Wheat is an important grain crop that must be properly stored. This allows you to save the useful properties of raw materials and minimize its loss. It is important to properly organize the granaries, creating all the necessary conditions in them.
Requirements for wheat storage facilities
For the construction of granaries use various materials: stone, brick, reinforced concrete, metal. When choosing you need to focus on local conditions and the duration of storage of the crop.
Regardless of the material selected, the granary must meet the following requirements:
- The dryness of the room. The proximity of groundwater, the presence of cracks, holes or crevices in the walls, floor or roof are not allowed. All joints must be patched.
- Strength of the room. It should be designed for the pressure of the grain mass, to exclude adverse atmospheric effects.
- Walls and floors should be smooth. Windows are closed inside, for doorways mortgage boards are used.
- No odors.
- The room and all the equipment in it are dried and disinfected before laying the grain. Drying is provided by airing, sulfur dioxide, formalin vapors, sodium hydroxyphenolate solution are used for disinfection.
- The level of equilibrium humidity is 14% when stored for up to six months, 13% when stored for a longer period.
- Ventilation. The inlets must have tight covers so that atmospheric precipitation does not penetrate through them.
- The presence of protective caps with nets on the fixtures.
- If the floor is concrete or asphalt, it is necessary to install wooden pallets on it or a solid or portable (removable) flooring of 10-15 cm in height.
- For storage of containers and tarpaulins, their cleaning and aeration for disinfection should be a separate room. Mandatory isolation from the granary.
- Separate containers should be used to store food and waste of any category. They must be isolated from the granary.
- It is necessary to organize wooden flooring or ladders for walking on the embankment of grain. Instead, you can use shoe covers or cloth stockings that are worn on shoes.
- The access to the granary should be limited to service personnel and persons controlling the storage of products.
- When operating in a granary, cleaning should be systematically carried out, the equipment must be kept clean. Dust, dirt, dirt, foreign objects are not allowed.
The grain is stored in bulk in the premises. It may have a rectangular or pyramidal shape. The embankment should be even, marks are made on the walls to control the height. If wheat is stored in an elevator, then the embankment height is up to 30 m. Wet grain containing up to 19% water can be stored for a short time in bulk up to 1.5 m. If the humidity is more than 19%, then the height is up to 1 m.
If wheat is harvested from different areas, then the crop must be stored separately. Before storage, sorting of raw materials is mandatory. Hard, strong and soft wheat must be placed separately. Soft culture should also be divided according to the degree of glassiness - less than 20%, 20-40%, 40-60% and more than 60%.
It is necessary to control the temperature of the grain. To do this, the embankment is divided into three layers, measurements are carried out in each, using a thermowell (probe).
Types of grain storage facilities
Harvesting facilities are called elevators. These are entire complexes with special equipment, which come in different types, differ in purpose and a number of features.
In such complexes, grain is stored temporarily. Usually they are erected next to large agricultural enterprises. In them, not only grain storage is possible, but also its primary processing, as well as the preparation of raw materials for sowing.
The grain is dried and cleaned, and then transported in a convenient way.
In such elevators, the grain is cleaned more thoroughly. It is sorted for storage. The result is large, uniform batches. Large base stations and transport routes are usually chosen for placement of basic warehouses.
In such elevators, grain is usually stored temporarily. Storage facilities are organized near farms, so that there is a major railway or water route nearby.
Grain from transshipment warehouses is transported over long distances. Rarely store raw materials in such rooms for a long time.
These are not just premises, but entire enterprises. They are an auxiliary link for factories producing flour, cereals, feed and other wheat products. Such enterprises must uninterruptedly supply the factories with raw materials.
These premises are used for long-term storage of grain, that is, for several years. These complexes are notable for their scale; only high-quality raw materials are used to fill them.
Wheat from stock complexes is taken in order to renew stocks or to fill up the deficit. These storage facilities are being built near large railway lines.
Grain in such complexes supply basic and transshipment warehouses. The storage is temporary, here grain is prepared for export. Prepared raw materials are transported on ships to destinations.
Port granaries are also used to receive imported raw materials sold on the domestic market. The size of such warehouses is very impressive, using high-tech equipment.
Such storages provide enterprises with grain and related products. They can take crops from small farms in order to sell them later. Wheat storage at sales facilities is usually short-term; grain is released in small batches.
Wheat Storage Tanks
Such storage systems are represented by reinforced concrete storage facilities, ground-based complexes and silos. In each case, there are certain features.
Reinforced concrete structures
They are single-story buildings or cylindrical silos. Construction is expensive and time consuming. There are problems with tightness, because the container is not protected from insects, rodents and birds. Such storages were used earlier in regions with strong winds and heavy rainfall.
They are prefabricated metal structures. The grain in them is stored on a large scale. Negative factors are weather conditions and pests, from which these complexes are not protected, therefore they are used mainly for temporary storage of raw materials.
They are prefabricated structures and have a cylindrical shape. They are conical and flat-bottomed: in the first they temporarily store dry and wet raw materials, the second are intended for storage for a year, are completely tight and eliminate the risk of pests if the room is decontaminated. To control the temperature and humidity inside, thermometry systems are provided, therefore, the best grain quality is ensured.
For the construction of silos, high-strength sheet steel is used. For processing, corrugation and galvanization are used.
Grain Storage Methods
Wheat can be stored dry, chilled or airless. Most often choose the first two options. Separately, storage of wheat in bags should be considered.
In this case, moisture is extracted from the grain, which ensures the transition of all harmful organisms to suspended animation. It remains to exclude the penetration of rodents and insects.
For long-term storage, the grain is dried in whole or in part. Optimum processing in containers with air and solar heat.
With the dry storage method, embankments are usually organized. They provide several advantages:
- savings on packaging;
- granary resources are used rationally;
- it is convenient to load and unload raw materials, transport it;
- easier to control the condition of the grain;
- pest control more effective.
With a dry storage method, grain packing is also possible. This option is used for seed.
This option is suitable for small farms and warehouses. Its advantage is a low percentage of raw material losses.
For cooling, a temperature regime of 5-10 degrees is artificially created, supply and exhaust ventilation is organized. As with the dry method, moderately low temperatures slow down or stop the life of microorganisms and insects.
In this case, the access of oxygen is blocked. You can speed up the process using dry ice or carbon dioxide.
This method is used by production enterprises, since the quality of grain here comes first. Blocking oxygen leads to the death of most microorganisms and pests.
The airless method preserves all the beneficial properties of the grain, since it is preserved. This option is good for flour mills and bakeries. The grain stored by the airless method is sold in sealed containers.
Bags are used to store and transport the first crop of a new variety, planting seeds of elite varieties, expensive wheat varieties with a thin-walled structure.
Used bags of coarse fabric, polypropylene, nylon, special coarse kraft paper. They are usually laid on wooden pallets with stacks of 2, 3 or 5 bags wide. The height of the stack depends on the type of storage: with a manual method - 6-8 bags, with a machine - 10-12.
Wheat Shelf Life
Grain retains its consumer properties for a certain period, called the longevity of raw materials. It can be of different types:
- biological longevity - a period in which the ability to germinate at least in single specimens is preserved;
- economic longevity - the shelf life of grain while maintaining the conditional germination of seeds in accordance with GOST;
- technological durability - the storage period while maintaining the full grain properties for food, feed or technical needs.
The biological durability of wheat is more than 30 years, and economic - 5-10 years. Most resistant is soft glassy wheat. If the grain has ripened well, it has been dried and cooled in a soft mode, it can be stored for more than 10 years, and the baking qualities will not change significantly.
The shelf life of grain depends on many factors. His aging is provoked by sudden changes in temperature, mechanical stress.
Pest control during grain storage
Possible pests of wheat, there are several dozen. Most of them are insects, about a third - ticks, a small percentage - rodents.
The risk of pests during storage depends on the temperature of the grain. If it is less than 10 degrees, then the breathing of the raw materials almost stops, which affects self-heating and biomechanical processes. Significantly slows down the development of grain insects.
The frequency of infection control depends on the grain temperature. At negative temperatures a monthly check will be sufficient, at a temperature of 0-10 degrees, control is needed every 2 weeks, at a temperature of 10 degrees - every week.
To prevent the appearance of pests, they resort to a whole range of measures. It includes the following points:
- disinfection of granaries, used equipment, containers, tarpaulins;
- grain check for contamination in each transport unit;
- installation of mosquito nets on windows and ventilation ducts;
- timely cleaning of waste, grain dust;
- removal of water sources that may become a watering place for rodents;
- chemical treatment of fields before harvesting;
- Compliance with the recommended temperature and humidity during storage.
Pest Management Methods
They are physico-mechanical and chemical. Many of them can be used independently.
They mean the removal of grain and dust residues, as this is an excellent environment for insects and ticks. Part of the pests can be eliminated by cleaning the separators.
To combat rodents establish various traps. You can get rid of small insects with the help of sieves.
High and low temperatures help solve the problem. For the death of many insects and mites, a temperature of 50-55 degrees is needed - this is how grain is heated in dryers.
Exposure to high temperatures is unacceptable if it is planned to use grain as a seed material. If bags are used to store wheat, you can boil them or keep them at high temperature for some time.
You can also cope with insects and ticks by cooling or freezing.
This type of pest control is very common and radical. Two groups of drugs are used:
- contact preparations: Zernospas, Procrop;
- mono-insecticides: Actellik, Aliot, Bitoxibacillin, Kamikaze, Karate Zeon, K-Obiol.
Tips for Better Preservation of Wheat Harvest
The following measures will help preserve the wheat crop longer:
- Thoroughly clean granaries before laying grain . It is necessary to remove all last year’s remains and examine the entire space, including under the floor, for rodents and other pests. Fumigate if necessary.
- Properly fill the repository . The best quality raw materials should be at the bottom, and the lower-quality ones should be at the top.
- Provide good aeration in storage . The plugs must be evenly distributed, using the venting funnel and the telescopic venting spear efficiently. In a large bunker, it is worth using the technique of repeating cones - when loading every 4 m, pull out several tons of raw materials to get an inverted cone.
- Properly dry the grain , observing the permissible humidity in accordance with the shelf life.
- Observe optimal temperature conditions . It depends on the region: in the south - 5 degrees, in the northern latitudes - 0 degrees.
- Regularly inspect the grain, check its moisture, temperature . With an increase in performance, the appearance of an extraneous odor, a crust on the surface or sticking of grains, turn on ventilation.
- Check the repository regularly for pests . It is recommended to set traps in advance and periodically inspect them.
- On summer and warm autumn days, keep the raw materials cool . If you plan to sell it later than next June, the temperature can be increased to 10-12 degrees.
Features of wheat storage depend on many factors. It is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions of a particular region, the required shelf life of the crop, the variety of culture, the purpose of the grain. Important points are storage temperature, humidity and pest protection.