are often found in purebred individuals - they are not suitable for reproduction.
In the video below, the expert talks about the standards of the rabbit breed “Soviet Chinchilla”:
Vaccination and Disease
The best way to protect rabbits from disease is to keep them in good condition and get vaccinated on time. There are diseases that develop so quickly that in a day or two they lead to the death of rabbits.
Rabbits are vaccinated 2 times:
- the first vaccination is at the age of 1.5 months;
- the second vaccine is 2-3 months after the first.
The most common rabbit diseases:
- Coccidiosis Anthelmintic prophylaxis is needed. The disease can lead to the death of animals - if not treated on time. The liver and intestines are affected. The causative agents are unicellular parasites - coccidia.
- Myxomatosis. Tumors appear on the body of animals. This disease is viral, it is transmitted by bloodsucking insects. Also, infection occurs through objects. There is no specific treatment. Sick individuals are eliminated, and the premises are disinfected, imposing a long quarantine. Prevention is one - vaccination.
- Pasteurellosis. Transmitted by wild birds and rodents. Symptoms - fever, lethargy, loss of appetite. Hemorrhages in the internal organs appear. There is no effective treatment.
Reviews about the breed of rabbits Soviet chinchilla
In the industrial cultivation of the Soviet chinchilla, the emphasis is on the self-direction - there is always a demand for cheap fur in Russia, but rabbit consumption is limited. Small rabbit farmers are more interested in meat, as the sale of skins in small quantities is problematic.
Konstantin E. 56 years old, amateur rabbit breeder, Moscow region.
I have been doing rabbits for a long time. Chinchillas are my favorite breed. If you organize their life correctly, then there are no special problems with their breeding. They are voracious, but also gain weight quickly. The skins come out great. The breed adapts well to our climate, so I see no reason to breed more expensive breeds - they are all very moody.
Alexandra, 47 years old, beginner rabbit breeder, Voronezh region.
Before breeding rabbits, re-read a bunch of literature. Of the many breeds, she immediately chose chinchilla - attracted productivity. I took the first rabbits from a friend rabbit breeder. At first she fed them with special feeds, but then it seemed to me overhead, and I began to give them the usual compound feeds and corn.
My main profit is meat, it is rather difficult to realize skins.
Rabbits of the Soviet chinchilla are unpretentious and very productive - their owners receive not only high-quality fur of beautiful color, but also a lot of tasty meat. This breed is suitable for growing in different climatic conditions, even novice rabbit breeders will cope with their breeding.