Whitefish is a valuable commercial species of the salmon family. It has a unique exterior and has many varieties that are presented in the article. It is also permissible to breed and grow this fish in a pond in a summer cottage for the purpose of further sale and profit.
External data of fish and its features
The body of whitefish is covered with small scales, slightly compressed on the sides. The fish is characterized by a very small mouth, there are no teeth on the upper jaw, on other parts they quickly disappear, they are always very poorly developed. This is a rather rare fish, and some of its subspecies are listed in the Red Book. Valued whitefish for excellent taste.
There are many varieties of this type of fish. It is difficult to distinguish them by external signs. The similarity of all whitefish consists in having a large flat head, silver body color and black fins. Many fish are not characterized by the presence of spots on the body and fins. The female has larger scales than the male. The appearance of each subspecies may vary, depending on climate, temperature, habitat conditions.
Whitefish has white meat, despite the fact that the fish belongs to the family of salmon (red fish). Sig is a fish in which there is only a ridge and ribs, due to which they are valued even more.
Whitefish lifespan can reach up to 20 years, although individuals aged 7-10 years most often prevail in catches. The length of the body, depending on the subspecies, varies from 10-15 centimeters in small individuals, to 50-60 centimeters in large specimens. Ordinary whitefish in a catch weigh about 1 kilogram, but captured fish can reach 12 kilograms.
Habitat and distribution
Sig is considered a commercial fish, due to which it was acclimatized in the water sources of many zones of Russia and the post-Soviet space. Whitefish are successfully caught in the Gulf of Finland, Ladoga, Onega, Peipsi and other local lakes. Whitefish is widespread on the Kola Peninsula, where it prefers to live in large lakes, such as Lovozero, Seydozero, Umbozero, Pankunyavr.
Also, fish is found in the vast majority of water bodies located in the Arctic Ocean basin - from the White Sea and the Barents Sea to Chukotka. It lives in the Penzhina and Anadyr rivers, the Baltic Sea basin, and the Curonian lagoon. In the Transbaikalia zone, whitefish is found, which spawns in early spring.
For the most part, whitefish prefers rivers, but lives in the seas and in lakes, where it experiences winter cold. Cold and temperate countries in the northern hemisphere choose all whitefish species as their main habitat region.
Sigi are deep-sea fish living at the bottom. When lifted up by nets, they sometimes swell a lot, like most deep-sea inhabitants.
Useful properties and harm
Whitefish have a variety of useful properties. Fish is rich in fat, which contains many vitamins - it helps to normalize the work of many organs of the human body. It does not harm health, unlike animal fat. The product is perfectly processed by the body and is ideal for people who suffer from problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
Valued fish whitefish in cooking, cosmetology and medicine. It is recommended to consume for women who dream of becoming pregnant, because the product contains folic acid. Regular consumption of fish helps to saturate the body with useful elements necessary for bearing the fetus.
Due to the unique composition, medical workers recommend consuming fish in moderation to people suffering from:
- high blood pressure;
- inflammation of the stomach;
- thyroid disease;
- blockage of veins;
- inflammation and damage to the mucous membranes of the large intestine;
- varicose veins.
Fish will be useful to people who have disorders of the nervous system - the product is rich in iodine, which has a beneficial effect on the endocrine system.
Harm from fish can get people suffering from individual intolerance or allergic reactions to seafood. Consumption of slightly salted or smoked whitefish is not recommended, because the possibility of infection with helminths is not excluded.
Types of whitefish
A special condition for whitefish is living in clean and cool bodies of water. Whitefish has several separate species, characterized by a limited habitat, the presence of polymorphic specimens:
- Muksun. Fish dominated by a delicate, pinkish tinge of meat. Freshwater, semi-fish. In the process of spawning, the musk prefers to migrate to other places. It is found in the reservoirs of Siberia, constantly lives in the waters of the Arctic Ocean.
- Nelma. Just like Muksun, it lives in the Arctic Ocean. Also found in the estuary and delta of northern rivers.
- Omul. Fish having two subspecies: Arctic and Baikal omul. The Baikal omul prefers to live in waters that have origins from the Arctic Ocean, and the Arctic omul lives in such rivers as Khatanga, Pechora, Indigirka, Yenisei, Kolyma, Lena.
- Peled. Lake-river fish, sometimes called "cheese". This is a valuable whitefish species of interest to industrial production.
- European creeper. Small fish of the whitefish family. Especially common in the Baltic Sea basin.
- Siberian carapace. A small representative, preferring freshwater ponds. They call the fish “ripus” or “kilz”.
- Sig checkpoint. A subspecies of whitefish, capable of decaying into many different forms that differ from other varieties in the shape of the head and lower position of the mouth. It is characterized by a large, humpback snout.
- Sig Ussuri (Amur). Fish are found in the middle and lower reaches of the Amur, on the Amur estuary, in the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk and on the Tatar Strait.
- Whitefish roll. River fish found from the Yenisei to Chukotka, from Alaska to the Atlantic coast of North America.
- Tugun. In addition to Siberia, this subspecies can not be found anywhere else.
- Chir. Fish preferring freshwater rivers that are beyond the Arctic Circle.
Sig is a predatory fish that is used to caution, because of which it just does not rush for bait. In large reservoirs, whitefish are divided into coastal, deep-sea, pelagic inhabitants.
Often, fish prefer eggs not only other fish, but also their relatives. They feed on various insects, crustaceans, mollusks and larvae. Fish will never miss fry, juveniles, smelt and other small fish.
Whitefish breeds in the month of November, settling on the shallows where reeds grow abundantly. Sometimes the spawning process ends only at the end of March. After the larvae hatch from eggs, their nutrition is based on zooplankton. Depending on the place where the fish prefers to spawn, whitefish are divided into three groups:
- River whitefish. He prefers to spawn within his permanent river, but occasionally can climb up the river.
- Lake whitefish. It spawns and lives within the waters of one lake.
- Lake and river whitefish. Most of life lives in lakes. During the breeding season, whitefish females climb up the rivers flowing into their lake.
In Russia, there are both lake and sea whitefish. The advantage of living in salt water is that whitefish gains weight significantly, because in freshwater reservoirs the availability of nutrients is not enough for this purpose. Because of this, females swim from one place to another while throwing eggs, moving up the rivers flowing into the seas.
Right after the thaw, the fishermen go fishing. Mormyshka is considered the main artificial bait for whitefish, which is modernized specifically for fishing this type of fish.
When May comes, in the process of grayling spawning, they start hunting for whitefish, because he prefers to eat grayling caviar. During this period, those that take this factor into account are considered more suitable gears. That is, at this time, the best bait will be caviar or bait, which imitates it.
There are several gear options used to catch whitefish. Experienced fishermen know which gear is more effective and choose the one that is more convenient:
Despite the fact that whitefish is a predatory fish, they practice fishing with a fishing rod. It turns out to be especially effective in the spring, when a predator can peck any bait, including the worm, without sorting.
This is due to the fact that after winter whitefish is pretty hungry. Because of this, for his fishing, fishermen use the usual telescopic fishing rod, up to 5 meters long, which provides a monophilic fishing line for catching large fish. Many fishermen prefer braided fishing line, up to 0.2 mm thick, also a small float.
Particular attention is paid to the color of the lower part of the float, so that the fish is less alert. The hook is selected based on the size of the fish pecking within a certain section of the river.
Whitefish are also caught by fly fishing - this method is suitable for fishing in both winter and summer. The equipment is a fishing rod with a length of up to 600 centimeters and a weight of up to 15 grams. It is attached to the tip of the leash. At a distance of 30 centimeters from him, 2 nymphs are fastened, which they bind themselves using red yarn, or buy ready-made ones.
To catch a whitefish with a fly fishing, to begin with, find the place of its location in the water column. Without an echo sounder, this will not be possible or it will be too difficult. But with luck, they mark the depth and catch the whitefish from this depth. As a rule, the tackle is lowered to the bottom. Further, in search of fish, tackle is gradually raised from the bottom surface, because whitefish can live at any depth.
It is believed that whitefish fishing by spinning using jig lures and the same fishing technique is an interesting occupation. Fishing necessarily takes place using a powerful fishing rod, reel and reliable braided fishing line. Pike perchs or deep-sea wobblers are used as bait. The whitefish has a small mouth, therefore, massive and voluminous baits will not work for it. Preference is given to those in which the form is small, small.
It is noted that whitefish are willing to catch light lures or those with bright colors. But it is best to experiment to understand what color of the bait the fish reacts to.
This fishing technique is suitable for fishing in late autumn. At this time, whitefish often comes close to the shore. The bottom tackle consists of a strong fishing rod equipped with monofilament fishing line and a reel with an increased gear ratio. It is required to stock up with a sinker.
The main bait is maggot. Whitefish are caught from the bottom of the reservoir along which the bait is held. Sigu will be interested in a slowly moving bait, which does not make big stops. Bottom fishing has several options. More often use artificial red lures. Late whitefish in late autumn is at a depth, due to which fishermen catch deep places, such as holes.
Whitefish spawn almost before the water bodies are covered with ice, which is why it is useless to catch them during this period. And this can be very dangerous for the fisherman, because on fast rivers the thickness of the first ice is uneven.
The fish begins to show activity in mid-January, and the “last ice” period is considered the best time for fishing, where whitefish are hunted in pits below the rapids and in other clearly pronounced deep places of the reservoir.
For fishing use spinners or mormyshki. Rods for nesting are equipped with balancers, flies, mormyshka, flies, amphipods. Fishing rods with a nod and mormyshka are used together with large mormyshki of red or any dark shade.
Bait and bait
As artificial nozzles, various imitators of invertebrates, fish fry and eggs of other fish species are used. When using bottom equipment, it is preferable to use worms, invertebrates, clam meat - they are included in the whitefish diet.
The fish bite well on flies with an imitation of various insects with light elements, also on medium and large mormysks. Sig is a delicious fish that is popular with anglers.
Breeding and growing
If there is already a small reservoir in the summer cottage, it will be possible to successfully use it for fish farming. But if there is no pond, you have to erect it yourself. First of all, it is necessary to choose the right place for the reservoir: it should be in partial shade, in the lowest section.
Shading can be artificial, because due to closely located trees, not only the leaves will pollute the reservoir, but also the roots will violate the coastline.
To build a pond with your own hands, follow this instruction:
- They dig a hole at least 1 meter deep, and the length and width based on personal preferences.
- The soil at the bottom of the pit is carefully compacted and cemented.
- After the solution solidifies, a special plastic film intended for artificial ponds is placed at the bottom of the pit - it contributes to the quick and easy cleaning of the pond from debris.
- Next, the pond is filled with water. First, 1/3 part is poured to straighten the film, then soil and river sand are laid on the bottom, and water plants are planted. Only after that start the remaining water.
At the final stage, the design of the shore of the reservoir with ornamental shrubs, grass and trees is permissible. It is undesirable to stock up a pond immediately after construction. It is required that the water stand for a bit - so it will have its own temperature and the environment of microorganisms. To accelerate this process, a little wilted grass is left at the bottom of the reservoir or several buckets are poured from a natural reservoir.
There are several methods of breeding fish. They depend on the type of fish and the way it is fed:
- Extensive. No special feed is required in the pond. Fish are fed at the expense of the feed base existing in the reservoir. The advantage of such a system is minimal financing for obtaining marketable fish. The method is ideally suited for southern regions and large bodies of water, where the natural forage base allows whitefish to be grown together with other herbivorous fish.
- Semi-intensive. The basis of the system is the need of fish for protein. It will be possible to compensate for the lack of proteins when feeding fish with natural feed. A fish farmer can fill in the energy need with special carbohydrate additives. A similar breeding method allows for more thoughtful use of natural fodder base, thereby accelerating the growth of fish for further sale.
- Intensive. The forage base is created artificially, by reclamation, application of feed and fertilizers. For such a system, special reservoirs are equipped.
The quality of feed and water directly depends on the growth rate of fish. In addition, development slows down after puberty, which is why young individuals are of particular interest to household plots. Whitefish are grown for no more than two years, by this time the fish already have suitable sizes and its marketable weight is suitable for sale.
Required and properly equip ponds for breeding. Sig fish are demanding on the level of oxygen in the water - the indicator should be at least 9. They also need a lower level of nitrogen and organic matter.
Whitefish is an interesting fish characterized by a long lifespan. It is permissible to breed fish in one's own pond, which will provide good income from the sale of fish products. With the right approach to the manufacture of a reservoir, the creation of conditions, the development and survival of whitefish will be at the highest level.