Partenocarpic varieties and hybrids of cucumbers are not inferior in terms of taste and aesthetics to pollinated varieties. Many of them can be grown in open ground. It is important to be able to choose the right hybrid from the whole variety and provide the plant with the necessary care in order to get a high yield. We will describe how to do this in the article below.
What are parthenocarpic cucumbers?
Parthenocarpic cucumbers are a type of cucumber culture that does not require pollination to form the ovaries. Most often, there are very few male flowers on their vines or they are completely absent, but female - in a generous amount. There are no seeds inside this type of fruit, so you cannot collect them, and you will have to buy seeds again next season.
History of occurrence
In the 50s of the 20th century, breeders began to work on such a hybrid of cucumbers so that its cultivation in a greenhouse does not cause difficulties in terms of pollination. The first results were emerald fruits with a length of about 40 cm, which were not at all suitable for pickling and preservation.
Continued work on parthenocarpy and various varieties when crossing led to the appearance of salad hybrids, eaten fresh, pickled varieties that do not lose their taste and aesthetic qualities when preserving.
In addition, thanks to the efforts of breeders, parthenocarpic cucumbers grow well and bear fruit not only in the greenhouse, but also in the open ground, on the balcony of the apartment or window sills in the houses.
Differences between parthenocarpic and self-pollinated cucumbers
Parthenocarpic and self-pollinated cucumbers are fundamentally different according to the principle of the appearance of ovaries. The first type of plants for the appearance of fruits, as already mentioned, does not require pollination at all, and the second cucumbers are pollinated independently, that is, for the appearance of ovaries on them pollination is fundamentally important.
In addition, parthenocarpic cucumbers in most cases do not have male flowers, and their presence on self-pollinated hybrids is mandatory.
The similarity of both types of culture is that they do not require the presence of pollinating insects or another third party for the transfer of pollen between the flowers of both sexes.
Advantages and disadvantages
If we compare ordinary varieties of cucumbers with parthenocarpic hybrids, then the latter, in addition to the properties of parthenocarpy, determine some advantages:
- the formation on vines of more fruits;
- cucumbers of the same shape, without the presence of hollow;
- cucumbers, being on a plant for a long time, do not turn yellow;
- in the taste characteristics of cucumbers there is no bitterness;
- long fruiting period;
- immunity to diseases and pests due to vaccination;
- increased durability and the possibility of long-term storage.
The disadvantages of such cucumbers are not many:
- the variety does not like sudden changes in temperature;
- when grown in open ground and polluted by insects, fruits with differences and deformations in shape are possible.
When planting such cucumbers for winter harvesting, carefully consider the choice of seeds, because some varieties and hybrids are intended only for eating fresh fruits.
Partenocarpy dependence on growing conditions
The relationship of parthenocarpy and the conditions for growing cucumbers is manifested in the following:
- Hybrids are vaccinated against diseases; therefore, they do not require special measures against diseases and pest attacks.
- The large difference between day and night air temperatures leads to a decrease in the number of ovaries, inhibition in the development of plants.
- The formation of the bush, its pinching and the optimal arrangement of vines directly affects the amount of yield.
- Hybrids bear fruit well in closed ground and in the open.
The best parthenocarpic hybrids of cucumber
Each gardener has his favorite varieties and hybrids of parthenocarpic cucumbers. Among all their diversity, there are no good and bad. Each of them differs in qualitative and quantitative indicators of productivity, the time interval in agricultural work, as well as the possibility of growing in open or closed ground.
Consider some of the common varieties and hybrids from this type of cucumber.
|Title||Growing method||Ripening period, days||Weight g||Length cm||Productivity, kg / sq. m||Canning||Features|
|Vyaznikovsky 37||open ground||35-40||130-150||10-14||10-12||+|
- resistant to temperature extremes;
- does not tolerate drought.
|Diner||open ground||45-48||up to 120||9-10||5.2||+||resistant to olive spotting|
|Mother-in-law F1||universal||43-45||120||8-10||4,5-5||+||sweet taste|
|Claudia F1||universal||50-55||80-100||9-12||10-15||+||seed primordia coarsen when overripe|
|Masha F1||universal||38-43||up to 110||9-10||10-11||+|
- resistant to temperature extremes
- vaccinated against diseases
|Bully||universal||40-42||80-100||8-10||10-11||+||fruiting before the first frost|
|A bunch of mala F1||closed ground||47-50||up to 75||up to 12||12-15||-|
- the fruits do not turn yellow
- don't outgrow
|Canalia F1||universal||40-42||50-70||6-8||20||+||resistant to fungal diseases|
|Kuzya F1||universal||40-42||15-30||3-6||up to 15||+||resistant to cucumber mosaic and powdery mildew|
|Meva||universal||45-47||200||10-18||20-27||-||resistant to cladosporiosis and powdery mildew|
|Fawn f1||closed ground||40-43||up to 100||8-10||12-15||+||disease resistant|
|Brook||universal||40-43||up to 50||10-12||10-13||+|
- tolerates temperature changes
- resistant to rot and powdery mildew
- good keeping quality
- carry long transportation
|Zircon F1||universal||39-41||up to 80||10-14||23-25||+||mosaic virus resistant|
|Advance||universal||49-50||up to 120||10-14||3||+||disease resistant|
|Herman F1||universal||39-41||70-100||ten||20-25||+||resistant to most diseases|
- prefers trellis cultivation
- resistant to powdery mildew, cucumber mosaic and olive spotting
How to grow parthenocarpic cucumbers?
Parthenocarpic cucumbers do not differ in complexity of growing from ordinary ones, since they practically do not require special conditions or agricultural technology. For each of the cultivation options, their timing is considered optimal, depending on the possibility of creating a microclimate.
In the open ground
Cucumbers are sown in open ground with seeds, or ready-made seedlings are planted. In both cases, it is important that the soil is prepared and warmed by the sun. Otherwise, the vegetable crop will wither away and eventually die. Favorable air temperature for cucumbers is 25-28 degrees heat.
To obtain seedlings 35-40 days before the intended planting in open ground, the seeds are sown in individual peat pots, or reusable containers. To do this, use universal soil purchased in the store, or a landing mixture of our own production. In the second option, disinfection of the soil is necessary. About planting seedlings of cucumbers more is written here .
The seeds are disinfected before sowing, soaking for 15-20 minutes in a slightly pink solution of manganese. To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, it is allowed to soak the planting material in the growth activator.
- 2 seeds deepen into the soil to a depth of 3 cm and sprinkle with earth mixture.
- Spray water on the surface to moisten the soil.
- Cover the pots with glass or a transparent film and place them in a warm, bright place. As soon as the sprouts come up, remove the covering material from the pot.
- Make sure that the plant has enough sunlight, in this period additional lighting may be required. When growing on a windowsill, turn containers with seedlings daily so that they grow in proportion, do not stretch and do not deform.
- As cucumbers grow, move them apart from each other to avoid contact and shadowing.
- Carry out the necessary agricultural procedures. When the plants reach a length of 30-40 cm, and 4 true leaves appear, it is necessary to transplant them into open ground.
It is possible to plant seedlings in open ground in several ways:
- Single line vertical. The distance between plants is not less than 15-20 cm, row spacing - 50-70 cm.
- Tape vertical. The distance between plants in the row is 15-20 cm, between the ribbons - 40-50 cm, row spacing - 70-90 cm.
- Chess horizontal. Between plants observe a distance of 60-80 cm, providing aisles. The formed cucumber lashes should not be shifted, this should be done at the growth stage, removing them from the aisles.
- Bush. 2-3 plants are planted in one hole, leaving for them an approximate square of free space measuring 1.5 x 1.5 m.
The same schemes are observed when sowing seeds into the soil at the end of May.
Having decided to grow parthenocarpic cucumbers at room conditions, you need to choose a place for them and prepare it. It can be a balcony, a loggia, a windowsill, if they go to any side, except the north. It is necessary to clean the space, eliminate cracks and other sources of penetration of cold air, wash the glass, it is possible to install phytolamps or fluorescent lamps.
Seeds should be selected specifically for indoor cultivation to eliminate the need for pollination by insects. In the presence of additional lighting, seed planting can be carried out at any time.
Tanks should be selected with a volume of at least 8 liters, with drainage holes in the bottom.
- Pour into the container a drainage layer of gravel, expanded clay with a layer of at least 3 cm, top up with prepared disinfected soil. Do not fill the container to the brim, leave a free strip in a couple of cm.
- Spill pots with hot water. After a day, sow seeds for 3-5 pcs., Deepening them by 3-4 cm in the ground. Further activities do not differ from conventional cultivation of seedlings at home.
- Caring for cucumbers does not differ from what is provided by the culture in the open ground or in a shelter. Make sure that the sun's rays do not burn the leaves of cucumbers, shading them as necessary. Spray the leaves daily with spray water. Cucumbers respond particularly well to such sprinkling.
You can sow the seeds in small peat pots, and after the formation of 4 leaves transplanted into large buckets.
Most often, cucumbers are transferred to covered ground in the form of seedlings, which are grown in advance in reusable or peat containers in room conditions. Before planting, plants need to be hardened, for this seedlings are taken out to a cooler room for the night, gradually lowering the temperature to 18 degrees.
The planting scheme depends on the dimensions of the greenhouse. But do not thicken the planting so that the cucumbers do not interfere with each other. The best option is a vertical method of growing using supports and trellises.
They dig holes in the bed, moisten them abundantly, and place the seedlings in them together in an earthen lump or in a peat glass. Sprinkle with soil so that the edge of the container remains outside. This will eliminate the blackening of the root legs and the development of rot. The soil is slightly compacted.
Read more about growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in our other article.
Parthenocarpic cucumbers do not require pollination. In addition, some hybrids do not need to form a bush, which greatly facilitates the care of them.
First sprout care
After emergence, make sure that the soil is moist, loosen it in time to prevent the formation of a hard crust on top of the soil, which interferes with the penetration of oxygen to the roots and the absorption of nutrients and nutrition.
In case of temperature changes, cover the young plants with a film at night. If the soil has a sufficient amount of micro and macro elements, then problems with seedlings and the formation of adult leaves should not arise.
Watering and weeding
Moistening the soil is one of the main procedures for cucumbers. Without enough moisture in the soil, they will die. For irrigation use only water at room temperature, preferably from natural sources, or defend it if it is from the water supply.
The procedure for moistening the soil should be carried out before the flowering of the crop - every other day, during flowering - reduce to 2-3 times a week, and when the ovaries are formed, return to 3-4 times watering again. If the weather is dry, you may need to spend it daily.
Weed removal preserves nutrients in the soil, eliminates the shadowing of cucumbers and the transfer of infections and pests from weeds. Weeding additionally loosens the earth, enriches it with oxygen, traps moisture in the root zone of the vegetable crop.
To replenish the supply of useful components and compounds in the soil, mineral and organic top dressing are used:
- When planting, fertilizer is carried out by planting pits using compost and manure.
- After adaptation of young plants in a greenhouse or open ground, the application of nitrogen fertilizers (10-15 g per 1 liter of water) to activate growth and vegetation.
- Every 3 weeks, starting from the moment of flowering, they are fed with complex mineral nutrition or organic-based nutrition, as well as folk methods. For example, in a bucket of water dissolve ammonium nitrate or urea - 15-20 g; superphosphate - 15 g; potassium sulfate - 15 g. You can prepare a solution of chicken droppings, manure or compost at the rate of 250-300 g per bucket of water.
It is important to consider the total amount of fertilizer applied in order to avoid oversaturation of the soil. This negatively affects cucumbers, as well as nutritional deficiencies.
It is advisable to fertilize the beds in the evening, using the root or extra-root method. For foliar application, make the mineral fertilizer solution less concentrated. Before carrying out work on additional soil nutrition, be sure to water the plants.
Read more about feeding cucumbers when grown in open ground - here .
Pinching is necessary to reduce the plant’s plant mass, and therefore the consumption of food, not going to the formation of the crop, but to the shoots and foliage. Work on herding only when the cucumbers are tied. When growing a cucumber crop in a horizontal position, pinching is done so as to minimally disturb the main vine.
Pinch the top of the lashes so that the greenbacks have time to ripen, and the plant does not lose strength in lengthening the vines. As a rule, the parthenocarpic species of cucumbers forms fruits only on the main vine, so it is important to form a bush and remove the lateral processes:
- To blind a bush, remove all flowers and shoots in the axils of the first five leaves.
- After leave 6 processes, but not more than 25 cm long.
- The following shoots are left longer - up to 40 cm.
- After - about half a meter.
The final appearance of the bush looks like an inverted pyramid.
Diseases and Pests
The most common diseases of parthenocarpic cucumbers include:
- powdery mildew;
- olive spotting;
- cucumber mosaic.
They are manifested by different spotting on the leaves and stems of the crop, plaque over the entire surface of the plant, or only on spots, a general inhibition of the development of cucumbers, their weakness and drying. At first, the spots are barely noticeable, but as the fungus develops, they grow, merge and change their color. With delayed actions against diseases, cucumbers completely die.
Along with diseases, insect pests can spoil or completely destroy the crop of cucumbers. The most common are:
- Gourd aphids. When these small insects attack, the leaves on the vines spin and curl. Pests are located on the underside of the leaf plate. They suck out juices from the plant, which creates a nutritional deficiency in the culture, stops growth and development, and leads to death.
In small areas against aphids, folk methods of struggle are used. For example, an infusion of peel of onion or an aqueous solution of wood ash with the addition of laundry soap.
- Spider greenhouse mite. Spider web spraying on cucumbers is a sign of a tick. They appear where there are weeds and conditions suitable for the pest. It is necessary to destroy it by using chemical means immediately, until the insect has multiplied, causing irreparable wrecking. Suitable drugs such as Plant-pin, Actellik, Fitoverm, etc.
Spider greenhouse tick (left) and gourd aphids (right)
Dilute funds in accordance with the instructions, and work using personal protective equipment.
Measures for the prevention and control of diseases and pests include:
- soil and seed preparation before planting;
- moderate regular watering;
- maintaining a microclimate in greenhouses;
- do not thicken the landing;
- regular weeding and loosening of the soil.
- fertilization for the formation of immunity of cucumbers.
- removal of affected plants and their burning, subsequent treatment of plantings with Fitosporin and Fitoverm preparations.
Harvesting and storage
It is recommended to collect Zelentsy from 9-14 days from the beginning of the flowering period. It depends on the varietal capabilities and the desired parameters of the fruit. When collecting greens, be careful not to miss the cucumbers, leaving them to overripe. From this, fruiting is inhibited and the overall yield is reduced. Pick cucumbers at least 2-3 times a week.
Storage and the possibility of harvesting cucumber fruits are completely dependent on the selected variety or hybrid. Therefore, before planting, pay attention to this, carefully studying the characteristics of plants.
Parthenocarpic cucumbers are the best option for climate and weather conditions, when the exit of pollinating insects is difficult. In addition, a rich harvest can be obtained at home, at any time of the year. It is only important to choose the right variety and create the right microclimate, ensuring proper care.