In addition to creating comfortable conditions for pond fish, you need to take care of the proper balanced feeding. How to cook food with your own hands, so that it contains everything necessary for the vital functions of fish - further in the article.
It is a staple food for fish, as it contains all the nutrients that fully satisfy all its needs. More often, various flour is used as it:
But independently grown maggots, bloodworms and worms are also used to feed fish that feed on bottom inhabitants.
At the very beginning of the development path, the larvae of all fish that hatched from eggs need plant food and bacteria. If there is insufficient food supply in the reservoir, then it must first be created. The grown fry eventually switch to a larger and higher-calorie feed - plankton and benthos.
It is bred all year round, while the process does not require any additional financial costs. It is enough to dig a groove 60 cm deep in the warm season or pick up a container with the same depth for winter breeding, and run the simplest ciliates, slippers and crustaceans of daphnia.
They are either caught in a natural reservoir or purchased in a store. In the first case, there is a high probability of cyclops and hydras getting along with them, which are deadly danger to the larvae. Do not forget that in an ordinary pond pathogenic microbes and viruses are also present that can kill all fish.
Therefore, experts advise growing healthy live food on their own according to the following instructions:
- dry hay (30 g) is poured into 1 liter of water and boiled for 30-40 minutes;
- leave it for 5 days;
- then water is added to the mixture with microorganisms - 4 drops of water per 1 liter of infusion, and so that they do not die of starvation, pour in fodder yeast (0.1 g of yeast per 1 liter);
- after 7 days, the larvae are fed with finished food.
The breeder of fish shares his experience in growing live food in the video below:
Be sure to enter vitamins. Especially if the density of fish landing is high. As vitamin complexes, paste from plant materials is used:
- cabbage leaves;
- milk ripeness of corn;
- representatives of legumes - lupine, wiki.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) is added. It is needed for proper protein metabolism, and, therefore, has a direct effect on the growth of living things.
Which cereals are best added to fish feed?
From a wide variety of cereal crops, fish are better suited for:
- Wheat. She is the main diet. From 1 kg of wheat, carp absorbs about 50% of nutrients - these are the best indicators. However, the diet should not consist only of it, the fish begins to suffer from obesity, its growth slows down;
- Rye. This is a little favorite fish product, they eat it very poorly, although protein is absorbed by 70%.
- Barley It is not inferior to wheat in nutrition, but the vegetable protein contained in it is absorbed by fish worse, as a result of this, the weight gain is less. In addition, it is poor in vitamins and elements, enzymes. Before crushed barley is given to the fish, it is cleaned of films (genitalia), otherwise it can injure the digestive tract.
- Corn. It is used only in crushed form and added to feed, as it contains very few nutrients, but, on the other hand, is rich in carotenes;
- Oats. It is used only in feed mixtures, first it must be cleaned of films. This cereal is less nutritious of all representatives, and the growth of fish on it is negligible. Add it in a small amount.
- Soya. It is a vegetable protein that contains amino acids, but it contains toxic substances. They must first be neutralized by heat treatment.
- Peas. It is also rich in proteins; it is not inferior to cereals in the number of macro- and microelements.
- Cake, meal. These are oilseed processing products. Usually use sunflower and soybean meal. When using the first components, they are checked for the presence of gray rot, which is very toxic. Before use, soy components are subjected to heat treatment.
Raw grain is not recommended to be fed to fish. It must be preliminarily prepared: crush, steam or germinate.
Grain feeding carp
It is fed only with crushed wheat. The rules are followed - the smaller the size of the fish, the finer the grain fraction. Follow the instructions below:
- 500 grams of carp and larger suitable croup size 8 mm;
- individuals whose weight reaches 150-500 g - 6 mm;
- representatives with a weight of 40-150 g are enough to crush the grain to 4.5 mm;
- small fish weighing 10-40 g need a size of 3.3 mm.
Additionally, read here about the intricacies of carp breeding at home.
This type of fish tastes like raw grain, but it is better to pre-process it, which improves their taste, since at high temperatures some starch is broken down into sugars.
For this, the grain is poured with a layer of not more than 1 m into a suitable container, poured with hot water (90 ° C). Mix, cover and stand for 4 hours.
Wheat is better to germinate, and not heat-treated. In this form, carps eat grain almost completely. The main thing is not to overexpose it, it is enough that the sprout reaches a length of 2-4 mm.
From an economic point of view, it is more profitable to purchase industrial feed. It costs less than grain, does not need preliminary processing and gives a greater increase. However, in nutritional value it is still inferior to natural fodders of plant and animal origin.
It is recommended to alternate feedings - industrial feed with grain. Carps are given a white loaf as a treat, which they eat with great pleasure. So that pieces of bread do not "furrow" over the entire surface of the reservoir, it is placed in feeders made of a plastic pipe.
What feeds his fish in the home pond, the breeder will tell and show in the video below:
Adding vegetation to feed
Fish should have 20-30% of plant foods in their diet - this is duckweed, cattail, reed, sedge. If the pond is new and the representatives of the flora have not grown well, then they give young and soft shredded grass from the meadow, for example, clover.
Grind it a maximum of 2 hours before feeding.
Basic feed recipes
To make the perfect food for pond fish, you need to know what nutrient standards they need.
We recommend reading an article that will additionally tell you how and what to feed pond fish .
For carp yearlings
The norm of nutrients for carp yearlings weighing 1-25 g, that is, young animals of the current year, grown in a pond:
- crude protein - 26% or more;
- fat - not less than 4%;
- fiber - not more than 9%;
- calcium - 1.2%;
- phosphorus - 1%.
The ideal feed for them is production feed of the VBS-RZh-81 brand. Which structure includes:
- meat and bone meal - 1%;
- grass meal - 2%;
- fish meal - 3%;
- yeast - 4%;
- crushed wheat, which can be completely replaced with wheat flour - 11%;
- wheat flour - 12%;
- soybean meal - 17%;
- crushed barley or millet - 20%;
- sunflower meal - 30%.
For commercial carp
Nutrient requirements for commercial carp grown in pond farms:
- in raw protein - 23% or more;
- in lipids - 3.5% or more;
- fiber - not more than 10%;
- calcium - 0.7%;
- phosphorus - 0.8%.
These fish are fed MBP production feed. It contains:
- chalk - 1%;
- wheat bran or grain of wheat or barley - 4%
- hydrolysis yeast can be replaced with protein-vitamin concentrate (BVK) in a ratio of 1: 0.7 - 4%;
- soybean meal - 5%, it is allowed to replace with peas in a ratio of 1: 1.5;
- peas - 10%, respectively, it can also be replaced with soybean meal, but in a ratio of 1: 0.7;
- fishmeal or krill flour - 16%;
- wheat - 20%;
- barley - 20%;
- sunflower meal - 20%, it can be replaced with soybean meal (1: 0.75).
Each type of fish requires a menu adjustment, since they all have different needs for vital substances, and have their own food preferences.
Under natural conditions, the menu of the crucian carp is diverse. He eats duckweed, algae, bloodworms and a variety of bottom living creatures. But at the initial stage, while the reservoir is only inhabited by representatives of the animal and plant world, fish need to be fed.
They feed crucian carp from the end of spring, when the water temperature is + 10 ° C until the beginning of autumn. In extreme heat or cold, his appetite worsens, so when feeding, these factors must be taken into account and portions should be regulated.
- steamed beans;
- boiled potatoes.
From living creatures, they feed the larvae of dragonflies and beetles. They are collected manually. They breed or buy bloodworms, dung worms, minced meat for them.
The grain is pre-crushed. Plant materials are mixed with minced meat, meat and bone meal and bran. Brewed with boiling water and left for half an hour. Then small balls are rolled from the mass and fed to the fish. It is recommended to add to the balls: fresh chopped grass - the green mass of dandelion, nettle, duckweed or worms, chopped bloodworms.
Fodder experts do not recommend using. It settles to the bottom and adversely affects water quality.
Fish are fed 2 times a day, at the same time, so that they develop a conditioned reflex. The food is diluted with water, put on a metal pallet and lowered, raised using a special mechanism. In the evening, the feeding place is lit with lamps.
The optimal amount of food for one-time feeding is 5% of the total mass of all crucian carp in the pond. That is, if 20 crucians with a mass of each 100 g live in the pond, then 5% of the live weight is 100 g.
We recommend that you also read an interesting article on how to properly breed crucians .
Clari catfish is commonly grown in artificial ponds. However, its exact need for nutrients has not yet been identified. Therefore, fish farmers feed it with carp or trout. It is proved that at the last feed catfish gain weight faster. To accelerate growth, the probiotic "Subtilis" is added to the diet.
However, some fish farmers use trial and error to compose their feed. They mix dry raw materials, vitamins, minerals with water or whey to a pasty consistency. Then it is passed through a meat grinder and dried in a dry place. Grind to the state of granules and feed the fish. For example, a feed mixture is prepared from the following components:
- chalk - 1%;
- grass meal - 2%;
- blood meal - 2%;
- vegetable oil - 2%;
- yeast - 4%;
- barley flour - 5%;
- wheat flour - 8%;
- sunflower meal - 20%;
- soybean meal - 26%;
- fish meal - 30%;
- cobalt chloride - 0.03%.
When organizing feeding, adhere to the following recommendations:
- To facilitate feeding tasks, feeders are installed. You can make them yourself or buy ready-made in the store. There are several types of them. Some are fixed at the bottom and are called stationary, others are lifting, before the feed is distributed, the feeder is raised to the surface.
- Automatic feeders are usually used in fisheries. Feeding with these devices helps you find out the right amount of food for your fish. If after 4 hours the feed remains, then its portion is reduced. Food should not be in the water for more than 1 day, otherwise it will become acidic and the fish will not eat it. Therefore, the feed will continue to rot in the water, which will negatively affect the microflora of the entire reservoir.
- The diet of fish grown in a pond and industrial cages (pools) varies. The first, even with a high planting density, is enough natural food. It is he who serves as the main source of vitamins, amino acids, minerals.
How to grow fish in the pool, this article will tell.
Making food for fish with your own hands is not an easy task, because it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of farmed individuals and their daily requirements for vitamin and mineral components. Following these recommendations, you can learn how to cook food that will provide the fish with everything you need.