Aberdeen-Angus breed of cows confidently takes the first line in the ranking of popularity of cattle (cattle). This hornless breed belongs to the meat direction and is quite unpretentious to the conditions of detention. Breeding this productive and precocious breed is a profitable occupation that allows you to get valuable "marble" meat.
From the history of the breed
The breed "Aberdeen Angus" was bred in Scotland in the XIX century. Its name comes from the Scottish counties of the same name. Already at the end of the 19th century, Angus, in the amount of 8.5 thousand heads, was delivered to the United States.
Angus red suit were bred in the middle of the twentieth century. But American breeders refuse to acknowledge their breed affiliation.
In North America, black angus breeding has become widespread, and their meat has become an ideal raw material for the famous American steaks. US farmers quickly organized the "Angus Breeders Association", and then started a studbook, which includes only individuals that meet certain requirements.
Where are common?
Angus massively grown in:
- New Zealand
- Great Britain;
Huge black cows are very hardy - Scotland is not the warmest country, so animals tolerate low temperatures and drought well.
The breed was brought to Russia in 1958. Since then, a gradual increase in their stock has begun. Today they are grown not only for meat, but also used for breeding work - they improve the characteristics of local Russian breeds. Places of distribution of the breed in Russia:
- Stavropol region
- Krasnoyarsk region
- Volgograd region
- Voronezh region
- Orenburg region
The breed is actively grown in Kazakhstan and Ukraine.
Features of the Aberdeen Angus breed
The main distinguishing feature of livestock Aberdeen Angus is the excellent taste of the meat product. The meat of "Aberdeen" has a special structure - the finest fat layers are evenly distributed on it. Aberdeen beef is the only meat that does not deteriorate over time. It does not need to be eaten fresh - "ripening" it only gets tastier.
Advantages of the breed:
- They are characterized by high meat productivity. High tastes of meat - due to the thin layers of fat, the meat acquires a unique "marble" structure.
- Great weight and size. They quickly gain weight and increase in size. In order to avoid obesity, it is important to ensure proper livestock nutrition.
- Colossus (impassability). This is a dominant trait actively transmitted by Angus when crossing - in almost 100% of cases.
- Fast weight gain. Small calves are born, their weight is 22-23 kg and 25-26 kg in heifers and gobies, respectively. Heifers inseminate already in 14-15 months. And bulls by the age of two have the parameters necessary for slaughter.
- Easily acclimatized to difficult climatic conditions.
- When crossing, the breed's qualities are well conveyed - meat qualities, precocity and impassability.
- Fertile. Preserve reproductive abilities throughout life. Almost zero mortality in calves - they have strong immunity and excellent health. Females are great moms.
- They live a long time. The average life expectancy is 28-30 years.
- Easily passes calving. The calves are not large, so problems during calving usually do not arise.
- High productivity.
Constitution and Exterior
Signs that make it possible to correctly establish that this is a representative of the Aberdeen-Angus breed:
- No horns. Moreover, both cows and bulls. The absence of horns complicates life only in the wild, but in home breeding this feature is simply a hallmark and dominant of the breed.
- Black suit. There are also red Angus, whose belonging to the breed is denied by American farmers.
- Head. Powerful and heavy. But small in size. The animal looks very harmonious - Aberdeens are the real elite of the cow tribe. The forehead is slightly moved forward - as if the Angus are angry, the nape is narrow. The muzzle is neat, short.
- Torso. They have a wide, deep and heavy body - the cattle look very powerful and strong. The back line is almost flat - without deflection.
- Legs. They are forced to carry a large mass, so they are very powerful, muscular - this is visible to the naked eye. There is a lot of meat on the legs. The legs are short; they stand firmly and evenly on the ground.
- Neck. It is almost invisible - the head, as if immediately passing into the shoulders. This feature adds visual power and strength to the exterior.
- Loin and cross. Legs are rounded, with well-developed muscles.
- Wool. Brilliant. It protects from the scorching sun and the wind.
If Angus is well fed, they have rounded shapes, look powerful and muscular.
Muscles of animals are clearly visible through thin, loose and elastic skin. Anguses are distinguished by a thin skeleton - it makes up no more than 15-18% of the total weight of the carcass. The remaining parameters are shown in table 1.
|Oblique body length, cm||135-140|
|Height at withers, cm||120|
|Chest width cm||46|
|Chest depth cm||67|
|Live weight of cows / bulls, kg||450-500 / 900-1000|
|Average milk yield per year, l||1700|
Aberdines are large and powerful animals, their appearance can even scare. However, these black fortunes have a very flexible character and are not seen in the manifestation of aggression. Only bulls, being at the stage of puberty, can be quite ferocious.
Are there any disadvantages?
The breed is magnificent in description, but does it really have any flaws? Yes, but they are not so significant in comparison with the advantages:
- Weak legs. A contradiction arises - it is simply difficult for a fattened animal to carry its body. Despite the development of leg muscles, leg strength is not enough to support the obese carcass - the animal begins to fall on its legs. That is why Aberdeens should not be heavily fattened. Bulls will still be allowed to slaughter, so weakness in the legs is not so important, but weight should not be allowed for excess cows!
Obesity in cows leads to difficulties in weight transfer during gestation and complications during calving.
- Arched back. Connoisseurs of the cow's exterior claim that the carp-like back slightly spoils the attractiveness of the Angus. But this does not affect the quality of meat! This drawback even has its advantages - structural features allow livestock to easily adapt to external environmental conditions.
- Big pastures needed. That is why the breed is more suitable for farmland and hunting.
Livestock breeders raise black Scottish cows just for meat - the same valuable marbled beef. What you need to know about Angus productivity:
- 60% of pure meat is obtained from carcasses - this is extremely high productivity.
- The female weighs an average of 500-600 kg, and if fattening her purposefully - 700 kg.
- Bulls reach 1000 kg. They are slaughtered at a young age - while the meat is soft and tender. The ideal age for slaughter is 1.5-2 years.
- For six months, the calf gains weight 152-158 kg - from 22-28 (calf weight) to 180 kg.
Meat tasters can taste to determine at what age the animal was slaughtered. It is noted that over the years, the meat of the Aberdeen becomes tougher, but in all other indicators it only improves.
Angus - unequivocal leaders in precocity and meat characteristics among beef cattle. The weight of cows, depending on age, is presented in table 2.
Periods of life
up to 20
up to 23
Being sucked up to 8 months, calves gain 800-900 g per day. And one cow during the lactation produces 1600-2000 liters of milk. Usually they don’t give up lactating cows - milk goes to feed the calf. After 8 months of "milk cuisine" the calf will weigh about 230 kg.
For the growth and development of aberdeens, a natural forage base is sufficient - they need extensive pastures, natural or artificial meadows. They tolerate cold and heat well, therefore, until the snow falls and the frosts hit, they can graze on a walk.
Angus free range can be year-round.
Recommended walking conditions:
- It is desirable that shrubs and trees grow along the perimeter of the pasture - then animals can roam, chewing grass, without any supervision and care.
- If there are no trees nearby, it is recommended to make a canopy from the sun - so that animals can hide under it at high solstice hours.
- The main task of the owner of the herd is to provide cattle with water and mineral fertilizing; the cows will find the rest themselves. In the absence of a natural reservoir, you need to organize drinking bowls.
- When kept in a stable, it is important to keep everything clean - remove manure and any garbage.
Due to its natural content, livestock meat acquires a special taste - delicate and refined.
If Angus have water and food, they can remain outdoors even in the cold season. In winter, livestock can be driven into cowsheds - here they are kept without a leash. Moreover, the room does not need to be insulated - the animals warm themselves from the heat generated by their bodies.
Experts talk about the features of the street content of the breed Aberdeen Angus. The video shows a special feedlot for livestock:
The basis of the diet of Aberdeen grazing on a range most of the year is green fodder. Since there are no lives on the street in winter, high quality food is given to cattle:
- crushed grain;
- compound feed.
It is important to observe nutritional standards - so that cattle do not become obese. Cattle of this breed are characterized by high feed conversion. In order for an animal to gain 1 kg of weight, it needs to consume 6.5 kg of feed units, it can be:
- dry oats - 6.5 kg;
- or meadow grass - 32.5 kg;
- or hay - 13 kg.
- bone flour;
- defluorinated phosphate;
- tricalcium phosphate;
- diammonium phosphate and others.
In order for the meat to have an excellent taste characteristic of this breed, it is not necessary to use concentrates for feeding.
Constantly in the pastures, benevolent Anguses may show distrust of the owner - they simply forget about his existence. It happens that cows try to leave the herd - this also needs to be taken into account when breeding Aberdeen. Another problem is the maternal instinct of cows. A female can rush at a person if she decides that her calf is in danger. And even the lack of horns in the Angus will not help the gaping man.
The best meat is obtained from castrated gobies. Castration is carried out in calves. Thanks to castration:
- meat fibers become thinner, and meat - more tender;
- bulls can graze in the same herd with cows; there is no need to organize a separate pasture for them;
During fattening, the basis of the diet is:
- crushed grain;
- compound feeds - true, they worsen the taste of meat;
- premixes - vitamin and mineral.
The norms for feeding livestock during fattening, giving an average daily gain in weight of up to 800 g, are shown in table 3.
|Live weight at the end of the period, kg||245||290||335||380||425||470|
|Exchange energy, MJ||59||63||66||70||74||81|
|Dry matter, kg||6.4||6.8||7.2||7.7||8.2||nine|
|Crude protein, g||800||820||848||920||965||1059|
|Digestible protein, g||525||560||565||605||632||677|
|Crude fiber, g||1570||1700||1870||2090||2370||2491|
|Crude Fat, g||180||194||207||230||240||263|
|Table salt, g||31||34||36||40||42||46|
The farmer tells how the fattening of gobies for meat is organized on the farm, what are the features of their feeding:
Breeding Angus is a profitable occupation, as their young animals are highly survivable. Calves are born strong, with good immunity. Feeding on mother’s milk, they receive the whole complex of minerals and vitamins.
From 14 months, the cows are ready for insemination. They can bring offspring annually. Aberdeen cows often bring two calves at a time. They are caring mothers:
- daily feed the calf - up to 8 months;
- looks after the offspring;
- protects your calf from any danger.
Cows with calves can be safely released for free grazing - the females will take care of the protection of the young.
Pregnancy of a cow lasts 9 months. Childbirth passes quietly. Typically, farmers keep 1-2 bulls - to improve the herd.
How is calving?
The room must be dry and clean. Stock up:
- two towels;
- 100 g of vegetable oil;
- warm water;
- potassium permanganate solution;
- a sheet;
- straw tourniquet.
As soon as the cow begins to show concern, it will look around, you need to wash the back of the trunk and genitals with potassium permanganate. The solution is made slightly pink. They lay dry straw near the cow.
In less than an hour, a calf is born. He is put on a clean sheet. The umbilical cord breaks off itself, if it does not break off, it must be cut off, leaving 10 cm from the calf’s stomach. It remains to bandage the umbilical cord with threads and treated with iodine.
From the point of view of genetics, the black and red breeds of Angus are identical. But it is believed that red cows are less cold resistant. However, there is no scientific evidence to this effect. Aberdines are carriers of 4 recessive genetic diseases. They occur in the presence of a gene in both parents. According to statistics, even under such conditions, out of 4 calves only one gets sick.
To identify carriers of bad genes, a DNA test is performed on individuals.
- Contractural arachnodactyly. There is a deterioration in the mobility of the hip joints.
- Multiple arthrogryposis . Disease of "crooked joints." Breeders call calves with this disease "twisted". The joints have poor mobility, and the leg muscles are atrophied.
- Neuropathic hydrocephalus . It is also called dropsy of the brain. The calves have a large shapeless head.
- Dwarf signs.
- Notomelia. Extra limbs.
- Osteoporosis. Fragile bones.
Calfs with such genetic diseases are discarded - they are not suitable for breeding. Pregnancy of a cow lasts 9 months. Childbirth passes quietly. Typically, farmers keep 1-2 bulls - to improve the herd. Purebred cows of the Aberdeen-Agnus breed should be acquired in pedigree farms. Here you can take material for insemination.
Plemkhozes of Russia, in which there are breeding stock:
- "Paris Commune" - in the Volgograd region;
- Avruz - Bashkortostan;
- Sputnik LLC - in the Leningrad Region Vsevolzhsky borough, village Lepsari;
- GUP ESH "Dyatkovo" - in the Bryansk region. and many others.
The content of calves is divided into milk and post-milk periods. The most crucial stage in the life of a calf of any breed is the first two weeks. Angus give very strong offspring. Mortality is almost zero. Calving conditions for the first 14 days:
- The nursery for calves should be in a room with good ventilation and lighting.
- In the stable, where the calves are, there should be a constant temperature.
- There should be no drafts. In calves, thermoregulation of the body is still poorly developed, and changes in temperature will adversely affect their health. Angus, possessing strong immunity, unlike calves of other breeds, practically do not get sick.
- In the manger it is necessary to maintain cleanliness - to exclude infectious diseases.
Calves receive all the nutrients and immune substances from colostrum - this is the nutrient fluid that the cow gives after calving. Immediately after birth, the calf should suckle the udder.
Pay attention to the following points:
- For the first time, the calf should drink 1-2 liters of colostrum.
- The frequency of feedings should be - 4-5 times a day.
- If the calf is weakened, he should eat more often - 5-6 times 1 liter, then - 2 liters.
- The daily norm of colostrum is 8-10 liters.
- On the 5th day, the calf is given boiled water. Its temperature should be the same as that of fresh milk - 37 ° C.
- From the 7th day - to develop digestion, calves are given fine-stalked, high-quality hay.
Calves are weaned from the mother at the age of 6-8 months. Calves go into the post-dairy period of development. Calves should get enough sun to produce vitamin D, which is needed for bone growth. Gradually, calves switch to an adult diet, walking on grazing with cows, they have access to nutritious green food.
Comparison with "competitors"
Anguses differ from other breeds:
- Good health and low mortality among calves.
- They get a little sick, and even genetic diseases affect only 25% of calves in the presence of the disease gene in both parents.
- They can graze all year round on a walk.
- Calves on suction - up to 8 months, instead of 3.
- Calves are born small - in total - 16-23 kg, while in other breeds - 20-30 kg. Therefore, childbirth passes easily and without complications, even in first-calf heifers.
- Calves can graze with their mother from the first day of life.
- They are characterized by high precocity.
- Herefords. This is the most common breed. They, like the Angus, easily endure harsh conditions and can graze all year round on a pasture. From Angus they are distinguished by a more powerful front end. In many ways, the breeds are similar, herefords also differ in light calving, fertility, low calf mortality, longevity, and high feed conversion. And most importantly, they also give excellent "marble" meat.
- Simmental. Another popular breed of meat. They are also large and muscular, like Aberdeens. In addition, simmental are characterized by high milk productivity. The meat is deprived of excessive fat deposits, but in taste it is inferior to the meat of Angus Herefords.
- Limousines Like Aberdeens, they are characterized by light calving and a good weight gain; in their meat there is little fat. But they are extremely demanding on feed and conditions, they are considered conditionally suitable for year-round grazing.
Table No. 4 compares the economically useful qualities of Angus, Simmental, Hereford and limousine:
|Height at withers, cm||140-150||135-140|
|Daily gain of calves, g||900-1300||850-1100|
|Height at withers, cm||130-150||120-140|
|Daily gain of calves, g||1000-1200||850-1100|
|Height at withers, cm||150-160||140-145|
|Daily gain of calves, g||1200-1400||900-1200|
|Height at withers, cm||145-155||135-140|
|Daily gain of calves, g||1100-1300||900-1100|
Aberdeen-Angus breed is a real treasure of livestock. This breed, one of the few, does not require special care - animals are ready to live in a natural environment all year round. They do not need supervision, care for the herd is minimal. Breeding Angus, you get a precious product - a unique juicy meat that is highly regarded.