Pigeons require careful care and good nutrition. If you violate the conditions of detention, birds can become sick. Many pigeon diseases are transmitted to humans, and some are not treatable. The main thing for pigeon breeders is to separate sick birds in time, protecting themselves and the flock from infection.
Types of diseases and methods of infection
All diseases of pigeons can be divided into two large groups:
- Infectious (infectious). They are caused by viruses and bacteria. These are the most dangerous diseases that are transmitted between birds, and sometimes even to humans.
- Non-infectious (non-infectious). These are internal and skin diseases, for example - arthritis, rickets, otitis media, conjunctivitis, etc.
Pigeons are more likely to be sick than others, but adult birds are also prone to various ailments. Infectious diseases occur in two ways:
- Direct way. Healthy individuals become ill after contact with infectious pigeons.
- Indirectly. Infection occurs after an infection enters the body through food, water, soil.
This viral disease affects free and domestic pigeons. About one and a half hundred bird species are ill with ornithosis - parrots, ducks, geese, turkeys. The disease is contagious and spreads to people. Called by intracellular organisms - chlamydia. It proceeds in acute and chronic form. Birds themselves, without being ill, can be carriers of infection.
In feathered, sick with ornithosis, there are such signs:
- eyes change shape - become oval;
- the color of the iris changes;
- feathers drop out near the eyes;
- lacrimation - leads to gluing of the eyelids;
- shortness of breath and wheezing;
- weight loss;
- paralysis of the legs, wings, joints;
- runny nose;
- lack of appetite.
Symptoms with a mild form are limited to a runny nose, shortness of breath and poor appetite. In severe form, the legs fail.
The sick pigeon is isolated from the flock. Therapy includes the following activities:
- feed processing;
- antibiotic treatment.
When the form is launched, they resort to the destruction of birds to prevent infection of other individuals. They give antibiotics - Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Azithromycin, Eriprim. The drugs are mixed in the feed. Eyes and nostrils are washed with water and smeared with tetracycline ointment. Miramistin is dripped into the nose - one drop into the nostril. The course of treatment is 10 days.
Taking antibiotics causes the death of the microflora of the stomach, to prevent this, pigeons are given vitamins - A, E, D.
The success of treatment depends on how quickly assistance will be provided - before the active progression of the disease. If you do not take action, the bird dies after a week - from exhaustion or due to breathing problems. With proper and timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable.
Disinfection of dovecote. Processing is carried out:
- formalin solution;
- soda solution (hot);
- phenol solution.
Disinfect all surfaces, bleach them with bleach - twice. Waste items are burned. Litter is poured with a solution of Lysol and burned.
The disease is caused by an ultravirus that activates when interacting with pigeons. Infection - through food and water. The outer cover and internal organs are affected. Very high mortality. One bird can infect an entire flock.
There are 3 types of smallpox:
- skin - affected areas near the beak, eyes, ears, paws;
- diphtheria - mucous membranes are affected;
- mixed - combines the symptoms of both types.
- difficulty breathing
- red spots throughout the body;
- mucous discharge from the nose and eyes;
- in severe form, goiter and esophagus are affected.
Especially great risk of smallpox infection comes with the advent of spring. The risk group includes birds experiencing a lack of vitamin A.
Inflamed areas are treated with a solution of 2% boric acid, furatsilinom or Lozoval. The resulting crusts are lubricated with iodine. To moisturize, apply a baby cream. The bird is watered if she does not want to drink herself.
There are no special medicines for smallpox. It is recommended to treat pigeons with Albuvir and broad-spectrum antibiotics - for example, from the tetracycline group. The course of treatment is 7 days. After treatment - the recovery period, the bird is given vitamins and amino acids.
Smallpox is not always treatable, but with adequate and timely treatment, the prognosis is good.
Measures that do not guarantee the prevention of smallpox, but reduce the risk of disease:
- observance of sanitary and hygienic standards, planned disinfection;
- good nutrition;
- quarantine for new birds;
- treatment of any skin lesions with antiseptics;
- extermination of smallpox insects.
The best way to prevent smallpox is through vaccination. After the introduction, smallpox appears at the injection site - in a week they disappear.
Other names for twirls are Newcastle disease, paramyxovirus, pseudo-plague, Doyle's disease. A sick bird whirls in place, hence the name - a swivel. The virus infects pigeons, chickens, wild and domestic birds - kills thousands of birds. Transmitted through food and drink. For humans, the disease is not dangerous.
The virus is very stable - on a frozen carcass its activity lasts up to 126 days. The body of the recovered bird remains the carrier of the virus for another 4 months.
The brain and central nervous system are affected, internal bleeding occurs. The first signs of the disease:
- violation of coordination of movements - in flight stumbles upon obstacles;
- lack of appetite;
- lethargy, apathy;
- the feathers are disheveled - the bird sits cobbling up and closing its eyes;
- litter turns white or green;
- the bird falls to one side.
You can learn more about how Newcastle disease (“twirl”) and smallpox in pigeons manifest in the video below:
Several strains are distinguished, and clinical symptomatology depends on the type of disease. At the last stage of the disease, the bird extends its neck, whirls in place, it begins to cramp, paralysis of the limbs.
They do not make a diagnosis on their own - the symptoms are too similar to other diseases. It is necessary to take the feces for analysis to the vet clinic - they will do PCR diagnostics. Fosprenil is being treated with a twirl. The drug is especially effective when combined with Sporovit and Gamavit. Adults are easier to cure than young animals. One medicine can not do - a comprehensive treatment is needed.
In 90%, if no assistance is given, the bird dies. 10% of pigeons will acquire a chronic form of twirl. Proper treatment gives a chance of cure.
Harvesting pigeons should be done monthly - even if all pigeons are healthy. If a sick bird is found, all surfaces in the dovecote are carefully treated. The virus dies in bleach in 3 minutes, in a formalin solution - in 30 minutes. The virus is afraid of high temperatures - a half-hour treatment of objects at 55 ° C is enough to destroy the infection.
Dangerous infection affecting domestic and wild birds. Called by the Salmonella bacterium. The disease is contagious, affects birds and people. Carry rats, insects.
- weakened immunity;
- polluted water;
The disease affects the liver, brain, intestines, lungs. There are three stages of salmonellosis:
- acute - 2-4 days;
- subacute - 6-10 days;
- chronic - the pathogen is present in the body throughout life.
The main thing is to identify diseased individuals by warning the pigeon pest, and stopping the spread of the infection.
Symptoms depend on the forms of salmonellosis:
- Hidden. Characteristic for birds with strong immunity. There are no obvious signs of infection. The internal organs are affected. There are problems with laying and hatching of chicks.
- Intestinal. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestine is observed. The bird has diarrhea, in the litter - blood and mucous impurities.
- Articular Joints are affected - fluid accumulates in them. The birds twitch the limbs, the muscles of the wings are depleted. In the area of joints there are neoplasms. A pigeon can neither fly nor move.
- Explicit. Chicks and young pigeons are amazed. It is characterized by high mortality. Patients lack appetite, they are weak, their feathers are disheveled and their intestines are upset.
- Nervous. Due to the chronic form, intense cramps appear, ending in death.
Before starting treatment, determine the form of the disease. There are a large number of drugs to combat salmonellosis, for example:
- Ampicillin and others.
The drug and dosage are selected by the veterinarian. Usually the course of treatment is 10-14 days. In parallel with the treatment, the premises are cleaned and disinfected.
Great mortality. The wand is very tenacious and capable of infecting birds for a long time, existing in litter, litter, water. With timely treatment and proper diagnosis, there is a chance of a cure.
Autumn and spring disinfection of dovecote. Regular cleaning and ventilation.
For prevention, you can use the drug Parastop - it is given before reproduction, as well as after molting. Preventive course - a week. The most effective way to prevent salmonellosis is through vaccination.
The disease is caused by coccidia - protozoa that spread through bird droppings and by oral route. Coccidia, multiplying in the body of a bird, damage the digestive tract. Coccidia, leaving with feces, infect other pigeons. The disease often affects young animals.
Coccidia cause enteritis and inflammation of the intestinal wall. There are two forms of coccidosis:
- Asymptomatic (subclinical). After swallowing the infection, the birds develop immunity. Feathered in the end, eating parasites, are protected from the serious consequences of the disease.
- Acute form. This is a real coccidosis. It develops in young birds that do not have immunity.
Clinical symptoms appear 4-7 days after infection:
- the pigeon sits choked;
- ruffled plumage;
- bloody diarrhea;
- persistent yawning;
- weight loss;
- loss of coordination in the air and on the ground;
- near cloaca - blood discharge;
- the head is reduced in size.
If you suspect coccidosis, you should immediately call a veterinarian. Treatment is effective in the early stages. The treatment is long, requires patience. First isolate sick individuals. Carefully clean the room. The most popular drug is Coccidiostatic. This medicine inhibits the growth and reproduction of parasites. The drug is selected individually - taking into account the severity of the disease, the severity of symptoms and the age of the pigeon.
- Amprolium - it is mixed in the feed for 2 weeks.
- Koksvet - can be taken in any way.
- Baykoks - add to water for a week.
If untreated, coccidosis often leads to the death of birds. The sooner treatment is started, the greater the chance of a cure. In order to diagnose the disease in time, you will have to conduct tests:
- examine feces in the laboratory;
- do an ultrasound examination of the intestinal wall.
In an infected room, it is not recommended to wash the floor - oocysts multiply intensively in conditions of high humidity. It is necessary to clean the room and perches mechanically - with a scraper and a broom.
Restrict, or better exclude, the contact of pets with wild birds - their bowel movements can become a source of infection.
Like animals and humans, birds also become infected with worms.
Causes of infection:
- incorrect content;
- poor hygiene of the room;
- unbalanced nutrition;
- lack of prevention.
Signs of helminth infection:
- disheveled look;
- weight loss;
- refusal of food;
- dull plumage;
- cloudy eyes;
- in young animals - developmental delay;
- lethargy and inactivity;
- diarrhea and vomiting;
- intestinal bleeding.
From worms, drugs are used in which the active substance albendazole is present. Among the most affordable drugs is Alben. Drugs should be used after the instructions of the veterinarian - it is simply impossible to use anthelmintic drugs, since they are very toxic. Take the drug once. A preliminary diet is not needed, but after taking a vitamin diet is prescribed.
For an accurate diagnosis and successful treatment, laboratory tests are needed. If the birds have a severe form of helminthic infestations, joint damage and paralysis are observed. If measures are not taken, treatment is not started, birds may die.
To prevent infection by worms, annual preventive measures are taken. There are a number of anthelmintic prophylactic drugs. However, they should be used with caution, the dosage should be observed - so as not to harm the birds. Proper nutrition, hygiene and disinfection of dovecote helps to avoid helminth infections.
Mass pestilence from this disease is not fixed. It happens that birds are carriers of tubercle bacillus for several months. The disease can be transmitted to humans.
You can determine the infection with tuberculosis by the following signs:
- weight loss;
- decreased appetite;
- saggy wings;
- dull plumage;
- inflammation and swelling of the joints - bumps appear on the legs, neck and back.
It makes no sense to treat pigeons with tuberculosis, since sick birds are dangerous carriers of infection. It takes a lot of time to completely cure a bird. There are no special drugs for tuberculosis. Sick birds have to be destroyed. Then carry out a complete sanitation of the room.
- regular cleaning of the dovecote from dust and dirt;
- disinfection of a room with a solution of bleach;
- regular cleaning of dovecote from droppings - it needs to be burned;
- room ventilation;
- installation of limiters on drinking bowls and feeders so that birds do not contaminate food and drink with droppings.
Intravital tuberculinization is recommended. To make a diagnosis, a test is used - 0.05 ml of tuberculin is injected into the upper eyelid of the eye. Tuberculosis is determined by swelling that occurs on the eyelid. The reaction is determined on the second day after injection.
The disease often arises from feeding unrefined grains. Dirty water can also cause trichomoniasis. The causative agent is Trichomonas - the virus enters through the mucous membranes. If the disease is started, the liver and gastrointestinal tract are affected. Trichomoniasis is transmitted to humans, and threatens with complications of a gynecological and urological nature.
In pigeons suffering from trichomoniasis, the following symptoms are observed:
- weakness, apathy;
- glued plumage;
- inability to fly;
- if the pharynx and larynx are affected, yellowish spots in the mouth that interfere with breathing;
- enlarged stomach, diarrhea, in the litter - an unpleasant smell of rot;
- with cicatricial trichomoniasis on the skin - brown nodes.
The defeat of the throat with trichomoniasis leads to a narrowing of the larynx, the bird's breathing is disturbed and it dies.
To cure a sick bird, apply a special drug - Tricho Cure. You can also use:
The growths in the oral cavity are removed with a scalpel, then the wounds are treated with Trichopolum and disinfected with iodine. Trichopolum is applied in the form of a solution. So for young animals take 17.5 g per 1 liter of water. The resulting solution is used for lotions and instillation in the beak.
The bird cannot eat on its own - it has to help by pushing food into the goiter.
Prevention involves regular cleaning and disinfection of pigeon. Trichomonads are vulnerable, it is easy to cope with them - enough disinfectant solutions. Also, for prevention, veterinarians recommend adding trichopolum in a drink.
The causative agent of candidiasis or thrush is a conditionally pathogenic fungus. The thrush is mainly affected by chicks and young animals. Adults rarely get sick, but they are carriers of the fungus. The causes of the disease are crowded pigeon, monotonous nutrition, lack of vitamins A and B. Often thrush begins after antibiotics.
At the first stage of the disease, a general deterioration is observed, as well as:
- decreased appetite;
- digestion is upset;
- bloating goiter;
- difficulty swallowing;
- in the mouth - cheesy coating.
The subacute and chronic form of the disease lasts from 10 days to several months. Birds lose weight, lag behind in growth, vilify, from the beak - putrid smell.
Antibiotics Terramycin and Biomycin are used to treat candidiasis. Vitamins A and B are given to enhance immunity. Nystatin, an antifungal drug, is also used.
If a fungus appears in the dovecote, all surfaces should be treated with formaldehyde dissolved in caustic soda. Sick birds are rejected.
This is a fungal disease of pigeons. The fungus settles in a straw litter; it is especially activated during nesting. Also, the fungus can multiply in feed, he loves dampness. Mushroom spores are very tenacious, it is very difficult to deal with them.
Causes of the disease:
- pigeon dust;
- high humidity;
The fungus mainly affects young growth, but with a large accumulation of spores, adult birds can also become ill. Signs of the disease:
- legs and beak turn blue;
- rapid breathing with a whistle;
- neck extension;
- slightly open beak;
- gray plaque in the oral cavity.
With a skin form, yellowish peels appear on the body.
Treatment and prognosis
There is practically no effective treatment. The forecasts are unfavorable. In 75-100% of birds, the disease leads to death. Young birds are doomed, therefore they are rejected. In adult pigeons, the problem becomes chronic. Adult birds are treated with aerosols. They are prepared from:
- crystalline iodine - 9 g;
- ammonium chloride - 1 g;
- aluminum powder - 0.5 g;
- water - 3-5 g.
Vapors of a mixture made from the above ingredients kill the fungus. You can also disinfect feed and add copper sulfate to the water.
If the fungus is wound up, all surfaces in the dovecote are burned with a blowtorch. How to prevent fungal infection:
- control the purchased grain;
- carry out all veterinary and sanitary measures before reproduction;
- provision of vitamin A;
- use straw for bedding;
- whitewashing and lime disinfection - 1 kg per square meter.
It is forbidden to use last year's straw for bedding - it can be infected with fungal spores.
Ticks and fleas
If preventive measures are not taken, pigeons can become infected with parasites - ticks and fleas. Birds suffer from anemia, as parasites suck blood from them. Due to fleas and ticks, the entire population can be treated. Birds infected with parasites constantly clean their plumage and bathe in the sand. In this period, birds can still be cured. The next stage - feather loss - at this moment it is too late to treat pigeons.
Therapeutic measures depend on the type of parasite:
- Scabies mites. Sneaks into the epidermis, causing inflammation. They fight the parasite with birch tar, tar soap and Picohloran. The products are applied to the skin pre-treated with petroleum jelly or glycerin.
- Pigeon bugs. They suck blood and carry infectious diseases. If the birds got bugs, the entire pigeonhole is treated with trichloromethaphos, and an aqueous emulsion of trolene can also be used. Another effective means of control is the treatment of surfaces with a blowtorch.
- Fleas. Infection occurs through litter and litter. Transfer infections. Destroy like a dove bug.
- Pereoedy. They live in feathers. The bird itself destroys the peroids, but cannot kill those that are sitting on the neck and head. Feathers should be powdered with Pyrethrum - three times at intervals of one week.
Treatment of pigeon with insecticidal preparations. They need to powder perches, nests. The walls and floor are treated with a blowtorch.
Improper maintenance of pigeons often leads to eye diseases. Inflammation is caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites. The cause of diseases can also be vitamin deficiency. Especially dangerous is the lack of vitamin A. It is worth increasing its content in the feed, as the problem goes away.
Other causes of eye diseases:
- unsanitary conditions;
- infectious diseases - eye diseases are often associated;
- smoke, dust, small debris.
Specific pigeon diseases:
- Xerophthalmia is a pathological structure of the eye. Since metabolic processes in the eye are disturbed, constant conjunctivitis and dryness of the cornea are observed. Therapy depends on the causes of the disease.
- Panophthalmitis is an infection that affects the cornea. Accompanied by blurred eyes. If the disease is started, the cornea is destroyed. Anti-inflammatory and disinfectant drugs are used for treatment.
Hanging goiter (blockage) is accompanied by a depressed state. Sometimes birds drink water from their beak when drinking. More often than others, this ailment occurs in dutysh.
Treatment is prescribed depending on the cause and characteristics of the pathology. If the lower section is clogged, you will need to cut the goiter. If the stomach is clogged, you cannot cut the goiter. The cause of goiter can also be:
- mucosal inflammation;
- improper feeding;
Blockage unrelated to other diseases can be easily eliminated - a single injection of 10-15 g of castor oil is sufficient. Drive the oil through the beak. Whatever the cause of the pathology, you need a starvation diet - you can’t let the feed enter a crowded goiter. It may also be necessary to rinse the goiter with douching - through an open beak.
The main preventive measure of any disease is vaccination. Many diseases of pigeons are incurable, therefore only timely vaccinations can save birds from possible death.
In order for pigeons to be healthy, you need to follow simple rules for their maintenance - maintain cleanliness, properly feed, vaccinate and carefully monitor your health. If disturbing symptoms appear, consult a veterinarian as soon as possible.