The milking machine is a special installation to facilitate and accelerate the milking process, which is needed on every farm where cattle are kept. Such aggregates can not only effectively milk several cows at once, but also protect their mammary gland from damage and infection. What are the models of the device, and what is the principle of their work, we will find out further.
The classic milking machine has a simple device, which includes such parts:
- case frame on wheels, due to which the device is mobile (there are large-sized units without wheels, but they are rare);
- a pump from which there are vacuum hoses for supplying milk and air (you can measure the pressure in them using a vacuum gauge);
- a pulsator or manifold where the vacuum line ends (in some models there is no pulsator, and its role is played by a piston pump and valves that open and close in the direction of movement of the piston);
In the absence of a pulsator, the number of vacuum pulses cannot be measured, but it is indicated in the technical characteristics of the device.
- 4 milking cups (according to the number of nipples of a cow), the outer wall of which is metal (made of food steel or aluminum), and the inner one is covered with rubber cuffs, one of which is connected to the suction cup (inner) chamber for sucking milk, and the other to the chamber between walls to create a pulsation of the vacuum;
- receiver for stabilizing the vacuum in the line (not available on all models);
- milk and vacuum tubes leaving the glasses and entering the collector, on which the valve for supplying vacuum to the glasses is located;
- milk line, leaving the collector and leading to a common tank;
- a can of 20 l or more, which can be made of stainless steel, aluminum or plastic.
The aluminum tank is light and soft, so it can suffer from accidental tipping, but the steel bucket is very heavy and inconvenient to use. Therefore, the best option is a plastic can with a transparent lid, so that it is easier to control the level of milk in it.
The functioning of the milking machine is based on the operation of a vacuum pump. A glass is attached to each nipple of the cow. When the device is connected to an electric current, milk is sucked out, and through the glasses through hoses it enters a container for collecting it - a bucket or a can.
Milk suction technology is as follows:
- In the suction cup, in which there is always low pressure, a vacuum is created.
- The pulsator mounted on the can lid emits vacuum pulses into the glasses.
The presence of a pulsator allows you to control the supply of vacuum, so that milking for the cow becomes more comfortable.
- Under the pressure of the pulsation vacuum, the nipple is compressed in the interstitial chamber.
- When low pressure is created in these two chambers, milk flows first into the collector, and then into the storage tank.
- The pressure in the inter-wall chamber rises to atmospheric, in parallel with which the rubber tube is compressed and squeezes the nipple, and the milk stops flowing.
A similar principle of operation is typical for push-pull milking machines, which perform 2 main functions - squeeze the nipple and pump out milk. There are also three-stroke devices, the difference of which is that they suck out milk from each nipple in turn, squeezing them in order. Between suction cycles, small breaks are observed to restore the blood supply to the mammary glands, so that the cow gets used to the apparatus faster.
In a three-stroke machine, 50 pulsations occur per minute, and in a two-stroke machine - 90.
The principle of operation of two- and three-stroke devices is presented in the diagram:
Varieties of devices
Milking machines can vary both in technical specifications and in the way they work. Popular criteria for their classification will be considered in more detail.
By type of motor and pump
The machine for milking cows can be equipped with the following engine:
By type of milking
According to the method of milking and connecting glasses to the nipples, the apparatus can be of two types:
- Simultaneous (regular) . Glasses are attached to 4 milking, so the device simultaneously sucks milk from all the nipples.
- Pairwise (asynchronous) . In such models, glasses are installed in pairs. Milking is carried out using 2 glasses. They are put on the nipples in turn. This is the most sparing mode for the animal.
Devices with a pairwise milking method allow you to quickly accustom a cow to a milking machine, and also completely eliminate problems with an udder.
By purpose of application
Cow milking machines are conditionally divided into two more types:
- Household . Selected mainly for small households. Such devices have a simple design and are equipped with removable parts, which after wear can be replaced with new ones.
- Industrial . Such units are produced for industry and are designed for milking a large number of cows. They are powerful and require several automatic work systems, the choice of which is carried out depending on which cattle need to be milked.
Browse Popular Models
Milking machines are on the market in a wide variety, but among them the following models are especially popular:
- AID-1 . The device is based on a two-stroke principle of operation and without a pulsator. It is convenient in small farms, since in 1 hour it can serve no more than 10 cows. It has an oil pump that does not overheat and does not make a loud noise during operation. Pressure is 47 kPa, i.e. close to the optimal 50 kPa.
- AID DA-3M Volga . The three-stroke universal unit, which has two-chamber stainless steel milking cups, is also equipped with a pulsator, a vacuum valve and a main hose.
- Doyushka 1P . Compact in size, automated and reliable. Suitable for small farms - in 1 hour is able to milk about 10 cows. The farmer does not need to adjust the number of measures. The ripple depends on the operation of the piston pump, which creates 64-70 cycles per minute.
- Maiga . Push-pull and easy to maintain unit. A bucket with a handle is attached to the device, so milk is very convenient to drain. It features high mobility.
- My Milka . Units of dry rotor type. Equipped with a powerful engine capable of 1450 revolutions. In a complete set there are 4 glasses for pair milking. Models are designed to serve 8 cows in 1 hour.
- Birch-1, Birch-2 . Mobile installations of dry type. Up to 24 cows can be milked in 30 minutes. Equipped with a powerful engine that makes loud noises. Power - 1500 revolutions.
- Compact (1 STD, 2 STD) by Milkline . Popular dry type devices from a leading European manufacturer. One mobile unit can process up to 14 cows in 1 hour. Milk enters a transparent bucket with a measuring ruler.
- DeLaval . Units with a dry electric motor from a Swedish manufacturer. No noise during operation. They are considered one of the best, but have a high cost.
- Boryonka . The lightest unit, which differs from other models by the separate location of the milking bucket. Farmers recommend choosing the equipment “Burenka Tandem” for simultaneous double milking. Units are also produced in modifications "Standard", "Euro", "Stainless", "Maxi". In 1 hour they can serve up to 20 goals. Power - from 1500 to 3000 rpm.
We also recommend watching a video review of the Burenka-1 device:
Tips for choosing a machine
When purchasing a milking machine, a number of recommendations should be considered:
- With a large number of cows, it is better to choose a three-stroke milking unit. If there are 2 cows on the farm, a push-pull apparatus is sufficient.
- For milking cows at the grazing site, choose a more mobile and lightweight unit. It is desirable that a bucket or can for collecting milk should be installed directly on the unit, otherwise there will be difficulties with its movement.
- If the cows are in the stalls, it is better to purchase a stationary device with which you can milk several animals at once.
When buying a device in a store, you need to check its operation, adjustment and fastening of all parts.
How to milk a cow with a machine?
The technology of machine milking a cow is simple, but requires the observance of the correct procedure and a number of rules:
- Before milking, check the health of the equipment, in particular the operation of the pulsator, collector and vacuum unit.
- Inspect the cow. If there are mastitis on the udder and nipples, milk it manually. Transfer the cow to machine milking only after full recovery.
- An hour before milking, clean the stalls and wash the udder with warm water or a special solution. Do not use cold or hot liquid, as this will slow down milk flow. Near the cow behave calmly without raising their voices.
- After processing, wipe the nipples dry with the help of individual napkins and massage them in a circular motion, slightly pushing up the separate parts of the udder, repeating the actions of the calf during feeding.
- Manually milk a small portion of milk and check that it does not contain blood clots, lymph inclusions, etc. During this time, the milk reflex is activated in the animal.
- Pre-open the vacuum valve of the machine and immediately after preparing the udder, put on the teat cups. To do this, take the collector with one hand from the bottom and bring it to the udder, and with the other hand put the glasses on the nipples one at a time, starting from the back. If the milking glass needs to be lifted, it is better to squeeze the milk tube first.
Glasses must fit snugly against the nipples, otherwise, when the machine is running, hissing air will occur.
- Only after milking has started, go to the next cow. When slowing down or stopping milk flow, massage the udder of the cow until the process resumes. It is not necessary to tear off equipment.
- If the milking cups fall off, turn off the machine, rinse the cups with clean water, massage the udder and start milking again. The machine itself should be positioned closer to the front hooves of the cow, so that it is more difficult to overturn.
- After milking, remove the glasses. To do this, take the collector or milk tubes with one hand and squeeze them, and with the other - close the tap on the collector or clamp on the hose. Then squeeze the rubber suction cup of the glass to release air, and at the same time gently remove all glasses. Connect the collector to a vacuum and suck out the remaining milk in glasses.
- If milk remains in the udder after milking by the machine, milk the cow manually so that it does not develop mastitis.
- At the end, wipe the nipples with a dry towel and grease with petroleum jelly or an emulsion with an antiseptic effect.
- Clean the milking machine with vacuum. First pass warm water through it (32-35 ° C), and then a disinfectant. From time to time, it is advisable to disassemble the device in detail and wash away the formed plaque. Store the machine in a designated place.
The scheme for using the milking machine looks like this:
How to milk a cow using a special machine can be seen in the following video:
If you have ready-made components and some improvised materials, you can assemble the unit yourself. We will consider the sequence of actions below.
To assemble the milking machine, you need to prepare its components:
- an electric motor to ensure the operation of the pump;
- pump - oil, dry or vacuum;
- a belt providing rotation from the pump to the engine;
- vacuum hoses for pumping air;
- a vacuum cylinder that smooths out fluctuations resulting from air pressure (in factory designs this function is performed by the receiver);
- exhaust pipe for air outlet;
- dielectric insert, which prevents the spread of voltage across the device;
- vacuum gauge (to control the generated pressure, milking is carried out only when the indicator is at around 50 kPa);
- glasses, a collector and a pulsator - components of the hinged part of the device, which must be purchased in a specialized store;
- silicone milk hoses;
- capacity for collecting milk (can or bucket);
- vacuum regulator for pressure correction;
- air cock to start the air in the can.
Of great importance is the assembly of the suspension unit. It is carried out in the following order:
- Connect the milk pipe ring to the lower end of the rubber for the nipples. The distance between them is at least 5 mm.
- Insert the milk pipe with a thin tip into the rubber, stretch through it and place it in the milking glass.
- Put the rubber head on top of the glass. It is imperative to monitor the evenness of the tension, because all this affects the speed of milking.
- Put a vacuum pipe on the side pipe located on the body.
After assembly, flush the system, which will also allow you to check the tightness of the joints. To do this, pour hot water into a bucket, immerse milking cups in it and turn on the device in the network. Rinse for 5 minutes. After that, the glasses can be put on the nipples and milk the cow for about 6 minutes.
Once a month, it is recommended to disassemble the device into parts so that each of them is thoroughly washed in hot water.
After self-assembly of the milking unit, there are some malfunctions that require timely repair:
- Insufficient vacuum pressure due to extraneous suction of air . Most likely, the reason lies in the poor tightness of the suspension unit. You can also encounter such a problem if the glasses are not properly attached to the milks.
- Extraneous sounds are made . If the device makes extraneous sounds during operation, this indicates a poor fastening of the connecting elements.
- The engine stalls . The problem may be caused by a weakened belt or oil that has fallen on it.
Advantages and disadvantages of milking machines
The milking machine has a number of advantages compared to manual milking:
- increases farm productivity;
The milking unit increases the speed of milking many times: in half an hour, an experienced milkmaid can milk 2-3 cows, and a good machine - about 10-20.
- protects milk from contact with hands and air, so it turns out fresh, without extraneous odors;
- requires a minimum of time and effort;
- does not harm the health of the cow.
The main disadvantage of such an apparatus is its high cost. However, such costs quickly pay off with good volumes of milk.
A milking parlor is a machine needed by almost every farm that contains cows. With its help, in a short time, you can immediately milk 2-3 animals, while the quality of milk improves significantly. The most important thing is not to make a mistake with the choice and choose a device that matches the power of a dairy farm