To properly make the skin of rabbits, you need to know the whole step-by-step process. In this article you will learn how to take off the skin, process it and pull it.
Where to begin?
To make the process go smoothly, without any complications, and the result exceeded all expectations, take the following tips into service:
- The breed of rabbits. It is this factor that will lead to success. Fur of such breeds as chinchilla, black-brown rabbit and White giant is considered to be expensive material. They were bred specifically to get extra thick and beautiful fur. Gray giants and their breeds - analogues, are also used for skinning if these individuals have a dense pile. With a diet enriched with vitamins, such a result is possible.
- Withstand the time of slaughter. For this procedure, young growth with a fully formed fur coat is best suited, while the molting period is taken into account. If you do not pay attention to it, the material will quickly become worthless. Adult rabbits are brought to a certain weight - from 3 to 5 kg, depending on which breed is selected. Old animals are absolutely not suitable for these purposes.
- To prepare the carcass, use the French method - air embolism. Stick strike behind the animal’s ears. This must be done carefully to prevent bruising.
What tools and materials will be required?
Dressing a rabbit's skin will require some knowledge, skills, material and tools. Do not do in this process without the use of chemicals.
There are several options for processing recipes in which various tools are used. An approximate list of components is as follows:
- plenty of water;
- table salt - 10 packs;
- a little more than a liter of electrolyte;
- baking soda - 3 packs;
- formalin, ammonia, chrome alum;
- Laundry soap or laundry detergent;
- to extract the skins will need blanks;
- wooden spatula for mixing skins;
- knives: sharp, blunt and with interchangeable blades;
- hammers, nails;
- large bowls;
- latex gloves.
When working with chemicals - adherence to safety rules is imperative. The order of priority is also important: acid is poured into the water. Having finished work, the tool is subject to processing, thorough washing and drying.
How to remove the skin?
Do not tighten the skinning of the rabbit carcass, it will be extremely difficult to do this afterwards. The most important thing is to keep the fur coat intact, so the hosiery method is what you need. This process involves several steps:
- Hang the carcass by its hind legs.
- Gently incise the skin around the joints.
- On the inside of the paws, make a longitudinal cut.
- Remove the tail.
- Slowly and carefully begin to tighten the skin by rolling it. Help with a knife.
- Front legs can be removed.
- From the rabbit nape, cut the skin.
Having thus obtained a stocking from the skin, quickly clean it of the remaining product. This procedure is conveniently performed on the countertop with a blunt knife.
If, having removed the peel, are not going to immediately start dressing, dry it. After spending 3 days on this process, you will be able to do the harvesting in a month. Dry the shell so that the fur is inside the stocking, on a special wedge-shaped device resembling the letter “A”, at 30 ° C in a ventilated room.
Step-by-step instructions for dressing a rabbit skin
The process involves specific steps, the implementation of which should be carried out strictly in turn.
Soaking (soaking) in water and solution
It will not be possible to soften the raw materials without soaking them. In addition, ignoring this step can lead to decomposition of the skin afterwards. Many do not bother too much and cost only clean water. But this is also an option.
We need deep dishes in which the selected smushka is laid out and poured with water. For 1 kg of raw materials use 3 l of water. Make sure that the skins are placed freely in the container. The softening of the material just removed occurs in 4 hours, the dry skin is soaked within half a day, and several times during this period it is necessary to change the liquid.
Another method of soaking involves the use of a solution of certain ingredients. Most often, a liter of water is used for this, to which a little borax (30 g), carbolic acid (only 2 g) and 50 g of salt are added and everything is thoroughly mixed. It is desirable to work with this mixture in stainless steel dishes, or coated with a thick layer of benign enamel.
Press the skin laid in the solution with something heavy so that the composition completely covers the raw materials. During soaking, regularly mix the contents of the container, for uniform processing. In time, this process takes from 6 hours to 4 days, depending on various circumstances.
The procedure includes a composition that protects the skin from colonization with putrefactive bacteria. It consists of 1 liter of water and the following ingredients:
- zinc chloride;
- carbolic crystallized acid.
Fans of all "natural" perfectly cope with soaking in decoctions of oak leaves, willow and eucalyptus. These components, unlike standard chemicals, are safe and also effective.
The operation is completed when the skins become soft, residual fat is easily separated from the mezra. Squeeze them gently and drain the water. Rinse with clean water and let it drain.
The essence of this step in the process of skinning is to thoroughly clean the subcutaneous layer with the remains of meat and fat. The result should be a completely clean mezra. How to achieve this:
- Remove any remaining moisture from the wet skin.
- Pull the stocking on a convex object, today special machines are produced for this purpose.
- Work with your hands, helping yourself with a blunt knife.
- Remove unnecessary elements strictly from top to bottom and from the ridge to the sides (some experts make scraping movements in the opposite direction).
- Trim the excess mezdra, achieving uniformity of the skin of the skin.
- Do not overdo it with the gun, do not press it hard to avoid gusts on the skin.
- At the end of the procedure, lightly tap the knife handle on all surfaces of the blade, break it.
It is possible to purchase machines specially designed for these purposes, equipped with magnetic and electric drives. This tool will be a good helper and will greatly facilitate and speed up the process of freezing.
The operation is actually an ordinary washing of the material. For her, it is preferable to use soap or shampoo. If you decide to use detergent, get ready for a long and speedy rinse of the skin.
Wash slowly, gently, until under the fingers you feel a characteristic creaking.
Fur processing is identical. Finally - rinse the product in running water, inspect it so that there are no soap traces. Shake the skin and wipe it dry. You can proceed to the next step.
Pickling and pickling
Both actions are designed to increase the strength of the rabbit skin. Use depends on personal preference. For fermentation, a mixture similar to jelly is prepared according to the following recipe:
- Pour 200 g of flour in 1 liter of hot water (you can use both wheat and oat), table salt 3 tbsp, 7 g of dried yeast, soda - 500 g.
- Stir everything thoroughly and let cool. The temperature of the resulting liquid should not be more than 30 ° C.
- Put peels in this jelly (the fur should be inside), hold for 2 days. Mezdra got a white tint, a bread smell appeared, so the process of fermentation is completed.
- Remove the skins, rinse, let the water drain.
Pickling is a more time-consuming procedure:
- A solution is also prepared, but from other components (warm water 1 l, a little vinegar 70%, salt), the products are placed in it and also kept until a white mezra is obtained. It will take 48 hours.
- To check if the skin is ready, fold it very tightly, swipe the nail with a bend. If a light trail is visible on the skin, then proceed with washing in the converter.
- Need a liter of water and a half kg of soda. Immerse material in it for half an hour, then rinse with clean water and wipe dry.
Use any of the two methods of hardening the material, get an excellent result.
Processing of the material makes it resilient, waterproof, and quite durable. This action can be carried out in two ways. More often used water compositions of wood materials of oak and willow. Step-by-step recommendations:
- Fill wood with water.
- Boil for 30 minutes with salt, cool.
- Soak the skin with a brush.
- Lay the soaked skins so that the fur remains outside, soak for 24 hours.
This method is called tannin tanning. Another option is chrome tanning:
- For 1 liter of hot water, take 7 g of chromium alum, withstand the same time as in the first case.
- After tanning, neutralize the material with a soda solution identical to that of pickling, rinse thoroughly and squeeze slightly.
- Lay the skins on the surface, smooth them evenly, put the press on for 2 days. Follow the laying procedure - on top of each other, with fur to fur, and mezdra to mezdra.
- To check the readiness of the skin, stock up with a magnifying glass, it will help to see signs of the completion of the tanning process - an even yellowish color and velvety skin. Some experts gently clean the finished product with emery cloth.
Oiling and drying
A quick and rather complicated dressing process is ending. The secret of the fat is that after the last step, the skin becomes very smooth, gentle softness appears, and water resistance is acquired.
Oils, such as castor oil, or glycerin are suitable for a fatliquoring session. Step-by-step recommendations:
- Moisten a tissue swab in one of the substances and carefully treat the entire surface of the mezra with it.
- Soak it for 2 hours, quickly wipe it with a clean cloth, thereby removing excess fat and dry it.
This is the final stage of all work. This operation is possible on any suitable surface. An important nuance - drying is carried out exclusively with the fur up. There should be proper air circulation, avoid the presence of heating appliances and sunlight, low humidity.
Finally dried skins are subjected to a light warm-up and stretching. You need to do this with your hands, without the help of any mechanisms.
The mezdra is additionally sprinkled with tooth powder or rubbed with chalk, carefully grind and shake the resulting garbage. The fur is carefully combed with a soft brush.
A detailed step-by-step process of making a rabbit skin is presented in the following video:
Alternative dressing options
The process of making a rabbit skin is the same everywhere. Many craftsmen adhere to the old methods of making leather that their fathers and grandfathers used. There are two ways of interest.
With sour milk
The step-by-step process looks like this:
- Rub the skin liberally with salt.
- Turn inside with mazra, soak for 3 days.
- Then carefully shake off the salt, pour the weekly sour milk into the container and immerse the peels in it. For each skin use 1 liter of acidic product.
- Leave for another 3 days.
- Finish work by washing the sheets, peeling the mouzra and drying.
The fresh-dry method speaks for itself. No solutions are used. Step-by-step recommendations:
- Place the removed stockings on the rules. When distributing the canvas, the length should be three times the width.
- Attach the product carefully with small studs.
- Treat the inner and outer integuments with sawdust mixed with gasoline, clean the fur from various litter.
- Wipe everything with a clean cloth and dry thoroughly.
Primary processing and storage
The main recommendations of the primary processing:
- Do not leave for later cleaning the skin after slaughter of the rabbit. Scrap it, remove pieces of meat and fat. Do not complicate the process of dressing. The remaining layer will lead to rotting of the skin, and it is not subject to restoration in this state.
- Do not forget about the fur, inspect it and clean it from debris. Use a blunt knife when doing an internal cleansing, help yourself with your hands.
- Stretch the removed stocking on a thick wooden beam, work in a circle.
- Try not to damage the skin, if such a nuisance happened, carefully sew the tears.
- It is better not to tighten the dressing of the skin, if there are circumstances that do not immediately allow you to start work, dry it, start processing it when it is convenient.
- To dry the material, select a suitable, well-ventilated room and with a temperature of 30 ° C. Distribute the skin on a special drying device.
- Some craftsmen resort to freezing the canvas, it is better not to do this. Too high a temperature, as well as extremely low, will cause the skin to break and damage the pile.
- Undesirable and high humidity, capable of forming mold on the product. The process can last up to 3 days.
- Finish the initial treatment of the stocking by wiping with rags or sawdust. It is recommended to store in dry, with tight lids boxes or bags.
- To avoid the appearance of moths, put in a container with stored skins a piece of naphthalene in the fabric. Do not store skins for a long time, not more than 1 month. Proceed to dressing, so as not to lose the perfect raw materials for updates.
- If you are going to do the dressing right away, fill the skins with salt and prepare the necessary materials. This does not hurt the canvases.
How to pull the skin?
The processing of the skin is carried out in a state of tension. Choose a wedge-shaped support or build a sliding structure. Its advantage is that it can fit any size of canvas. Be aware of some guidelines when tensioning a product:
- the fur must be inside;
- the pile should be smoothed and gently pulled to the rule with the skin outward;
- Flatten the stocking thoroughly;
- fasten the edges of the canvas - nail the lower end with cloves, there will be no tucking of the material;
- stick to the standard sizes of the drying device, everything will depend on the size of the skin.
If you are new to this complex matter, follow the advice of experienced farmers, this will help to successfully cope with the work:
- Pickling can be carried out in water at room temperature, without additional heating. The process in this case is extended by a day.
- Pay attention to the thickness of the mezra, the exposure time will depend on this.
- Before starting to clean the coat, inspect the condition of the coat. Remaining debris can damage the skin.
- Watch the condition of molting, if it is in the initial stage, slaughter is possible in a month.
- Do not use oak bark in the tanning process if the skin is light in color, otherwise its color will become yellowish.
- Do not save on water, 3 liters of solution are used per medium sized billet.
- Individuals not older than 3 years are subject to slaughter, a large age is a low indicator of the quality of the skin.
Do not be afraid to start mastering a new one, if for the first time you are faced with breeding rabbits, processing the product with their subsequent use - study the proper material. At home, you can deal with everything yourself.