Like any other plant, cucumbers can suffer from various diseases or be attacked by insects. Most often this happens if they grow in adverse conditions or were cultivated with gross violations of soil requirements and agricultural practices.
Pests of cucumbers
In most cases, cucumbers are attacked by pests. It is easy to detect them, you need to regularly inspect the plants and, when the first signs appear, start the fight. If measures are not taken in time, there is a risk of crop loss and destruction of all plants.
This insect is small in size, about 4 mm long, dark gray in color, with red and brown hues, translucent wings. Females lay eggs on the soil surface, a week later the larvae hatch, which fall on the plant, continuing further growth. They can penetrate into the stem itself, where they pupate.
The mosquito is affected by plants growing in the greenhouse, the most vulnerable are weakened bushes suffering from a basal disease. White larvae are most harmful. They gnaw at the roots of the passages and hit the stem from the inside. The affected parts of the cucumber begin to rapidly fade and dry. The plant is no longer able to fully and correctly develop.
Mosquitoes can infect cucumbers with other diseases.
- disinfect the surface layer of the soil using chemicals;
- adults, spray Thiophos or Chlorophos;
- if mass propagation of the pest has occurred, use Fufanon - spray this soil with this insecticide after the seeds have been sown or the cucumber seedlings have been planted.
- heat the soil before planting cucumbers;
- use only strong and completely healthy seedlings;
- bring a special anti-insect preparation into the ground - for example, granular Bazudin;
- disinfect the walls of the greenhouse between seasons.
This is an insect, about 0.5 cm long. Adult individuals live in the ground, where they lay their eggs. In spring, the hatched larvae infect cucumbers. The life span of the tick is not more than 30 days, but it multiplies rapidly, especially if there is an arid climate.
The pest settles on the lower part of the leaf, after which it begins to actively suck out vegetable juices. First, white spots appear on the surface of the leaves, a marble color gradually forms. Cucumbers lose chlorophyll.
The main sign of damage to cucumbers by a spider mite is the appearance of a white spider web that envelops the entire plant. Also, the pest can be a distributor of gray rot, which is very difficult to eliminate.
- destroy all affected parts of the cucumber;
- spend several times processing the bush using ammonia, peroxide, tobacco dust, turpentine - when the first signs of a tick are noticeable;
- pollinate cucumbers with an infusion of herbs made from dandelions, sorrel, garlic or onions;
- Spray cucumbers with special biological products - for example, Akarin, Kleschevit, Vertimek;
- after the final harvest, treat the greenhouse with a solution of Celtan - dissolve 25 g of the product in 10 l of water.
Before starting treatment, remove all tick web from the plants, since it can collect particles of the drug on itself and its effect will significantly decrease.
- Before planting seedlings, thoroughly cultivate the land;
- remove weeds in a timely manner - a pest can live on them;
- when growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, control the temperature and humidity level (not more than 70%);
- enrich the earth with phosphorus;
- disinfect the greenhouse frame during the off-season.
Small insect, not more than seeds, native to South America. In one year, it can lead 15 generations. Whitefly can be called gluttonous. More often affects plants growing in the greenhouse. In just a couple of days, it easily destroys a whole row of cucumbers. At high temperatures, the most active. It experiences cold weather in the earth, and can inhabit the remains of plants. Yellowish larvae appear on the inside of the leaf.
Signs of the pest are blackening of the leaves. They curl and dry quickly. There is a chance to lose most of the crop, as adult insects feed on green mass.
- destroy all affected plants;
- manually collect pests;
- use a ladybug or a polyphage of a lacewing - these are natural whitefly antagonists that hunt for pest larvae;
- for planting use herbal infusions made from dandelions, yarrow, garlic;
- if there was a rapid multiplication of the pest, use special chemicals - for example, Monsoon go Aktara.
- process the greenhouse for disinfection;
- do not forget about soil sterilization before transplanting;
- remove all plant residues from the site, as pests can survive in them in the winter;
- process the greenhouse with bleach.
This is a small worm, not more than 2 mm. In one year, one female can give about 15 generations. Today, more than 60 varieties of this pest are known. The most dangerous is an insect that feeds on plants. On the area affected by the pest, a growth is formed or bloating appears.
- thoroughly steaming the earth in a greenhouse at a temperature of at least 100 degrees - the duration of the procedure is at least 3 hours;
- treat the earth and roots with a solution of Carbation;
- use Actofit or Fitoverm.
It is impossible to completely get rid of an insect, but there is a chance to significantly reduce the number of pests.
- grow seedlings separately;
- Before planting, carefully inspect the roots of cucumbers;
- minimize visits to the greenhouse to help prevent insects from entering;
- plant cabbage with garlic next to the cucumber beds.
The brown insect is large in size, body length can be about 5 cm, females have wings. The insect lives in moist areas and the greenhouse zone. It comes to the surface of the soil only at night.
It is easy to understand that a bear appeared on the site, since it leaves characteristic holes in the ground. A bear can damage the roots of a plant found in its path when it pulls out a new tunnel.
The insect can bring both harm and benefit, as it forms passages in the soil, saturating it with oxygen and stimulating the growth of beneficial fungi and bacteria. Significantly improved soil quality.
- use chemicals - for example, grizzly, thunder;
- use biological products as a bait (Anti-Medvedka);
- if you find minks left by the bear, pour them with soapy water.
- Dig the soil deep in the spring;
- pour boiled water over the discovered eggs;
- not far from cucumbers plant plants that the bear cannot tolerate - for example, bird cherry, alder, marigolds, marigolds;
- treat seedlings with Prestige, Actara;
- draw birds with animals that feed on insects.
Small pest, no more than 2 mm. Detecting a pest is difficult. On the lower part of the foliage, larvae can be seen. Adults constantly jump from leaf to leaf. The female lays eggs on the leaves, hatched larvae immediately live on the plant.
Settling on the leaves, the pest quickly sucks out all the juices from the foliage. If the cucumbers were hit, small white streaks appear on the bushes, quickly merging into a large spot. Holes form, after which the leaves die off. Plant growth ceases, developmental lag begins, fruiting worsens.
- regularly use chemicals - Actelik, Fitoverm, Intavir (treat both the plant and the soil);
- after processing, cover all bushes with foil and leave for 24 hours;
- You can also use such a predatory insect as the Ambliseius tick.
- remove weeds in time;
- Dig up the soil regularly;
- disinfect the earth;
- apply special sticky traps.
Front sight, the length of which is not more than 5 mm. In the upper part of the earth, a female lays eggs. From larvae, after 18-19 days pupae are formed, which winter in the soil. At the end of April, the pest becomes active.
Eggs remain viable only if they are in a humid environment.
Only hatched larvae can harm the plant. They feed on seeds or young shoots, capable of partially or completely damaging seedlings. On larger leaves, they penetrate into the stems, then weaken the plant, as they drink all the juice from it. It is young plants that suffer most.
- treat the seeds with a growth stimulator before planting;
- use insecticides;
- use predatory beetles such as ground beetles and aleohara.
- timely remove not only weeds, but also plants after harvesting;
- dig up the soil deeply, add organic types of fertilizers;
- plant seedlings or seeds before the activation of the larvae;
- do not sow cucumber seeds into the ground, use seedlings that have already grown and matured.
The insect is oblong in shape, with a length of not more than 2 mm, is a polyphagous and voracious. Females do not have wings, but they produce offspring that have them. At temperatures above +12 degrees Celsius, the active reproduction of melons and gourds begins. Green larvae live in the weeds. They settle in garden crops, which they feed on.
The main sign of the presence of the pest is twisted leaves, the affected areas dry up. With severe damage, reproduction of soot fungus begins.
- process the earth and the greenhouse with Karbofos;
- reduce the amount of watering;
- a ladybug that hunts aphids can help;
- spray the plant with a solution of onion peel or vinegar.
- remove weeds in a timely manner;
- do not allow too much thickening of the landings;
- make various types of top dressing;
- for spraying bushes, use an infusion of bitter pepper;
- dusting cucumbers with tobacco dust and soap solution, use ash;
- in the autumn, remove weed grass and the remains of cucumbers.
These are long and slippery mollusks, move slowly, live in dark and damp places. Larvae hatching in spring, having reached the age of 2 months, begin to spoil plants growing in the garden. Slugs can eat both foliage and fruits.
- collect adult slugs manually;
- process beds with copper or iron vitriol;
- use chemical poisons - for example, Sludge Eater or Meta;
- pour a layer of eggshell around the beds (can be replaced with sand, soda or spruce needles), which will become a barrier to slugs;
- places in which slugs accumulate, dust.
- Plant seedlings of cucumbers as late as possible and only in a permanent place;
- feed with ammonia and superphosphate;
- process beds with metaldehyde;
- during digging, lay ash and lime in the soil.
Outwardly, this insect looks like a worm, whose length is about 5 cm. The two-year-old larva of the nutcracker beetle is a pest that feeds on different plants and lives in the soil. The maturation of the offspring takes a lot of time - about 2 years. The invasion of this pest can destroy the entire crop.
- assemble it manually;
- use calypso;
- Loosen the soil.
- Before winter, be sure to dig the soil;
- control the acidity of the soil;
- remove weeds in a timely manner;
- plant legumes around cucumber beds;
- when planting in the hole seedlings, use potassium permanganate.
This is one of the most dangerous pests that many vegetable crops suffer from. In one season, it can lead to 2 generations. Butterflies of garden scoop are active at night. They hibernate in deep soil, with the onset of warm time they pupate and appear closer to the end of June. The female on the leaves of different plants lays eggs.
Butterfly larvae (caterpillars) cause great damage to plants. Young caterpillars begin to feed on foliage from the bottom. Older individuals live on leaf blades and completely destroy them. They can eat fruits, gnawing holes in them.
- to catch butterflies, use baits - for example, fermenting kvass, in which yeast is added;
- manually collect all pests;
- infusion of wormwood, well handle cucumber plantings;
- Use such biological products as Agravertin or Fitoverm.
- dig the soil deep;
- treat the soil additionally - steam, disinfect, remove weed grass in a timely manner;
- process cucumbers with directed means.
This is not only a very dangerous, but also a rare type of pest. Outwardly resembles a simple Colorado potato beetle, possessing the same yellow stripes on the shell. Reproduction takes place in the soil, after which the larvae move to the plant, which they will feed on.
The greatest harm to cucumbers is caused by larvae biting into the tissue of the stem and leaf, as a result of disrupting their life cycles. The affected bush turns yellow and becomes lethargic. Beetles can be carriers of a wide variety of diseases. If timely measures are not taken, the entire crop will be destroyed.
- carry out manual collection of all bugs;
- Use yellow adhesive tapes.
- using manganese solution, disinfect the ground before planting cucumbers;
- cover the beds with foil, which will not allow the bugs to get on the cucumbers.
Cucumbers often suffer from various types of diseases. In the absence of timely control measures, there is a risk of losing the entire crop. Cucumbers can be affected by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The spread of the disease occurs rapidly, affecting both cucumbers and other neighboring plants.
This is a fungal disease provoked by microscopic spores of the Colletotrichum family. Most garden crops are affected. Most often, cucumbers growing in the greenhouse suffer.
The fungus can be transported by weed grass, which was not removed from the site in autumn. Activation of the fungus occurs at high temperatures and humidity indicators of about 90%.
The fungus is able to settle on various parts of the plant. If a young bush is affected, a brown spot forms on the root neck, which slightly thickens inward. The diseased area is rapidly developing and the stem is thinning, as a result, it breaks and the plant completely dies.
It is difficult to determine the presence of the disease at an early stage, since at first the fungus appears on only a few leaves. Over time, the stems and leaves of cucumbers become rusty brown. Torn areas and holes may appear. In wet weather, the affected areas begin to rot, dry out when hot.
- throughout the growing season of cucumber bushes, spray them with antifungal agents;
- the most effective fungicides are Topaz, Fitosporin, Bordeaux liquid;
- during the growing of seedlings, if anthracnose was determined, destroy the plant, additionally treat the soil with fungicide.
- plant hybrid varieties of cucumbers that are resistant to the disease;
- Use organic and biological products to help improve soil health
- observe correct crop rotation;
- in autumn, remove all plant debris;
- dig up the earth deeply;
- dress the seed with manganese solution before planting.
A disease affecting greenhouse plants. It can be carried on seeds or plant debris not harvested in autumn. The fungus is activated in heat and moisture.
In case of damage to seedlings, convex brown spots similar to growths can be found on the sheets. Gradually, they become larger and affect the entire leaf, after which it dies.
- if more than half of the landing is affected, all actions will be useless;
- conduct treatment in the initial stages with the help of Quadrice, Bravo;
- if a lesion is found, immediately treat the cucumbers twice with Polyram.
- adhere to crop rotation rules;
- in the autumn destroy all the remains of vegetation;
- use only completely healthy seeds.
Fungal type of the disease (it can also be called black rot of cucumber), fungal spores are transmitted by infected seeds. The most vulnerable are cucumbers growing in greenhouses. The fungus is activated in the spring, at first the weakened part of the bush suffers.
With rapid spread, watery grayish spots appear on the surface of the stems, gradually turning white. Spots quickly move to other parts, over time, the leaves turn brown. In the end, the fruit is damaged - they wither, wilt, and begin to decompose. Cucumbers are covered with plaque and mucus, become completely white.
- remove affected parts;
- for disinfection of the greenhouse, use formalin, steam the earth;
- treat the seeds with fungicides during sowing - for example, Tiram, Vincit;
- if there is a defeat of the foliage, treat the bushes with Bordeaux liquid;
- when infecting stems, treat the bushes with a powder containing copper.
- pour cucumbers in the evening only with warm water;
- keep young seedlings under the film until they get stronger;
- Do not forget about the correct crop rotation;
- choose varieties of cucumbers that are resistant to the disease;
- during the preparation of the bed, bring chemicals into the ground;
- grow green manure plants in advance where you plan to plant cucumbers.
Bacterial disease. The greatest danger lies in the fact that bacteria are capable of releasing dangerous toxins that damage greenhouses and lead to their rapid death. With high humidity, the fungus develops rapidly. The development of painful microflora occurs in areas where simple agricultural practices are not respected.
Most often, the fungus appears on soils that have been oversaturated with nitrates.
The disease can also be called angular spotting - angular spots are clearly formed on the sheets, an oil coating appears on the surface. If the weather is dry and windy, these areas are weathered, then dry, crumble. All that remains is the skeleton of the leaf plate — yellow veins.
- process or destroy infected parts of bushes;
- use insecticide and fungicide (for example, Bayleton and Actellik);
- apply Style with Climate.
- disinfect seeds before sowing;
- plant cucumbers in dry and sunny areas;
- in the autumn dig the soil as deep as possible;
- loosen the earth in the garden after pouring cucumbers;
- control the microclimate in greenhouses;
- pick varieties that are resistant to the disease;
- treat bushes with onion infusion.
The viral type of the disease is carried by weeds infected by an instrument. The causative agent can inhabit the earth or seeds.
The disease manifests itself on the leaves, covered with mesh white or yellow neoplasms. Gradually, the sheet becomes completely white. If untreated, the fruits begin to suffer.
- fungicides do not help completely destroy the disease, but stop its spread;
- in greenhouses lower the temperature, remove weeds and affected parts of the plant in a timely manner;
- treat the soil with boiling water;
- use ammonia to handle the greenhouse frame;
- if a disease is detected at an early stage, treat with a solution of milk (fat content not more than 10%).
- remove weeds;
- make small doses of minerals;
- do not allow drafts;
- destroy insects, as they can be carriers of the disease;
- sanitize seeds before sowing;
- pick hybrid varieties of cucumbers that are resistant to the disease.
A dangerous virus, which most often affects plants growing in greenhouses. When infected, the leaves begin to wrinkle, covered with green stains resembling a mosaic on top.
The edge of the diseased leaf is bent to the bottom, the proper development of the plant stops. At low temperatures, a wart effect may occur. Multi-colored spots appear on the fruits, cucumbers are deformed.
For treatment, completely remove all infected plants. Do not forget to compost all plant residues.
- plant cucumbers only on sterile soil;
- pre-treat the seeds;
- plant cucumbers as far from pumpkins as possible;
- Manganese solution process the greenhouse.
Green speckled mosaic
It can also be called English mosaic. More often, cucumbers growing in a greenhouse are affected. Productivity is reduced by almost 50%. The virus has high viability and is characterized by strong immunity, so it is difficult to get rid of the disease. Can tolerate winter in dried plant debris.
The disease manifests itself with a sharp jump in temperature. Leaves begin to frown, deform, veins brighten. Flowering in a diseased bush is poor, ovaries practically do not appear, fruiting worsens. Fruits become small, speckled, taste bitter.
- Spray seedlings with a drug such as Trichodermin;
- remove infected bushes;
- spray cucumbers with skim milk if the first signs of the disease appear;
- treat plantings with a 0.03% solution of the drug Farmayod-3.
- use seeds 2-3 years old, as the older they are, the less risk that they have an infection;
- process seeds with a 15% solution of trisodium phosphate;
- apply mineral fertilizers.
One of the most common types of fungal diseases. There is a risk of destroying almost half of the landings. The fungus has an effect only on the green areas of the plant, the fruits are not affected. But as a result of severe oppression, the proper development of the fruits does not occur - they become lethargic and tasteless. The spread of the virus occurs in weeds.
A white coating is visible on the bottom of the leaves. On top of the sheet, small round white spots form and spread rapidly, acquiring a brown tint. Over time, the leaves curl, and then die.
- spray bushes with manure infusion;
- use biological products - Gamair is effective;
- spray plantings with Topaz.
- remove weed grass with all plant debris;
- disinfect greenhouses;
- treat seeds with growth stimulants.
Fungal type of disease (it can also be called downy mildew), affecting foliage with plant stems. In a short time there is a risk of losing the entire crop. The most active fungus after heavy watering or rain. The infection can be found in seeds or weeds.
The first signs of the disease are yellow spots on the leaves. The upper part is affected first, then the lower one. Gradually, the leaves begin to inflate, the structure becomes heterogeneous. After the leaf becomes one spot, falls off. Without foliage, an ovary will not appear, therefore, fruiting will not begin.
- process cucumbers with Planrizom;
- remove all diseased areas, treat sections with Trichodermin paste;
- use fungicides.
- choose varieties of cucumbers that are resistant to the disease;
- in the autumn, remove all residues of vegetation;
- use healthy seeds;
- treat seed material with fungicides in combination with growth stimulants;
- Do not allow moisture to rise;
- make sure that the greenhouse always has the right microclimate.
The fungus that lives in the soil. All parts of the cucumber bush suffer, with the exception of flowers. In a short time, the fungus is able to completely destroy the entire landing. If the lower part of the stem is affected, there is a risk of confusing the disease with a black leg.
On young bushes, the fungus is rapidly spreading along the root neck, cotyledons are affected. The bush begins to be covered with black or yellow spots. Upon contact with the soil, the fungus also infects the fruits, on the surface of which brown ulcers appear.
- use antifungal medications;
- use chemicals;
- use bacterial types of drugs.
- disinfect the topsoil every year before forming beds;
- remove all plant debris;
- control the level of soil moisture;
- Soak the seed before sowing in a growth stimulator.
Tracheomycosis (Fusarium and Verticillosis)
Different types of foliage wilting. Development occurs in hot and dry weather. Pathogens develop actively in acidic soil. The fungus spreads through the soil or seeds, into the plant through small cracks.
There is a withering and twisting of the lower leaves on one wattle fence, the rest look completely healthy. If you cut off the affected branch, brown spots are visible inside. Fruits growing on a diseased bush ripen for a very long time, their development may stop and mummification may begin.
- the use of fungicidal drugs is ineffective in combating these types of fungal diseases;
- proper agricultural technology and prevention avoids the onset of disease development.
- disinfect the earth and the greenhouse;
- if there is an accumulation of fungus in large quantities, completely renew the soil;
- use compost that is well re-read;
- plant only healthy and quality seeds;
- maintain the correct microclimate in the greenhouse.
Bacterial type of disease that affects the entire cucumber bush. The infection is transmitted by weeds, activated at high humidity. Inadequate ventilation or a very dense landing provokes the disease.
Dirty yellow spots appear on stems with leaves. Rotting areas also appear on the fruits, which become watery and soft. In these areas, the development of a fungal colony begins.
For treatment and prevention, follow these tips:
- change the climatic conditions in the greenhouse;
- control temperature and humidity;
- ventilate the greenhouse regularly;
- observe correct crop rotation.
Fungal disease affecting stems and foliage. First, the leaves wither, and the impression is that the plant needs moisture. The disease most often affects underdeveloped and weak bushes. Infection occurs through seeds and soil.
If seeds have been infected, seedlings may not appear at all. On young plants in the basal region, rot begins, the stem is fragile and thin, the leaves wither. In adult shrubs, rotting of the roots begins, which as a result becomes lifeless.
- treat seedlings with biological products - for example, Gamair, Planriz;
- spray plants with agents to increase immunity - for example, Narcissus;
- use an infusion of ash or compost tea, smear the base of the plant with iodine.
- sanitize seeds before planting;
- water the seedlings only with warm water;
- control the level of soil moisture;
- do not allow water to accumulate at the base of the stem;
- Only use organics that are well-read.
Cladosporiosis (olive spotting)
Infection affecting underdeveloped and weak bushes. The development of the disease occurs on the green part of the bush. In cool and humid weather, it passes on to fruits that acquire an ugly shape, become small and begin to rot.
The disease manifests itself with yellow spots, gradually acquiring an olive shade. White plaque forms on the lower part of the leaf, large necrotic spots rapidly develop outside. The sheet plate begins to tear and falls. Ulcers appear on the petioles with stems.
- stop watering for one week;
- regularly ventilate the greenhouse, inside of which there should always be a temperature of about 20 degrees;
- treat bushes with Bordeaux liquid or with Oxych.
- constantly monitor the humidity in the greenhouses;
- disinfect the frame of the greenhouse;
- treat the plants with a biological product Pseudobacterin-2, which allows you to stop the development of the fungus.
Sclerotiniosis (white rot)
This is a contagious disease characterized by rapid development. All parts of the plant suffer. The development of white rot occurs at low temperatures and high humidity. The disease is the result of improper care of plants.
A white coating forms on the stems and fruits, completely covering the affected areas. As a result of the action of the fungus, softening of the tissues begins, which first become watery, and then break through. The plant begins to wilt and dies. Affected areas become dark and dense.
Starting treatment, lubricate all diseased bushes with a preparation such as Roval and Sumix, add chalk.
- remove all plant debris from the site in autumn;
- add to the wells during planting such a biological product as Trichodermin;
- disinfect soil;
- use varieties of cucumbers that are resistant to the disease;
- Plant seedlings at the optimum distance.
To get rid of pests or diseases of cucumbers, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the plants. At the first sign of a problem, begin to act immediately, and then you can save the crop. Do not forget about the importance of preventive maintenance, which will help to avoid many problems.